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GENEALOGY 
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1917-1919 



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CONTEXTS 



O. R. Emerson, M. D. 



J. J. McVety, M. D. 



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The E. & M. Hospital 

Newport, Maine 

Admits all medical and surgical cases except conta- 
gious and mental diseases 
For information, rates, etc., address: 

OLGA J. HANSON, Supt., Newport, Me. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 
3 

9 



The Germans in Maine 

Orono — Catholic Indian Chief. 

Welchville and some of . its 
Early Families 16 

The Northeastern Boundary , 
Controversy 22 

Anna Boynton Averill 26 

Maine and the Federal Consti- 
tution 32 



PAGE 

Maine Shipbuilding 34 

Tombstone Inscriptions 35 

Documentary 38 

The Desire of the Moth for the 

Star 42 

Editorial 44 

Notes and Fragments 46 

Sayings of Subscribers 47 



52 



YEARS the Insurance Man of Somerset Co, 

Never a Failure— Never a Law Suit— What more do you want? 
CHARLES FOLSOM-JONES, Skowhegan, Maine 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 




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A Northeastern Boundary Map. 

Published March. 1843. Drawn from surveys, made by authority of Congress. 

A. A, the line as claimed by the United States. 
C. C, the lire as claimed by Great Britain. 

B. B, the lire setteld upcn by the Webster- Ashburton Treaty. 



Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

Vol. V MAY JUNE JULY 1917 No. 1 



The Germans in Maine 

By Garrett W. Thompson, University of Maine, Orono, Maine. 

THE SETTLEMENT AT BROAD BAY 

The evident success which Penn achieved through the use of 
German protestants for colonizing purposes, as well as the equally 
successful colonization of a part of Virginia with Germans under 
the protection of Governor Spottswood, at the beginning of the 18th 
century, caused the property holders in other British colonies to cast 
their eyes toward Germany for the purpose of securing likewise 
strong farmer and industrious workmen for their enormous but wild 
stretches of territory. Only in New England was there still con- 
siderable delay in soliciting German colonists, although even in the 
first quarter of the 18th century German apprentices and merchants 
had settled in the larger cities of New England. 

One of the most prominent of these German merchants was 
Jonathan Waldo, 1 who established himself in Boston and whose son, 
Samuel, 3 was destined to play a large part in the development of 
the settlement at Broad Bay. 



(*) Jonathan Waldo was born in Poramerania, of an old Swedish-Poinrneranian 
family of nobility. His father was an officer in the Swedish service; his grand- 
father a colonel in the array of Gustavus Adolphus. The original name was "von 
Waldow," but Jonathan took the shorter form. He became a merchant i^i a Han- 
burg house and came to America in 1690, where he established himself as one of 
the first ship owners. His business took him often to England and Germany. 
He died in 1731. The family belongs even now to the first circles of nobility in 
Prussia; its seat is in Brandenburg. 

( 2 ) Samuel Waldo (1696-1759) was born in London according to Eaton, Annals 
of Warren, p. 109 (the Drake, Diet, of Am. Biog., p. 947 says he was born in 
Boston). His mother was also of German descent. The influence of Boston even 
In those days was for culture and refinement, and young Waldo enjoyed the benefit 
of such an environment. From his father and in the Latin school he received 
some instruction but his education came mostly from men and things. At 18 he 
was clerk for his father, and later joined his brother, Cornelius, in a business 
of fish, naval stores, provisions and lumber, obtaining cargoes from the eastern 
part of the Province, which they exported to Europe and the West Indies. These 
transactions gave thern early ami extensive acquaintance with Maine; getting land 
at low figures they 'hus acquired the strong influence of landholders; in Falmouth 
also thev were \nrcro nrooricrors. Wnkln attended Harvard College and was later 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



While the Plymouth Council was in possession of the "Great 
Charter for New England" they made several grants of lands 
within the district of Maine, among which was the Muscongus 01 
Lincolnshire patent. 3 

The lands herein included represented an area of 30 miles square 
and lay between the Muscongus and Penobscot rivers.* On the 
second of March, 1630. these domains were granted by patent to 
John Beauchamp of London, and Thomas Leverett, of Boston, 
England. A fifth part of all the gold and silver ore found on the 
premises was reserved for the King, and governmental rights were 
retained ; in other respects, however, the powers of the holders 
were unlimited. During the same year Ashley and Peirce, agents 
of the patentees, came with mechanics and laborers and established 
a trading post on St. George's river (within the present site 01 
Thomaston). This settlement was broken up by the first Indian 
war, and from 1678 the whole region lay desolate for nearly 40 
years. On the death of Beauchamp, Leverett acquired sole pos- 
session of the tract. Through him the patent descended to his 
son, Governor Leverett, of Massachusetts, and in 1719 to President 
John Leverett of Harvard College, the great-grandson of the 
original holder. Leverett associated with himself in the owner- 
ship at first 9 and later in addition 20 others, who came to be 
known as the "30 proprietors." But while this distribution of 
ownership relieved individual responsibility, and the erection of 
block houses offered security against the ever dangerous Indians. 
great inconvenience came to the owners through an officer of trie 
Province, David Dunbar, who went by the titles of "Surveyor 
General of the King's Woods" and "Lord Governor of Sagadhoe." 

With peculiar disregard of the rights of patentees he claimed a 
reservation of all the pine trees in Maine having a diameter of 



sent to Germany to complete his education. There he entered the body-guard of 
the Elector of Hanover, and when the latter came to England as George I, 
Waldo accompanied him in that regiment to London and remained there until 
1714. being advanced to the rank of major. When he came to Boston to assume 
his deceased father's business the King named him "Colonel of the militia of 
Ma.«s. Bay." At the outbreak of the Spanish war in 1744 he was made Brigadier 
General of the New England troops, and was a leader in the expedition against 
Louisburg. which he took by storm. In business he was energetic and progressive. 
putting life into his enterprises, and is said to have crossed the ocean 15 times. 
He was of commanding presence, tall, stout, and of dark complexion. His 
portrait hangs in the picture gallery of Bowdoin College. He was married in 1722 
to Lucy Wainwright of Ipswich, who died in 1741, leaving five children. 

(*) Coll. Maine Hist. Soc, Vol. IX, p. 77, series I, "Gen. Sam. Waldo," by 
Will. 

(*) Rev. Dr. Pohlman, "The German Colony and Lutheran Church in Maine." 



THE GERMANS IN MAINE 



over two feet for masts for the British navy ; he drove the lum- 
bermen from their houses seized their timber and burned their 
saw-mills. His misdemeanors led to an investigation and a deter- 
mination on the part of the outraged patentees to send an agent 
to England to secure redress. That agent was Samuel Waldo, "a 
gentleman from Boston,'' who prosecuted the case before the Eng- 
lish government with great vigor. As a result, Dunbar 5 was de- 
prived of his extraordinary commission, but the remained surveyor 
for 9 or 10 years longer. For his valuable and successful services 
Waldo received one-half of the whole grant, and continued to be 
identified with the fortunes of the settlement until his death. 

There is no doubt that the frequent attacks of the Indians re- 
tarded the development of these lands, and the settlement in some 
localities was slow as well as meagre. R. F. Gardiner 6 says : 

From depositions preserved in the (Kennebec) Company's records it 
appears that in 1728 there was only one family at Long Reach (now Bath) 
and all the country from Damariscotta Mills to the ocean was a wilderness. 
The difficulty of obtaining settlers when the expectation of sudden wealth 
had subsided and no inducement existed but the grant of a. -fruitful soil 
requiring patient labor and promising slow returns was very great — Europe 
had no surplus population, since the wars had decimated the people. 

On the other hand, the fisheries which had been actively and 
successfully developed by the Plymouth colonists hastened the 
occupation of the Muscongus grant. And Eaton 7 writes: "In 
17301 there were 150 families and from 900 to 1000 inhabitancy 
between the Muscongus and the Kennebec." 

Waldo was interested not only in these land speculations but in 
the introduction of settlers as well. In 1732* he had his possessions 
divided into severalty ; careful surveys were made and extensive 
preparations instituted for colonization. In these enterprises he 
was not alone, however, for in 1733-4, when peace brought more 
settled conditions, the government and other proprietors began also 
to center their interest on this region and its colonial possibilities. 1 * 
The Irish 10 had been brought there by Dunbar and his friends ; the 
English and New Englanders by Thomas Drowne and other pro- 
prietary aspirants of the Pemaquid grant, while the German ele- 
ment came (later) through Waldo and the Muscongus patentees. 



( 5 ) Eaton, "Annals of Warren." 1st Ed., p. 46. 

( 6 ) Coll. Maine Hist. Soc, Vol. II. p. 279. "Hist, of Kennebec Purchase." 
( T ) Eaton, "Annals of Warren.*' 1st Ed., p. 45. 

( 8 ) Der. Deutsche Pion., Vol. 14. p. 9. Also Coll. Maine Hist. Soc, VI, p. 322. 

(•) Eaton's Annals, 1st Ed., p. 48. 

( 10 ) Williamson, "History of Maine." Vol. II, p. 284. 



6 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

But Waldo's first transactions were with Scotch-Irish immigrants, 
not with Germans. In 1733" and 1735-6 Irish Protestants of 
Scotch descent located in the upper and lower towns of St. George's 
and on the land near its mouth; the English settled Medumcook 
(now Friendship). On April 13th, 1735, 2j families 12 of this same 
stock made a contract with Waldo to settle at Broad Bay; in the 
following year, however, they located not at that place but chiefly 
on the St. George River ; in fact, the colony at Broad Bay always 
remained predominantly German. These settlers contributed zeal 
and energy to their task; they set about promptly to build houses, 
which were constructed of boards from Waldo's mill. The cellars 
were unwalled and reached through a trap door in the main room ; 
in addition also to these discomforts they were continually exposeu 
to the attacks of marauding Indians, and they as well as the cattle 
which some of them had brought suffered 13 in no small degree from 
the intense cold. S. G. Drake, the historian, says : "The winter 
of 1736-7 was especially hard on the poor; many died from its 
severity, and sermons were preached on this subject." Meanwhile, 
however, Waldo was not insensible to the larger needs of the com- 
munity; he started a lime kiln 1 ' at this time (later there were two), 
and his saw mill, put up in 1735, met an urgent need. 

But with it all, he felt and saw the need of a larger agricultural 13 
population, and it was this need which prompted him in great 
measure to seek and promote the immigration of Germans. 

In a letter 18 to Secretary Popple, Boston, Aug. 19, 1730, Col. 
Dunbar states : 

Since I began this letter great Numbers of people inclined to settle to 
the Eastward have been with me, they were informed in towne that I am 
to begin but at Penobscott and that I can give them noe title to ye Lands 
I lay out and — they can have no Government — but what must be derived 
from a place at a very great distance. Tt is now the 29th of Aug., 3 days 
agoe there arrived here a ship belonging to this towne from Amsterdam 
with 230 pallatines, by their contract bound to Pensilvania, they were much 
crowded in ye ship which occasioned the death of some, & ye want of watre 



" m \ Ibid. 

(*») Eaton's Annals. 1st Ed., p. 49. 

(«) Ibid., p. 55. 

(") Sewall <T!ie Ancient Dominions of Maine, p. 2G9) says that Robert 
Melntyre discovered the properties of the lime rock in this region and made the 
kiln. Gov. Pownal in his Journal says: "General Waldo caused the manufacture 
of lime to be begun near St. George's in 1734." (Coll. Maine Hist. Soc, Vol. V, 
p. rr75. series I). It is probable that Melntyre was in Waldos employ at the kiln. 

( u ) A. B. Faust. "The German Element in the U. S.." Vol. I, p. 249. 

('*) Coll. Maine Hist. Soc, Vol. XI., p. ?>C, seq., Documentary series. 



THE GERMANS IN MAINE 



brought them in here, the Master complained to Mr. Belcher that the pas- 
sengers forced him in, which the Governor told me was an Act of piracy, 
the poor people being frightened with threats to be prosecuted accordingly 
by the Master and Owner, have been obliged to give up the obligation- 
they had in writeing to be put on shore at Philadelphia whither some of the 
familys & Acquaintance had been before them, and where by contract they 
were to be Allowed 3 Months time to pay for their passage, and are landed 
here & exposed to Sale like Negroes, and are purchasing by a Company of 
Mr. Waldoes proprietors to be planted where the pine Swamps are in 
Shepscct river to ye Eastward of Kennebeck; I begged Mr. Belcher to see 
that these poor creatures were not abused but he is gone to New Hamp- 
shire God help them they have a poor chance for justice — I am told that 
the Magistrate of this towne refused to lett the pallatines be landed here, 
they are yett upon Island 4 miles from the towns where quarentine is per- 
formed, and are to be put on board the Same Vessel & sent to Philadelpma, 
it would be a fine opportunity to furnish such a number of people to Nova 
Scotia. 

In a letter 17 of October 21 he continues : 

The poor pallatines mentioned in my termer letter to you are begging 
about towne, it would move any other people to see them, no dyeing Crimi- 
nals lock more piteously, they were bound to Pensilvania but brought in 
here as I formerly mentioned where they are likely to perish this winter. 

There is also a communication 13 of P. Yorke and C. Talbot dated 
August 11, 1 73 1 as follows: 

And therefore upon a Representation to His Majesty in Council that some 
Protestants from Ireland and from the Palatinate were desirous to Settle 
upon the said Tract of Land lying between the rivers St. Croix and Kenne- 
beck. extending about 180 Miles in length on the Sea Coast, His Majesty 
directed that His Surveyor of the Lands in Nova Scotia should assign 
them land according to their desire, which he accordingly did about a year 
ago, and several Familys are now Settled thereon & improving the same, 
which were afterwards to be ratified to them. 

Although no importations of Germans were made en gros until 
later, still in view of Waldo's early and active interest in immi- 
gration matters and the above reference of Dunbar to him it is 
not unlikely that some of these pallatines'' found their way to this 
region (Maine). Such an assumption would explain a somewhat 
unclear statement of Williamson, 19 who after mentioning the settle- 
ments of 1733 and 1735-6 at St. George's and Broad Bay, chiefly 
by Irish and English, says that ''Accessions (of Germans) were 
made in 1740 to the plantation at Broad Bay," basing his assertion, 
in a footnote, on a MS. letter of Mr. Ludwig. 



(") Ibid., pp. 65-66. 

( 1S ) Ibid., p. 117. 

( lft ) Hist, of Maine, Vol. II, p. 285. 

(To be continued.) 



SPRAGUE'S TOURXAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



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The Joseph Orono Monument, Orono, Maine. 
Erected by the Knights of Columbus, October 12th, 191 1. 



OROXO— THE CATHOLIC INDIAN CHIEF 9 

Orono — Catholic Indian Chief 

By Reverend John M. Harrington. 

The life of Joseph Orono is shrouded in much uncertainty and 
what history has been written of him is exceedingly conjectural. 
But from the maze of apparently contradictory statements I have 
tried to sift the errors and put together the following, which. I feel, 
may be relied upon as very near the truth. 

There is very little authentic history of the chiefs or sagamores 
of the Penobscot tribe of Indians before Madokawando who lived 
in the 17th century. The time of his birth is not given by any 
historian, but it is certain that he was very active in the wars of 
King Philip and was on intimate terms with Baron de St. Castin, 
whom he met for the first time at Quebec. Madokawando, a Tar- 
ratine chief, was the adopted son of Assiminasqua, a sagamore of 
the Kanabis, or Canibas, one of the Abenaki tribes. 

In the summer time Madokawando, with his brother Indians, 
was accustomed to make yearly trips in their brich canoes down 
the Penobscot to its mouth, and in the salt water to catch fish in 
sufficient quantities to supply their needs during winter, in their 
homes around Orono. On these annual excursions he again fell in 
with Baron de St. Castin, who was then sojourning on a peninsula 
in Penobscot Bay, and which now bears that nobleman's name. 

The sagamore and the explorer became fast friends and so 
great was his admiration for the Barbn that he gave his daughter 
Matilde to him as wife, and of this union were born several chil- 
dren. Among them was one fair daughter who, afterwards, mar- 
ried a Frenchman of Castin's suite, and to them was born, about 
1691, Orono, the hero of this sketch. 

In confirmation of the above, Captain Joseph Munsell, of Ban- 
gor, Maine, who knew Orono well, said, and his words are on 
record, that Orono himself told him, (the Captain), his father 
was a Frenchman and his mother half French and half Indian. 
Hence, we may conclude as almost certain, that Orono was the 
grandson of Baron de St. Castin and Matilde, the daughter of the 
celebrated sagamore, Madokawando. 

There are two other accounts of Orono's birth which I deem fit 
to give, but which I consider improbable. 

First: Orono. according to a tradition that received credence 
among the old settlers of this town (Orono), was the child of 



io SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



white parents and was kidnapped, in infancy, by the Tarratines, 
from the banks of the Androscoggin, near where the town of 
Brunswick now stand's. But this story I hold to be incorrect 
Mr. Phineas Vinal, at present a venerated citizen of Orono, told 
me that he had heard his mother say that Chief Orono was cer- 
tainly part Indian; his countenance indicated it althohgh he had 
but few, if any, of the characteristics of that race. Mr. Vinal 
says his mother knew the old chief well. On his mother's side 
Mr. Vinal is a grandson of John Marsh, the interpreter, who 
acted in that capacity between the Indians and the English in the 
war of 1 812, when the latter occupied Bangor. Marsh Island, 
containing five thousand acres, (on which are Old Town and a 
part of Orono) was purchased by him from the Indians for fifteen 
bushels of corn. 

Second: The other story is that he was a native of York in 
Cumberland County, this state, and was one of several captive 
children taken in 1692 by the Indians who ravaged that place. 
Orono, according to this story, was four years old at the time. 
Also the same tradition states that the Indians, soon after, sent 
back to the garrison-houses the old women, and the children 
between the ages of three and seven years, so as to recompense the 
English who, on a former occasion, spared the lives of several 
Indian women and children. Hence, if Orono, who was then four 
years, was among the captives, he must have been among those 
who were returned. Again this tradition says, that his family name 
was Donmel or Donnel, but, at that time, 1692, the Donnel family 
was one of the most, if not the most distinguished family in all 
that section, or in the province, and hence, if a son of that 'dis- 
tinguished family had been taken captive, he would in all prob- 
ability, have been returned or recovered. Besides, th^re is no 
mention of this, even traditionally, among the people of York. 

Madokawando died about 1700. It is said that he always treated 
his prisoners well, and that he was known for his sagacity and 
sincerity. 

We have no reliable data concerning his immediate successors, 
but of this we are certain, that at the beginning of the American 
Revolution, Orono, who had acquired the confidence of his people 
by his ability, integrity and prudence, was acclaimed their Chief. 

Some reviewers of his life make him chief long before this date 
and place his birth in 1688; but I cannot find a particle of evidence 
to sustain the former; on the contrary, in 1754, when the Indians 



r 

ORONO— THE CATHOLIC INDIAN CHIEF n 

were at war with the French, Tomasus was sagamore of the tribe 
and though Orono was at that time a man of ability and held im- 
portant positions, yet we have no evidence of his being chief so 
early. Tomasus, or Tamor, as he is sometimes called, was suc- 
ceeded by Osson, a chief who believed in the policy of peace until 
his patience was exasperated by the nefarious and bloody actions 
of Captain Casgill of Newcastle, who, one day with his company 
of volunteers, wickedly and unhumanely shot a party of peaceable 
Indian hunters on Owl's Head. * 

Osson died about the beginning of the American Revolution and 
Orono succeeded him. 

Orono was a man of intelligence — though not much of a reader 
or writer — a gentle, benign chief, and very sedate. He was very 
thoughtful and reserved, saying little and that after mature con- 
sideration. When he expressed his views they were always to the 
point and in as few words as possible. He had an analytic mind 
and good common sense which served him in the place of higher 
education, ''a sensible, serious man and a hearty friend/' 

Naturally, he knew both the French and Indian languages, his 
father being French and his mother half French and half Indian. 
He could also speak the English language quite fluently, particu- 
larly towards the end, when he associated a great deal with the 
whites. 

Orono belonged to the Tarratine tribe of Indians who were 
among the earliest converts to Catholicity made by the Jesuit 
Fathers east of the Mississippi. He is sometimes referred to as a 
convert to the Faith, but this is a mistake, as his father and mother 
were both Catholics. To the Catholic religion he was ardently 
attached. He loved its ritual and considered it an honor to be 
allowed to take part in its ceremonies. He was a staunch sup- 
porter of the faith planted in the hearts of his sagamore ancestors 
by the "black robes, " and when, after the Revolution, Protestant 
missionaries were sent to the tribe to proselytize them, they failed 
to shake the faith of their fathers. 

In figure, he was tall and stately, finely proportioned, with noble 
bearing, fair hair, blue eyes beningnly penetrating and intelligent — 
the grand specimen of a warrior, and it is said that in his gait, 
even in old age, there were a gracefulness and elasticity which at 
once attracted and marked his superiority. But his breadth of 
mind, his gentlemanly manners and kind disposition made him a 



12 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

chief not alone among the Indians but also among the white men, 
and gave him that distinction which posterity recognizes. 
Williamson says that : 

His manners were both conciliating and commanding, and his habits worthy 
of all imitation. For he was not only honest, chaste, temperate and indus- 
trious, but his word was sacred and his friendship unchanging . . . 
Though he was not deficient in courage or any of the martial virtues, he 
was so fully aware how much wars had wasted his tribe and entailed misery 
on the survivors, as to become, from principle, a uniform and persevering 
advocate of peace. He knew, and always labored to convince his people, 
that they flourished best and enjoyed most under its refreshing shade. 

And even after Casgill's murderous assault, Orono, who was 
then a warrior passed middle age, was still for peace. 'To kill 
the living will not bring the dead to life," said he, speaking of the 
Owl's Head wicked transaction. 

The crimes of few never sprinkle blood on a!l. Strike the murderers ! 
Let the rest be quiet. Peace is the Voice of God. Everyone is blessed 
under its wings. Everything withers in war; Indians are killed; squaws 
starve. Nothing is gained, not plunder, not glory. Englishmen are now too 
many. Let the hatchet lay buried. Smoke the calumet once more. Strive 
for peace. Exact a recompense by treaty for wrongs done us. None ! Ay, 
then fight 'em. 

Orono could not understand how England could persecute, 
plunder or enslave her colonies, which he looked upon as her 
children in a far off land, and he could not conceive how England, 
professing Christianity, could be a factor in such unnatural a war- 
fare. 

There was nothing so dear to Orono's heart, after his religion, 
a? liberty. It was the sweetest sound to the Christian sagamore's 
ears. "Give me liberty or give me death," was the key note of his 
soul. On one occasion, addressing his braves, at the beginning of 
the Revolutionary War, before he proffered aid to the Americans, 
he made use of these noble and patriotic words : 

The Great Spirit gives us freely all things. Our white brothers tell us 
they came to the Indian's country to enjoy liberty and life. Their Great 
Sagamore (the English King) is coming to bind them in chains, to kill 
them. We must fight him. We will stand on the same ground with them. 
For should he bind them in bonds, next he will treat us as bears. Indians* 
liberties and lands, his proud spirit will tear away from them. Help his 
ill-treated sons: they will return good for good, and the law of love runs 
through the hearts of their children and ours when we are dead. Look 
down the stream of time. Look up to the Great Spirit. Be kind, be vaFent, 
be free: — then are Indians Sons of Glory. 



ORONO— THE CATHOLIC INDIAN CHIEF i 6 

Captivated by these patriotic sentiments, his people applauded 
him and swore fealty to him, whatever cause he espoused. So, 
when the Revolutionary War broke out, resisting all solicitations 
of other tribes, he extended his sympathy and proffered the aid of 
his warriors to the American cause ; and at a moment when Indians, 
in other parts of the state, were threatening to join the English, 
Orono, with three of his colleagues, as a deputation of the Penob- 
scot Indians, arrived in YVatertown, Massachusetts, two days after 
the battle of Bunker Hill, and tendered their services to the 
Provincial Congress held there on June 21, 1775. 

Orono, addressing a committee of the Provincial Congress among 
other things, said : 

In behalf of the whole Penobscot tribe I hereby declare to you, if the 
grievance under which our people labor were removed, they would aid with 
their whole force to defend the country. 

The grievances, spoken of by Orono, were principally trespasses 
by the whites upon their timber lands and cheating them in trade. 

Tho' the smoke of battle of Bunker Hill had scarcely cleared 
away, the committee of the Provincial Congress said nothing about 
accepting Orono's offer, but promised him that, "as soon as they 
could take breath from this present fight" their complaints should 
be attended to. In the same year the above-mentioned grievances 
were removed, and, on July of the following year, three of the 
Penobscot tribes acknowledged the independence of the United 
States, withheld all succor from the British enemy, and, eventually, 
some of them engaged in the war, under Captain John Preble, 
Lieutenants Andrew Gilman, Joseph Munsell and Orono, who then 
bore a Continental Commission as he led his braves to the field of 
battle. 

When Castine, (the peninsula) was taken by the British in 1779, 
and other settlements on either bank of the Penobscot were under 
their sway, Orono proved himself faithful to his engagements and 
true to the American cause by communicating, with great despaicu, 
to the government important and repeated intelligence, and his zeal 
to the last was inspiring to his tribe. 

The war being over Orono entered into negotiations with Massa- 
chusetts. Through him assignments of large tracts of lands, for 
valuable considerations, were made to the State and the limits of 
the territory retained by the tribe were agreed upon. He then 
retired to his island home at Old Town, rich in years, honor and 



14 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

renown, respected by the commonwealth, loved by the whites and 
idolized by his tribe. 

At that time, Father Romaigne, a French priest, had charge of 
the Tarratines of this section, who held the faith through weal 
and woe, defying bribes and threats, since their conversion from 
paganism more than a century before. 

In all the public services of the Church, Orono took a prominent 
part. His assiduity at Mass, his joining in its Chant, his respond- 
ing to the litanies, and his recepton of the sacraments, furnshed 
a grand exemplar of all that was noble and elevating in Christian 
life, which materially advanced the spirituality of his tribe, by 
spurring them on to the practice of their religion. Whilst he never 
peremptorily commanded them to observe the laws of their Church, 
his example in this regard amounted to the same. 

During his lifetime there were very few delinquents in religious 
matters among the Tarratines of Marsh Island, and it was a 
pleasure for the ''black robes'* to expound to them the teaching of 
the church. 

At length, under the weight of over one hundred years, Joseph 
Orono died, (according to Captain Samuel Lowder, of Bangor) 
in his wigwam on a Sunday morning, i8or, on the banks of the 
Penobscot just opposite where Mt. Hope Cemetery now lies, 
mourned by all who knew him irrespective of creed or color. He 
retained his mental faculties to the last ; and his erect attitude and 
sickly whiteness of face, flowing white hair and spirituelle aspect, 
gave him the appearance of a grand old saint. 

'Captain Munsell of Bangor, who talked with him in his last 
sickness, says that Orono told him he was no years at that time, 
thus fixing his birth in 1691. Mrs. Hall, who died over thirty 
years ago in this town, aged 100 years, had a distinct recollection 
of this chief, and saw his funeral cortege pass by. Captain Lowder 
says that he was buried on the Jameson farm, upper Stillwater, but 
more likely he was buried in Old Town, probably on Indian Island; 
but there is absolutely nothing left to make the spot where his 
remains were consigned to Mother Earth. All my investigations 
have failed to discover his grave, and not one of the Indians now 
on Indian Island knows where their great Chief's dust awaits the 
resurrection. 

That nothing exists to indicate the grave of the celebrated Orono 
appears incredible, but such is the fact. 



ORONO— THE CATHOLIC INDIAN CHIEF 15 

Nobody has yet explained what the grand and sonorous name — 
Orono — signifies, but it will be perpetuated and honored as long 
as this township exists, which was incorporated March 12, 1806, 
and called "Orono"' in compliment to him. 

To my astonishment I discovered a few years ago that the pupils 
of the public schools here did not know that Joseph Orono pro- 
fessed the christian faith, and to my great astonishment I dis- 
covered also that even some teachers, in the higher grades, never 
heard of Joseph Orono; though the town from which they get their 
living was called after that worthy chief. Had he descended from 
the "Pilgrim Fathers" (and held the creed of the "Reformers"), 
his name in all probability, would be emblazoned in letters of gold 
in the school rooms of the town ; his praises would be sounded for 
the children, by every teacher in the district, and a monument wouia 
have been erected long sijice, by the citizens to perpetuate his name 
and speak his renown. 

This honor was left for the Knights of Columbus, and on the 
12th of October, 191 1, the unveiling and dedication of a monument 
to the memory of the old Indian chief were carried out under the 
auspices of Joseph Orono Council by whose good work the monu- 
ment was completed and erected on a lot owned by the writer of 
this sketch. 

When the town was incorporated it is said that some protested 
against its being name after Orono. The protest came from those 
who hesitated to have the town named after a Catholic Indian chief, 
and "whose descendants even today, objected to having this monu- 
ment erected in the little public park of the town because, forsooth, 
the inscription read : — 

1 Erected 

in memory of 

Joseph 

Orono 

— Catholic — 

Indian Chief 

By the Knights of Columbus 

1911 

But the shaft is erected to do honor to Orono, whose virtues are 
worthy of imitation by the noblest and best of' our race, and on 
it is inscribed the word — Catholic — a word which is historic, 
brought here by the Northmen even before Catholic Columbus 



16 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

touched the American shores, a word which is firmly rooted in our 
soil and which will adorn other monuments on this continent in 
centuries yet to come. 

Orono, Maine, May n, 1917. 



MAINE INLAND SCENERY 



I ' fig 

g %*y * .. 

V J \ ^ 

' -■ ■ * ' -3 

■ * : " - ■ '"S 



Ready to climb the Mountain 
{Courtesy of B. & A. R. R. Co.) 



Welchville and Some of Its Early 

Families 

By Charles E. Waterman. 

This historical sketch of the little village of Welchville is not 
written because it is more important or more picturesque than other 
places of its size in Maine, but because 

The hills are dearest which our childish feet 
Have climbed the earliest ; and the streams most sweet 
Are ever those at which our young lips drank — 
Stooped- to their waters o'er the grassy banks. 

A further reason for personal interest is that the place might 
have been called Brownville, with equal propriety, after a paternal 



WELCHVILLE AND SOME EARLY FAMILIES 17 

great grandfather, Samuel Brown, who was the first settler in the 
vicinity. That was in 1795, before there was any village to name. 
Today, by the roads laid out with authority of the county and town 
of Oxford, in which YVelchville is situated, the ancient domicile 
and the tomb of Samuel Brown is about two miles distant from 
the village, on the shores of Lake Hogan ; but through the woods 
which line the shores of that body of water it is but a scant three- 
fourths mile; and for many years after Brown settled that was the 
only trail to the falls in the Little Androscoggin River. When the 
village budded, Brown built a second house near the outlet of the 
lake into the river, which forms the northern boundary of the vil- 
lage, where several of his children lived successively. The house 
has disappeared, leaving a depression where the cellar was, and the 
spring in the river-bank, where passing fishermen yet drink. A 
son, Cyrus, was a resident of the village his entire life, and a 
great granddaughter. Mrs. Alice King Wilson, yet lives there. 

Samuel Brown came to Oxford (when that town was a part of 
Hebron) from Middleborough, Massachusetts. He was a Revolu- 
tionary Soldier, enlisting February 19, 1778, for three years, in 
Captain Benson's company. Colonel Putnam's Regiment of Con- 
tinentals. His wife was Ruth, daughter of Josiah and Mary Deane, 
of Taunton, Massachusetts. Their children, according to the 
Hebron records were : 

Celia, born August 4, 1789, married Zebedee Pratt; 

Anna, born September 8, 1791, married (1st) Samuel Gerrish, (2d) 

Drew ; 
Ksther, born March 12, 1794, married Guy Bates Waterman; 
Samuel, born November 4, 1795, married (1st) Sally Marble, (2d) Mrs 

EHantha Carr; 
Clarissa, born March 9, 1798. married Frederick Dennen ; 
Henry, born April 17, 1800, married Bethsheba Dennen; 
Jacob Deane, born April 1, 1802, married Sally Gardiner; 
Ruth, born July 2. 1804, married Moses Chesley; 
Mary Staples, born July 24, 1806, married Moses Page; 
John, born October 8, 1809, married Hanah Yates; 
Leonard, born June 6, 1812, married (1st) Mary Ann Littlefield, (2d) Abby 

C. Cox; 
Cyrus, born April 5, 1816, married Susan P. Noble. They had no children, 

but brought up a daughter (Hortensia) of John Brown. She married 

Lorenzo King, and her daughter, Alice, married Frank L. Wilson, 

who yet lives in the village. 

The earlier villages of Maine were of accidental origin, spring- 
ing up at cross-roads, because convenient converging poitns for 
3 



i8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



settlers in building or attending churches, or sending their children 
to school. Here also a blacksmith was likely to set up his forge, 
and perhaps a cross-roads store was erected. Secondary villages 
grew up about water powers, when settlers arrived at the stage of 
abandoning their log cabins for frame houses. The earlier villages 
of this latter class were more than likely to grow up around small 
streams, because it presented fewer difficulties in damming, and 
because sawing lumber and grinding grain were, in their earlier 
developments, side lines to agriculture. Logs were generally 
sawed during the high water of spring, while the grinding of grain 
was likely to be restricted to certain days in the week, the head of 
water necessary for power being accumulated during the other 
days. The larger water powers were developed only after trans- 
portation facilities were opened. This accounts for the late devel- 
opment of Welchville, which is on the site of a considerable water 
power. 

Roads are a convenience for settlers, consequently earlier roads 
followed the lines of settlement. The earlier clearings were made 
on hillls for two reasons. One was because rivers were highways 
for Indians and settlers wished to get as far away from them as 
possible. The second was the frequent inundations. Thus the 
first highways were over highlands, crossing valleys and rivers 
only to go from one hill to another. The early settlers were not 
gregarious. Each family formed a unit of society, and produced 
on its parcel of land all things needful for life — food, clothing, 
shelter and light. It was only after settlements became thicker 
that they lost something of this independence, and began to yearn 
for things not produced on the farm. This gave an impetus to 
building roads leading to nearby seaports. The people of Welch- 
ville and vicinity were not different from those of other localities 
in Maine, or rather of Massachusetts, of which that district was 
then a part. The first settlements were made on hills, also the 
first roads. The first trunk road to Portland, its seaport town, 
located by the Court of Sessions in 1793, and built soon after, 
crossed the Little Androscoggin a mile or so south of Welchville. 

Road building, and especially bridge building, was not an easy 
undertaking for pioneers. This is easily proved by the history of 
the first bridge on this road south of Welchville. The first means 
employed for crossing was on ice in winter and by a float bridge 
in summer. The latter was a long raft, anchored to a big granite 
boulder (yet to be seen) on the eastern bank. During -the summer 



WELCHVILLE AND SOME EARLY FAMILIES 



19 



months it was swung across the stream ; but when the water began 
to congeal in autumn, it was detached from the western bank and 
allowed to swing parallel with the eastern one. 

By and by a permanent bridge was constructed a few rods 
north of the float bridge, using a small island in the middle of the 
river as a part of the construction, because two short spans pre- 
sented fewer difficulties of construction than one long one. It was 
called "The old Jam Bridge'' because at the head of the island 
was a large jam of logs and other floatsam, which had been accu- 
mulating for nobody knows how long. 

The building of the road opened up some of the intervale farms 
in due course of time. 

Jacob Tewkesbury Washburn, born December 21, 1807, settled 
on the western bank near the bridge. His family was a prominent 
one in YYelchville, for after he sold his farm in 1852 to Samuel B. 
Waterman, a grandson of Samuel Brown, mentioned in the first 
of this article, he moved to that village and died there. He married 
Mary M. Marston and had a large family of children, some of 
whom were life-long residents of the village. A list of them is 
given below : 
Ellen Eliza, born December 5, 1830, married John Richards. He was lost 

at sea. 
Mary Ann, born January 4, 1832, married Josiah Vaux. 
Nancy, born May 5, 1833, married Capt. J. S. Crosby. They had Ada, John, 

Anna and Mary, and lived at Welchville. 
Rosanna, born November 10, married Freeman Small. 
Diantha Jane, born December 29, 1838, married John Cook. He and his 

family were killed by Indians at Lock Lake, Minn., in 1869. 
Rachel Naomi, born December 29, 1840, married Harrison Wardwell. 
Jacob Watson, born September 15, 1842, died in army during Civil War. 
George, born December 22, 1845, died unmarried at Welchville. 
Susan L., born July 17, 1846, married Emery Andrews. 
Laac. born April 2, 1848, married Anna Lunt. 
Emma L, born April 16, 1850, died at Welchville, unmarried. 
Angelia, born January 2, 1853, married Albert C. Jordan. 

One of the first brick yards in Hebron was located near the 
Jam Bridge, carried on by Hanson Tarbox, a relative of the 
Washburns. 

Two interesting items about the jam mentioned may be noticed 
»n passing. The foundation for this mass of floatsam were old 
fashioned "punkin" pine trees, uprooted from the river banks 
farther up stream by freshets in generations previous to settlement 
and lodged on the projecting end of the island. Samuel B. Water- 



20 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

man, mentioned above, sawed up some of the logs, which were 
three or four feet in diameter, into shingle blocks in the year 1870, 
and placed the shingles on a barn he built the following year, and 
where they remain to this day (,1916) in a fair state of preserva- 
tion, having been exposed to the elements for a period of forty-five 
years. These logs, as they floated down the turbid bosom of the 
•river, possessed both roots and limbs. They were so long they 
effectually barricaded the eastern channel of the river, forming a 
kind of screen, through which the silt held in solution by the water 
was filtered, and gradually settled, filling up the bed, until today 
there is a mowing field where fifty years ago was a considerable 
stream of water. 

The location of "The Old Jam Bridge" proved unfortunate. 
Freshets were continually doing damage to it, and it was abandoned 
in 1834. A new bridge was built that year a few rods above the 
island, known as 'The New Jam Bridge ;" but that also proved 
unfortunate and was discontinued in 1840. . 

The lots on the western bank of the river, running up to the 
Court of Sessions Road on Pigeon Hill, were early settled, and 
that part lying on the hilltop cleared. On the eastern bank, how- 
ever, the road crossed the river at right angles and passed directly 
up onto highlands known as Robinson Hill, after Samuel Robin- 
son, first settler. The settlers on this elevation were industrious 
and far-sighted. They were hard-workers because hard work was 
necessary in clearing rocky, hilltop farms. 

In crossing the "Jam Bridge" they observed the natural meadows 
along the river-banks, and coveted some of the more easily worked 
bottom lands, therefore several of them took up lots north of the 
bridge. About 1820, five men from Robinson Hill, George Robin- 
son, Samuel, Nathan and Ezra Wright, and Benajah Pratt, Jr., 
put a dam across the river and built a saw mill where Welchville 
now stands, and the village budded. They operated this as a local 
saw mill for about fifteen years. 

Only two of these men took up residences in the village their 
energies had founded, and they lived in the outskirts. 

George Robinson was the son of Samuel Robinson, who came 
to Hebron from Barre. Mass. He was born May 28, 1789. He 
married Hannah, daughter of Stephen March, of Worcester, Mass. 
Their children were : 

George Oliver, born March 13, 1821, a graduate of Bowdoin College and 
lawyer. 



WELCHVILLE AXD SOME EARLY FAMILIES 21 



Stephen March, born May 7; 1822, died young. 

Milton, born April 19, 1823. 

Everlyn Prudentis, born May 16. 1826. 

Julia, born August 19, 1828, died young. 

Sally Rawson, born January' 19, 1831, died young. 

Samuel Wright lived on the next farm to the Robinsons. He 
was a son of Samuel Wright, who came from Plymouth, Mass. 
He was born in 1790. He married Esther, daughter of James and 
Rachel Marston. They had these children : 

Daniel, born September 22, 1820. 

Sarah, born in September, 1822. 

Samuel Chandler, born August 27, 1825. 

William Oark, born April 27, 1829. 

Charles Henry Durell, born February 10, 1832. 

Margeret Sutton, born April 14, 1834. 

Martha Ellen, born March 15, 1837. 

Ellen Louise, born October 18, 1838. 

Roscoe Greenlief Green, born October 16, 1840. 

Lois, born January 21, 1842. 

Emily Sargent, born June 6, 1845. 

Nathan Wright, son of Samuel, Sr., was born September 8, 1778. 
Was a soldier on the War of 181 2. Went to California and died 
there. He married Ruth, daughter of Peter and Joanna (Rider) 
Durell. Their children were : 

Kate, born December 22, 1831. 

Almira, born February 22, 1833. 

Silas N., born October 31, 1835. * 

Augusta M., born January 12, 1837. 

Susan D., born May 12, 1840. 

Ezra Wright, son of Samuel. Sr., was born in 1786, and died in 
1873. He held office and was a prominent man in the town of 
Oxford. He was a soldier in the War of 1812. He settled about 
a third of a mile outside the limits of the village of Welchville. 
One thing he was remembered for during his later years was the 
fact that he saw Lafayette on his visit to Portland after the 
Revolutionary War. He married Esther, daughter of Eliab Rich- 
mond.' Children : 

Chandler, born 1816. Died in infancy. 
Chandler, born January 7, 1817. 
Fzra Sewall, born July 22, 1819. 
Abigail, born September 4, 1821. 
Hannah, born November 10, 1822. 
J r hn F., born December 10, 1824. 






22 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Nathan R., born March 9, 1826. 

George W., born May 21, 1829. 

Wilson W., born in 1837. Killed in Civil War. 

Esther A., born in 1840. 

Benajah Pratt, Jr., the fifth man associated in building the first 
mill at Welch ville, was the son of Benajah Pratt, who came to 
Hebron from Middleboro, Mass. He was born in 1801. He was 
four times married, (1st) Margaret Steadman, (2d) Ruth Dennen 
(widow) (3d) Charity Elms, (4th) Mrs. Ruth W. Hall. He built 
a house in the outskirts of Welchville, near where the Grand Trunk 
depot now stands, but afterwards moved to Oxford village. He 
was the agent of the Welches, also of the Grand Trunk Railway. 
He was prominent in town affairs and represented Oxford in the 
Legislature. 

Horatio K., born in 1825, was a son. 

(To be continued.) 



The Northeastern Boundary Con- 
troversy 

On April 2, 1831, John G. Deane and Edward Kavanagh made 
a lengthy report to the Governor of Maine, relating to various sub- 
jects connected with the Northeastern Boundary Controversy. 
This report is now in the possession of the Maine State Library at 
Augusta. The following extracts are Appendixes, "A" and "B" 
to this report. These documents were never before printed : 

Appendix A. 

Extract from a letter from Mr. Deane to the Governor of Maine, dated 

November 2d, 1831. 

In 1782, Pierre Lisotte, then a boy of fourteen years of age, strayed from 
his home in Canada, and found his way \o the Indian settlement at the 
mouth of the Madavvaska river, where he continued during the following 
winter. On his return to his friends, his representations were such as 
induced his half brother, Pierre Duperre to accompany him to the same 
place for the purpose of trade with the Indians, the year following. They 
commenced their business on the South side of the St. John, from two to 
three miles below the mouth of the Madawaska river. They were the first 
persons who commenced their residence at Madawaska. 



NORTHEASTERN BOUNDARY CONTROVERSY 2 



Two or three years afterwards, say in 1786, the Acadian or neutral Frencw. 
whose ancestors had been settled at the head of the Bay of Fundy, or in 
the Country which is now called Nova Scotia, and had been driven from 
thence and had established themselves at St. Anne (now Fredericton), ana 
in that neighborhood, being disturbed by the introduction of the refugees 
and the acts of the Government of Xew Brunswick, which dispossessed them 
of their farms, fled up the St. John in search of places of residence out 01 
the reach of the British laws and oppression. Twenty or more families 
moved themselves and settled on the St. John, below the trading establish- 
ment which Pierre Duperre made a few years previous. Here they con- 
tinued in the unmolested enjoyment of their property for some years. 

Pierre Duperre being a man of some learning, had great influence with 
his neighbors, and the British authorities of the Province of Xew Bruns- 
wick, seeing his consequence in the settlement, began early to caress and 
flatter him, and sometime in the year 1790 induced him to receive from 
them a grant of the land he occupied. Influenced as well by Pierre Duperre 
as with the hope of not again being disturbed and driven from their pos- 
sessions, as they and their Ancestors more than once had been by the 
British, this large body of Frenchmen were also induced to receive grants 
from Xew Brunswick of the land they possessed, for which some were 
required to pay ten shillings and others nothing. 

About this period, 1790, another body of the descendants of the Acadian 
or neutral French, who had sought refuge on the Kenebeckasis, were there 
disturbed in their possessions by the refugees and the acts of the Gov- 
ernment of Xew Brunswick, and also quit their possessions and sought in 
like manner a refuge from oppression with their countrymen at Madawaska. 
After having resided at Madawaska some years, they were induced, as 
their countrymen had been, to receive grants of the land, which they had 
taken into possession, from the Government of Xew Brunswick. 

Single families afterwards added themselves to the settlement. A few 
families established themselves in 1807. a few miles above the mouth of 
Madawaska river. They all lived in mutual good fellowship, recognizing 
and practising the duties of morality and religion, and governed solely by 
the laws of honor and common sense. They continued to live in this manner 
at as late a period as 1818. The British had made no grant higher up the 
St. John than Pierre Lisotte's. and had exercised no other acts of jurisdic- 
tion than those already mentioned, unless the transportation of the mail 
through to Canada and the granting a commission to Pierre Duperre in 
1798 as a Captain of Militia, there being no military or militia organization 
there until 28 years afterwards may be called acts of jurisdiction. 

In 1798, the river St. Croix was determined and its source ascertained 
under the treaty called Jay's treaty. At this period terminate all acts and 
pretence of acts of jurisdiction in the Madawaska settlement by the British, 
and for a period of twenty years, and until it was discovered by them, that 
Mars-hill was the Northwest angle of Nova Scotia, there is not even an 
attempt to exercise jurisdiction. The course of circumstances now became 
^uch as to excite the spirit of encroachment, and they issued two possesses 
against Citizens of the United States, who had settled in the wilderness, 
many miles beyond where the British had ever exercised any jurisdiction, 
before, but the^e were not prosecuted. 



24 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



In 1824, Sir Howard Douglass arrived and took upon himself the Govern- 
ment of the Province of New Brunswick as its Lieutenant Governor. In 
December of that year, he appointed four Militia Captains and a competent 
number of subbalterns at Madawaska, but the persons appointed did not 
accept their commissions until July, 1826, and at subsequent time the militia 
were fully organized. Licenses to cut timber were also granted by New 
Brunswick. 

In May, 1825, Lt. Gov. Douglass granted a tract of land to Simon Hebert, 
at the mouth of the Madawaska river. In May, 1825, he made another 
grant to Francois Violette of a tract at the mouth of Grand river. He also 
appointed and commissioned many other military officers. In 1827, several 
processes were served against Citizens of the United States, only one of 
which, that against John Baker, was ever prosecuted, but many of our 
citizens were driven away by them. 

In 1829 or 1830, for the first time, a civil magistrate was appointed in 
the Madawaska settlement and commenced acting as such. In a word, from 
the period Lt. Gov. Douglass entered upon the duties of his office, they have 
been constantly multiplying and extending their acts of jurisdiction. 

The French inhabitants of Madawaska say they are satisfied their settle- 
ment is within the limits of the United States and that they should like 
to live under their laws, but the British come and enforce their laws upon 
them and they have been obliged to submit to their jurisdiction. 

In 1820 or 1821, three or four persons went up and established themselves 
on the banks of the Aroostook. Several from the Province of New Bruns- 
wick and the State of Maine, the following year, joined them. After the 
commencement of Sir Howard Douglass' administration licenses were 
granted to cut timber in this region also, and civil processes were served 
upon the inhabitants. On this river, they have not, prior to his administra- 
tion, exercised any act of jurisdiction whatever, that region adjoining the 
line having, in fact, been surveyed and granted by Massachusetts seventeen 
years before to the town of Plymouth and Gen. Eaton. 

In 1792, the Government of Massachusetts contracted to sell the tract 
of land between the waters of the Schoodiac and Penobscot extending back 
to the highlands of the treaty. This tract was surveyed under the orders 
of the Government. The surveyor running and marking his line to high- 
lands North of the river St. John, supposed at the time to be those described 
in the treaty of 1783. 

In 1801, she granted the township of Mars Hill to the soldiers of the 
Revolution. In 1806, she granted the township adjoining Mars Hill on the 
West to Deerfield and Westfield Academies. In 1807, she granted a town- 
ship of land to the town of Plymouth, lying on both sides of the Aroostook 
and bounded East by the line due North from the source of the river St. 
Croix to the highland?. In 1808, she conveyed ten thousand acres to Gen. 
Eaton, bounded East by the last aforesaid grant. All the aforesaid grants 
were made pursuant to actual surveys, which had been previously made 
under her authority. In i8c8, or before the line from the source of the St. 
Croix due North was run, under the authority of Massachusetts, as far as 
the river St. John. 



NORTHEASTERN BOUNDARY CONTROVERSY 25 



In 1820, an examination and reconnaissance was made, under the authority 
of Maine, of the whole Country* on the Alligash river and on the St. John, 
from the mouth of the Alligash to the place where the line due North 
from the source of the St. Croix intersects it. The same year the census 
was taken in Madawaska. under the laws and authority of the United States. 

In 1824, the Land Agent of Maine seized the timber, which had been cut 
by trespassers en the Aroostook. In 1825, the Land Agents of Maine and 
Massachusetts conveyed two lots, one to John Baker, and the other to 
James Bacon, lying on the St. John, about twelve miles above the Mada- 
waska. 

In 1825. the surveyors of Maine and Massachusetts completed the sur- 
vey of two ranges of townships, extending North from the Monument, at 
the source of the river St. Croix, to within less than a half of a mile of 
the river St. John, and the States divided between them, according to the 
Act of Separation of Maine from Massachusetts, the townships in those 
rarges, which had not been previously granted. 

In 1826, Maine and Massachusetts surveyed and divided five additional 
ranges of townships, lying West of the two ranges aforesaid, and extend- 
ing nearly to the river St. John. And there never has been a moment, 
during which Massachusetts prior to 1820 and Maine since that period, has 
.ceased to assert their jurisdiction over the whole territory. . 

Appendix B. 

Extract of a letter from Mr. Kavanagh to William P. Preble, Esquire, 
dated November 19, 183 1. 

I deem it material in treating of the history of the Acadian, or neutral 
French, to present in prominent relief the facts attending their several 
migrations which go most conclusively to show that in all their movements, 
since their exile from Nova Scotia, they have endeavored to place them- 
selves beyond the reach of the British jurisdiction. When their settlement 
was broken up in Nova Scotia, a few families escaped from the troops and 
settled themselves on the Kenebeckasis and others near the Bage des 
Chaleurs; but the young men who were not encumbered by wives and 
children fled to Quebec, then under French rule, there they remained until 
the cession to Canada to England in 1763. This event caused them to 
quit Canada and they removed to a place which they afterwards called St. 
Anne, \vhere the town of Fredericton has been since built. It was at that 
time a wilderness. There they hoped to remain unknown. They gathered 
on that spot some of the remnant of their race, and commenced cultivating 
the soil, acknowledging no allegiance to any power on earth and most 
certainly disinclined to court the attention of British barbarity. In 1784 they 
were discovered and their lands were granted to a disbanded regiment of 
Refugees, commanded by one Colonel Lee, (of Massachusetts) it is said. 

The first notice which those simple people had of the fact, was the appear- 
ance of British surveyors in their peaceful region; they remonstrated, and 
a c a matter of special favor they were told that each might retain his dwell- 
ing-house and 200 feet of land about it. They soon learned the description 
of the boundary assigned to the United States in that quarter by the Treaty 



26 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



of 1783, and their unsophisticated minds pointed out to them, at once, the 
highlands named in that Treaty. It followed of course" in their process of 
reasoning that the line running due North from the St. Croix, must neces- 
sarily cross the St. John, and they retreated to a point more than thirty 
miles West from the spot where the Eastern boundary of the State, as 
established in 1798. intersects that river, and in that place, near the mouth 
of the Madawaska, they seated themselves with the firm belief that the 
boundary of the United States interposed a barrier behind which they 
would ever be secure from the tyranny of a power which had for so many 
years oppressed their ancestors and themselves. 

Mr. Deane has explained in his communications' the manner in which 
they were induced, in 1790 and 1794, to receive grants from the Provincial 
authorities of New Brunswick of the farms which they occupied. 

In regard to the ecclesiastical jurisdiction exercised by the Catholic 
Bishop of Boston in the Madawaska settlement, I learn that the present 
Bishop, when he took charge of his diocese in 1825, received from the present 
Bishop of Quebec an offer to interchange faculties on the line dividing the 
limits of their Sees, and it was done. 



Anna Boynton Averill 

Born in Alton, Maine, Died in Foxcroft, Maine, 

February 25, 1843. November 10, 191 5. 

(By Mary E. Averill) 

There's a language lost and sweet that we 
May never speak in our veiled sphere, 
But thrushes sing it and lo, we hear ; 
The lilies blow and behold we see : 
Since she who sang thus began to give the world a token of the music 
that was in her soul, how delightfully, if tantalizingly near many of us 
have come to hearing this melodious tongue ! She who has heard the 
thrushes sing with so fine an ear, and seen the lilies blow with so clear a 
vision, has not only described to us what she has heard and seen, but has 
herself spoken in that "lost, sweet language" — even though it be to her a 
language that one 

"May never speak in our veiled sphere"— and those who have listened 
have longed for more. 

(Edwin R. Champlin, in Six Maine Poets.) 

Many of Miss Averill's poems, notably "Birch Stream/' which 
has since found such favor, "The Wanderer's Grave/' "The Way- 
farer," and the "Heart of Maine," each of which called forth a 
letter of commendation from the poet Whittier, first took typo- 



ANNA BOYNTON AVERILL 



graphical form in 'The Portland Transcript'' when Elwell & Pick- 
ard were its editors, and when it was a literary paper of which 
Maine might well be proud. 

Mr. Champlin, now the literary editor of the "Fall River News/* 
Mass., in the sketch mentioned above, calls especial attention to 
"When the Wood Thrush Sings;'' her "Swallow Song;" ''Over 
the Hills" ; 'The Song of the Wheat'' ; Before Dawn" ; her "Even 
Song", and quotes from many others, all of which he says 

Are marked by that* peculiar combination of purity and sweetness as well 
as freshness of thought and grace, fluency and poetical strength of ex- 
pression for which Miss Averill is distinguished in a large group of poets. 





"X- 







L»at «♦- 



U^ ^T^X^J 



ANNA BOYNTON AVERILL 

In a later communication to "The Piscataquis Observer, since 
her death, he says ; 

I could not help rating her from the first as the most notable, lyrically,, 
of all the singers of Maine, living at that time, (1887): there were others 
equally poetical, but not one so purely and felicitously lyrical; and this 
standing she maintained, in my e-timation, for years. 

Her "Swallow Song'' attracted wide attention and commendation 
from all parts of the country. Frances* L. Mace, a sister poet and 
dear friend, sent her the following tribute on its first appearance in 
print. 



28 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



O, Loving Poet, the birds will answer, 
If robin rapture could flow in speech, 
We know by the light in your dear eyes glowing 
Though still all hidden the wings are growing, 
The sunlight spaces are yours to reach, 
Soaring away 
Soaring forever as we soar today. 

Our springtide gladness will soon be over, 
For days will darken and summer die, 
But when o'er our dust are the daisies growing, 
Thy song O, Poet, the sweeter flowing 
Shall float and mingle with sun and sky — 
Singing for aye — 
Singing forever as we sing today. 

Anna Boynton Averill, oldest child in a family of ten, was the 
daughter of George Averill, a prominent farmer and lumberman 
of Alton, Maine, who in later life moved to Dover Village, and 
finally to the farm in Foxcroft, "Sunny Slope," now occupied b) 
his son Luther M. Averill and family. 

Anna's paternal grandfather, John Averill, was born at Pownal- 
borough, now Alna, Maine, September 20, 1776. Here 27 years 
later, he married Anna Boynton, descendant of the Boyntons of 
Massachusetts, and here his first children were born, viz : — Mahala, 
Thomas, John, Elihu Baxter, and Luther. When Luther was one 
year old the family moved to Searsmont, Maine, where George was 
born, July 1, 18 16, and Mary, in November, 18 18. 

In 1819, the family moved to Alton, Maine. Mahala, the oldest 
girl, married V. Brown of Oldtown, father of Albert Brown of 
that city, and the present editor of the "Oldtown Enterprise" is a 
grandchild of hers. 

Elihu Baxter, the fourth child, a beloved minister of the Uni- 
versalist Church, and well known throughout the state in religious 
and Masonic organizations, finally settled in Dover Village, build- 
ing the house at the corner of Grove and Pleasant streets, where his 
daughters still live. 

The youngest daughter of John Averill, Mary, was a well known 
teacher in both Penobscot and Piscataquis County. She married 
John Haynes, a lumber dealer of Bangor, who later moved west 
with his family, and Flora Haynes Loughead of San Francisco, 
novelist and journalist, is their youngest child. 

In 1842, George married Nancy Burrill of Dover, Maine, daugh- 
ter of Charles and Nancy Carter Burrill, and a granddaughter of 



ANNA BOYNTON AVERILL 29 

John Burrill, the Revolutionary soldier who sleeps in Rural Grove 
Cemetery, Foxcroft, Maine. , 

By a chance discovery in 1895 of an Essex County, Massachusetts 
document, which showed that on ''April 6, 1742, Job Averill of 
Sheepscot County, York, gentleman" had given the power of 
attorney to YVm. Shillabar, Salem, to dispose of some land in 
Middleton, Mass., the first clue was found which united the Jeffer- 
son, Whitefield and Alna, Maine, families to those of Middleton, 
Mass., despite the different spelling of the family name. Then 
from examination of Essex County deeds, vital statistics and the 
town and church records of Middleton, it was proven that Job 
Averill mentioned, was the 4th lineal descendant in America of this 
branch of the family and that he was the identical "Granther Job" 
whose doughty deeds and exploits had been handed down in the 
annals of the family. Many daring encounters with the Indians 
are told of him. 

At one time while threshing grain with a hand flail in his barn floor, 
two Indians sprang upon him to carry him a captive to Canada, when he 
killed his first assailant with his flail and turning upon the other put him 
to flight At another time (1755) during an Indian raid, he was out with 
his brother-in-law after cattle, was surprised by Indians, his companion 
shot, himself wounded in the foot, captured and taken up on the mountain 
in full view of those inside the fort or stockade which surrounded his 
home, and tortured, but would not confess how many were in the fort. 
This mountain is still called Job's mountain. He was owner of land and 
mills, and a manufacturer, and his house had a stockade around it which in 
times of trouble was used as a fort. For three days he was held there 
suffering at the hand of the Indians but persisted in saying tthere were 
many in the fort, when in truth there were only the members of his own 
family. The Indians then took him to Canada, but he was ransomed after 
six months. His hair, which was dark when he went away was white 
when he returned. 

An interesting letter of his, a business letter to his brother 
written in 1760 is preserved in the family of Luther M. Averill. 
Foxcroft. 

He was born at Topsfield. Mass., 1707, and is mentioned in the 
'Averell, Averill, Avery," genealogy as a very enterprising and 
ambitious man of more than ordinary ability, and equal to the 
demands of the pioneer life which he very early chose for himself. 
Coming from Arundel (Tape Porpoise), now Kennebunkport, to 
Pownalborough, he was identified with the early history of both 
places. His direct ancestor was Job (3) of York, Maine, son of 
Wm. (2) Averell, son of William (1) of Ipswich, Mass., the first 



■ . ' ■ - 



SO SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Averill ancestor in America. This William emigrated from Eng- 
land to Ipswich, Mass., before March. 1637, as this is the date on 
which he received his first grant of land from that town. He was 
born at Ash, near Farmingham, Kent, England, 161 1, son of 
Nicholas, son of Robert, (mentioned in Chancery, 1638) son of 
Thomas Averill of Ridley, Kent, England, (mentioned in Chancer}- ) 
and who died September 1 1, 1556. Though these ancestors spelled 
the name "Averell" Tennyson in his "Aylmer's Field," (1793.) 
makes mention of 

When Aylmer followed Aylmer at the Hall 

And Averill. Averill at the rectory- 
using the spelling which many of the descendants now use. 

The genealogy mentioned above, compiled by Clara A. Avery, 
of Detroit, Michigan, and published in 1914, contains as a preface 
10 the American branch of the family, the following from the pen 
of Anna Boynton Averill, written in October, 1906. 

William Averill — 1637 
William of Ipswich ! Art is long 
And swift as a shuttle the full years flee. 
And we vain would question the shadowy throng. 
That peoples the distance from us to thee. 

In the halls of silence we stand and wait 
For far, faint echoes. We vainly peer 
Through fading record and ancient date 
To learn of the kindred whose names are here. 
O, Vanished Immortal ! How soon shall we 
Emerge from the shadows to meet with thee, 

William of Ipswich! , 

In the work above referred to, Mr. Champlin says : 

Anna was a rugged strong child, but at four years of age, she received a 
fall by which her spine was injured and she was deformed. Happily, 
before many years she recovered from the worst effects of the accident 
ard was again well and strong. 

The Piscataquis Observer of November 25, 191 5, had the follow- 
ing: 

At a very early age. Miss Averill began to show uncommon literary taste 
and ability, writing witty and entertaining articles for school papers which 
were highly enjoyed by schoolmates and friends. She was always an 
omnivorous reader, devouring greedily everything printed that came within 
her reach. Her facility for ver.-e was early disclosed and, naturally, the 
ambition developed to see something of her own in print. She was sue- 



ANNA BOYNTON AVERILL 31 



cessful in this attempt, and thus her ljterary labors were begun. Quiet, 
unassuming, studiously inclined, a devout lover of nature, and possessed 
with a keen sense of humor, she grew intellectually and spiritually, and 
gradually with the years her verses became known, admired and copied in 
various publications. She attended school at Foxcroft Academy where she 
was an eager, faithful student, but the calamity of blindness threatening 
her mother, and her devotion to the family of brothers and sisters who 
reeded her care, prevented her from prosecuting her studies as she would 
otherwise have eagerly done. She continued all her life to enjoy the best 
in literature. History and biography have ever been her delight. With 
her strong sense of humor and her buoyant, contented spirit, she has always 
been a well-spring of enjoyment to her friends, of whom she. had many, 
some of whom she had known only by long and continued correspondence. 
Mam- who have become admiring friends through her poems, finding their 
pleas for a visit from her unavailing, have journeyed to her home and 
have never failed to repeat their visits, so much of an appeal did her per- 
sonality make to them. If, instead of writing as she did from the pure love 
of expressing herself in verse, she had had the ordinary and not unnatural 
ambition for wide acquaintance and larger notoriety, she could easily have 
commanded these with her exquisite verse and peculiarly charming per- 
sonality. Her poems won the commendation of the most cultured and 
critical. 

Whittier, Bryant, Longfellow, Lucy Larcom and others have included 
poems of hers in collections compiled by them, while in John Burrough s 
introduction to his collection of poems, "Songs of Nature," we find his 
acknowledgment of indebtedness to Houghton, Mifflin & Co., for selection 
of poems from such authors as Emerson, Lowell. Longfellow. Howells, 
Celia Thaxter. Mary Clemmer Ames, and in this list is the name of Anna 
Boynton Averill — truly an illustrious company in which to be immortalized. 
The poem selected was "Birch Stream" and Burroughs says "This collection 
represents on the whole my judgment of the best nature poems in the 
language." 

Among the standard magazines which accepted and published other poems 
of hers, are "The Independent." "Atlantic Monthly," "St. Nicholas," "Youth's 
Companion" and "The Wide Awake." She was often urged to have a 
separate volume of her children's poems published. 

I* 1908 some of her friends who had always been desirous that her 
poems should be preserved in book form, organized themselves into a club 
for the purpose of seeing what could be done to accomplish that object. 
Circulars were printed and sent to old friends, schoolmates and townspeople, 
and the response was so cordial and satisfactory that the work was entered 
into with zeal, and the title "Birch Stream and other Poems" was given the 
volume. The poem "Birch Stream" had found much favor because of its 
appeal to a sentiment in every heart, an enduring love for some cherished 
childhood recollection. The stream which she immortalizes in this poem 
flowed through her father's farm in Alton and that portion of it was very 
dear to all the family and inevitably so to this true lover of field, wood and 
river. It was natural that she should idolize and idealize it. In her early 
1'fe this dearly loved home was abandoned for her father sold his farm 



32 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



and moved to Dover, in which town and later in Foxcroft, the family has 
since resided. 

Miss Averill saw much sorrow in her life. Losing by death one after 
another of her nearest and dearest, she knew full well the keenest pangs of 
grief, but her strong faith and serenity remained undisturbed, a witness 
to the truth of the beautiful sentiments, which abound in all her poetry, of 
trust and resignation. 

I am free from the bonds of the life I knew, 

My beautiful day dreams all are true. 

Miss Averill passed from this earthly life. November 10, 191 5, 
the anniversary of a dearly loved brother's birth. All that was 
mortal of her rests in the family lot in Rural Grove Cemetery, 
Foxcroft, Maine. 



Maine and the Federal Constitution 

By Lucilius A. Emery, 
Formerly Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Maine. 

The impending constitutional convention to be held in the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts the present year led me to read the 
proceedings and debates in the Massachusetts convention of 1788, 
called to consider the ratification of the proposed constitution of 
the United States submitted by the convention of 1787. Some facts 
relative to Maine's part in that convention of 1788 (Maine being 
then a part of Massachusetts) may interest your readers. 

Several towns were not represented and out of a total of 355 
delegates in the convention only 46 appeared from what is now 
Maine. I do not find that any Maine delegate advocated in debate 
the ratification of the proposed federal constitution, but some few 
did strongly oppose ratification. On the vote being finally taken 
the Maine delegates voted as follows : 

In Favor of Ratification— Nathaniel Barrall. York; Rev. Moses Hemmen- 
way, Wells; Nathaniel Wells, Wells; Jacob Bradbury, Buxton; Thos. Cutts, 
Pepperellboro ; John Low, Coxhall ; John K. Smith, Falmouth; John Fox, 
Portland; Joseph McLellan, Portland ; David Mitchell, North Yarmouth; 
Samuel Merrill. Yarmouth; William Thompson, Scarboro; John Dunlap, 
Brunswick; Isaac Snow, Harpswell ; John Dyer, Cape Elizabeth: Samuel 
Ferley, Gray; Thomas Rice, David Sylvester, Pownalboro; Nathaniel 
Wyman, Georgetown; David Gilmore, Woolwich; William McCobb, Booth- 
bay; Samuel Grant, Vassalboro; Moses Davis, Edgecomb ; David Fayles, 
Thomastcr : Dimmer Sewall, Bath — 25. 



MAINE AND THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION 33 



Opposed to Ratifkation---Esaias Preble/ York-; Mark Adams, James Xeal, 
Kittery; Elijah Thayer, Nathaniel Low. Richard Fox Cutts, Berwick; lhos. 
M. Wenrvvorth, Lebanon; Samuel Xasson, Sanford; Moses Ames, Fryeburg; 
Jeremiah Emery, Shapleigh ; Rev. Pelatiah Tingley, Waterboro ; Daniel 
Ilsley, Portland; Stephen Longfellow. Jr., Gorham ; William YVidgery, New 
Gloucester; David Murray, Newcastle; Samuel Thompson. Topsham; Jonah 
Crosby, Winslow; Zaccheus Beal, Bowdoinham; William Jones, Bristol; 
James Carr, Hallowell : Joshua Bean, Winthrop — 21. 

The total vote in the whole convention was 187 yeas, 168 nays. 
To this slender majority of 19 in favor of accepting the constitu- 
tion, Maine contributed 4. The Maine vote by counties was as 
follows, there being at that time only three counties in that part 
of the commonwealth. York, yeas 6, nays 1 1 ; Cumberland, yeas 
10, nays 3 ; Lincoln, yeas 9, nays 7. 

Nathaniel Burrall of York expressed in debate his dislike of the 
constitution and intimated that a majority of his constituents were 
opposed to it, but he was satisfied it was the best that could be had 
and so voted for it. Samuel Nasson of Sanford made a fiery speech 
against giving Congress the power to raise armies and levy taxes 
directly on the people and voted against the constitution, but after 
the vote was taken he declared his acquiescence and that he would 
strive to induce his constituents to accept the result cheerfully. 
William Widgery of New Gloucester, who had spoken and voted 
against acceptance, also declared his cheerful acquiescence and sin- 
cere resolution to support the action of the convention. 

Samuel Thompson of Topsham, who seemed to have the title of 
General, was apparently incorrigible. He attacked nearly every 
section of the constitution in debate, often vehemently, and does 
not seem to have expressed any acquiescense in the result. Dur- 
ing the debate on the final question he insisted that it was unconsti- 
tutional to adopt the proposed constitution ; that the delegates to the 
Philadelphia convention of 1787 were not authorized to propose a 
constitution but only to propose amendments to the articles of con- 
federation ; that it was a "wicked" usurpation for them to do any- 
thing more. He predicted that the ratification of this work would 
eventually destroy the liberties of the people. 

I do not find that any others of the Maine delegates took any 
active part in the debates. 

Boston University Law School, March 27, 191 7. 



34 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Maine Shipbuilding 

In the last number of the Journal (Vol. 4, p. 318) we published 
a list of shipbuilding in Maine in 1854, taken from the Maine. Reg- 
ister published in the year 1855, by George Adams, publisher, of 
Boston, Massachusetts, taken from page 255 of that book. 

We have received a letter from Mr. George W. Johnson of Bath, 
Maine, calling our attention to the fact that the compilation in that 
publication, so far as it relates to the town of Bowdoinham, is inac- 
curate, and Mr. Johnson adds the following, "taken from a com- 
pilation from Bath Custom House and covers the year 1854 and 
also from 1781 to 1878:" 



Ships Built in Bowdoinham in 1854 

Lavinia Adams • - 88277 tons 

Juan Fernandex 1,019.44 

Geo. L. Sampson ....-• 1,005.22 

Agamemnon ■ 894.00 

Windsor Forest 1,256.22 

Brig Rolling Wave 236.75 



5,29440 

From 1781 to 1878 Bowdoinham Built 

59 ships - • • 55,6i2 tons 

7 barks • 3M3 

18 brigs • • 5,331 

3 schooners • • 240 

Total • • 64,326 

From 1781 to 1878 Built at Bath 
1,230 Vessels of all kinds. Tonnage 609,622. 



The Lewiston Journal Magazine recently published an interest- 
ing article on the "Century Old Drake House in Union (Maine), 
Occupied by a Real Daughter of the Revolution," from the pen of 
Lillian Achsah Cole, of Union. 



TOMBSTONE INSCRIPTIONS 35 

Tombstone Inscriptions 

Some Curious, Some Notable, Some Commonplace. 
Collected and Annotated by Edg^b Crosby Smith 



IDGAH CROSBY 25MITH 

._ * B93853 



'Tis an old, old grave ; the once trim mound 

Is level now with the sloping ground ; 

From the tangled grass the buttercup 

With a startled, wild- fawn air looks up, 

And the coarse-leaved burdocks make their home 

Where the mower's scythe has ceased to come. 



BETSEY, 

Wife of 

Dea. James Cleveland, 

Born Dec. 5, 1797, 

Married at the age of 20 

& lived with her husband 

62 years. 

The mother of ten children 

and lived to see 

48 grandchildren, 

& 16 great-grandchildren. 

Died Apr. 10, 1879, 

JE. 82. 

A dutiful wife, a kind mother, 

a good Christian. 

This interesting bit of personal history inscribed on this tomb- 
stone, leaves to future generations an interesting and valuable 
record. The grave is located in the Main street cemetery, Skow- 
hegan, in that part of the town which was once Bloomfield. 

The Clevelands were early settlers of Skowhegan ; Joseph 
Cleveland settling in old Canaan in 1777 or 1778, in that part of the 
town incorporated as Bloomfield in 1814, and, in 1861, annexed to 
Skowhegan. Deacon James was an industrious farmer and promi- 
nent in the Baptist society. For 57 years he was a deacon of the 
church. 

His wife was Betsey Parker before their marriage. 



$6 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

[FATHER] 

Rev. 

Elijah Kellogg 

1813 - 1901 

This simple and unassuming inscription chiseled on a small 
marble slab in the Western cemetery, Portland, marks the last rest- 
ing place of a noted citizen of Maine. 

An imposing monument was erected at Harpswell, and dedicated 
to his memory August 28, 1906, but his mortal remains rest wittnti 
hearing of the roar of the railroad trains at Portland instead of 
within hearing of the roar of the ocean ; that ocean that he loved 
with every fiber of his being. 

Elijah Kellogg was born in Portland, May 20, 181 3, and died in 
Harpswell, March 17, 1901. He was graduated from Bowdoin 
College in 1840, and from Andover Theological Seminary in 1843; 
ordained a Congregational minister in 1844 and the greater number 
of his years of ministration were passed with the little church at 
Harpswell, Maine. 

He was a powerful and eloquent preacher and might have filled 
high salaried churches, but to their calls he always turned a deaf 
ear. He was the author of more than thirty books, mostly written 
for young people, which today are large sellers. 

General Joshua L. Chamberlain, who had a summer cottage just 
across the bay, was an intimate friend of Mr. Kellogg, and a fitting 
epitaph are General Chamberlain's words referring to the death of 
his friend. 

"Now the black spruces stand in mourning, but our hearts go 
out with him." 

HENRY LELAND 

Died 

June 26, 1835, 

i£. 74 yrs. 1 mo. 

& 26 days. 

This inscription on a plain marble headstone erected in the little 
cemetery at Knowlton's Mills, in Sangerville, Maine, tells no story 
to the passing stranger. Yet the memory of the man it perpetuates 
is like unto that of hundreds of Maine pioneers. 

A native of Sherborn, Massachusetts, he came to this little inland 
settlement in the early part of the last century. He was a hardy 



TOMBSTONE INSCRIPTIONS 



37 



pioneer; a soldier of the Revolution, enlisting when not quite six- 
teen years of age and served three years. The marble tells nothing 
of this. The battles of Saratoga and Monmouth, the terrible winter 
at Valley Forge ; he had his share in these ; did his work well in 
war and in peace. 

Henry Leland. Peace to his ashes. 

(To be continued.) 



MAINE COAST SCENERY 








U 



Mount Desert from Sho're Walk 
<>*rtesy of M. C. R. R. Co.) 



t I 



58 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Documentary 



SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES 
IN THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE FROM MAINE 

IN 1793. 
From an early Massachusetts Register. 





YORK COUNTY. 




Simeon 


Frye. 


CUMBERLAND COUNTY. 




Pelig Wac 


sworth. 


LINCOLN, 


HANCOCK 


and WASHINGTON. 




Daniel Cony. 




REPRESENTATIVES. 


Ichabcd Goodwin, 




Berwick, 


Mark Adams, 




Kittery. 


Joseph Tucker, 




York. 


John Storer, 




Wells. 


Jacob Wild, 




£iddeford. 


John Woodman, 




Buxton. 


Thomas M. Wentworth, 




Lebanon. 


William Thompson, 


■ 


Scarboro. 


John Fox, 


• 


Portlard. 


Dariel Davis. 




Portland. 


Josiah Thatcher, 




Gorham. 


John Cushing, 




Freeport. 


William Widgery, 






Isaac Snow. 




Harpswell. 


John Gardner, 




Powralborough. 


David Sylvester, 






Jordan Parker, 




Georgetcwn. 


Frarcis Winter, 






Nathaniel Thwing, 




Woolwich. 


Charles Webber, 




Vassalboro and Sidney. 


John Farley. 




Newcastle and Waldoboro 


William McCobb, 




B~othbay. 


Samuel Thompson, 




Topsham. 


Robert Pa?e, 




Winthrop and Readfield. 


Te^ediah Jewett, 




Pittston. 


Samuel Brown, 







A COPY OF A PARISH TAX 39 

A COPY OF A PARISH TAX (IN WELLS, MAINE) 
COMMITTED TO CAPTAIN JAMES LITTLEFIELD, 
PARISH COLLECTOR FOR THE YEAR 1794 

(Contributed by Honorable John A. Morrill of Auburn, Maine.) 

Names. Poles R.Est. P. Est. F. Sum total. 

sdsdsd sd 

William Boston 1 5 5 10 10 

Joshua Brooks 2 10 6 10 1 3 

Joel Bennett 1 5 4 10 1 

John Bennett 1 5 

Lemuel Clark 15 4 2 10 

Nathan Clark 1 5 5 6 1 1 

Jocat'ian Credeford 1 5 

Josh 1a Eaton 3 11 8 

Diniel Good-w in 1 5 4 

Kobert Gatchel 1 5 

George Gatchel 2 10 2 11 6 1 

Joshua Gatchel 5 8* 14 9 2 3 1 

Jonathan Gatchel 1 5 6 6 11 

Thomas Hobbs 1 5 5 11 1 1 

David Hatch 1 5 2 6 7 



Daniel Heard 2 10 5 10 14 1 

Daniel Heard, Jr 15 5 2 1 

Moses" Hubbard 2 10 2 3 9 1 

William Hubbard 1 5 1 3 2 

Jonathan Hatch 1 5 9 7 1 9 

Asa Hatch 1 5 2 

Samuel Hatch 1 5 10 4 

Jonathan Hatch, Jr 2 10 4 5 1 1 

Elijah Hatch 1 5 1 10 9 

Dr. Benjamin Hatch 5 8 1 

N'oah Hatch 15 6 

Eliab Hatch 1 5 3 2 6 

Benj. Hatch 3d 1 5 

Ebenezer Hatch 1 5 3 

Richard Hatch 1 5 10 3 





8 


1 




10 


11 




7 







1 


5 




6 


5 




8 







1 


5 




4 


7 




1 


9 




1 


5 


10 


8 


1 


3 


1 3 


11 




8 


10 


8 


9 


1 




4 


9 




5 5 


5 


8 


10 


8 


3 


3 


3 


3 


7 


1 




2 


10 




12 

1 


9 

7 




2 


7 




8 


4 




4 







6 


8 




1 


11 




5 


1 




1 


5 




1 


8 




2 


6 



3 12 



40 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Names. 



Poles R. Est. P.Est. 



Sum total 



Nathl. Hill 

Lemuel Hatch, Jr 

Barak Kimball.^ 

Nathl. Kimball 

John Kennard 

Pelletiah Littlefield. . . . 

Richard Laben 

Jesse Littlefield 

Captain James Lit tied. 

Isaac Littlefield 

Elijah Littlefield 

Joseph Littlefield 

Joseph Littlefield, 3rd . 

Nichs. Littlefield 

Daniel Littled. 3rd. . . . 

Depandance Littled. . 
Solomon Littlefield. . . . 

Joshua Littlefield 

Nemiah Littlefield 

Asa Littlefield 

James Littlefield, Jr. . . 

Elias Littlefield 

Benjamin Morrison . . . 

Josiah Morrison 

John Morrison 

Simeon Merrefield 

Levi Merrefield 

John Maxell 

William Xason 

Isaac Storer 



Widow Mary Storor and Son ... 1 

Nathl. Storer 1 

Jeremiah Storor and Son 2 

Amos Storor 1 

Josiah Storor 1 

Dr. Clemm. Storer 

Joshua Staples 

Nicholas West 

Nicholas West 1 

John Winn Jun 4 

Joseph Williams 2 



1 5 


3 


8 





8 


1 5 









3 


2 10 


3 


8 




7 


1 5 


1 


3 




5 


1 5 


1 


7 




2 


1 5 


2 


11 


1 


3 


1 5 




5 




3 


1 5 


7 


1 


1 


3 


1 5 


13 


9 


1 


11 


2 10 


12 


3 


1 


8 


1 5 








10 


1 5 


8 


6 


1 


6 


1 5 






1 


3 


1 5 


1 


4 




9 


1 5 


4 


4 


1 


8 



1 5 


7 


5 


1 


9 


1 • 5 










1 5 


11 





2 


3 


1 5 


7 





1 


3 

8 


1 5 


1 


4 




6 


1 5 










1 5 


4 







6 


1 5 


2 


6 




8 


1 5 










1 5 


2 


9 




11 


1 5 


6 






11 


1 5 








10 


1 5 


3 


2 


1 


3 



5 


4 


8 


1 


4 


5 


11 




1 


11 


10 


7 


9 


1 


7 


5 


3 


11 


1 


1 


5 








1 




4 


1 




10 




3 


9 








4 


8 




9 


5 


1 


7 




5 


3 


4 


2 


1 


1 


10 


3 


8 




8 



1 11 



5 


9 


1 


8 


7 


1 


3 


1 


3 


9 


5 


7 


2 


1 


9 


9 


19 





16 


9 


1 


3 


11 


5 


2 


8 


3 


6 


7 


5 


5 


11 


10 


7 


1 


5 


14 


8 


9 


8 





8 


3 


3 


1 


5 


5 


11 


4 


7 


1 


5 


5 


1 


1 


5 


-6 


11 


2 


3 


5 


10 


3 15 


1 


7 


5 


14 


4 


12 


2 


6 


5 


1 


6 


4 


11 


3 


9 


5 


5 


3 


5 


9 


6 


7 


2 



ADMISSION OF MAINE INTO THE UNION 4 t 



Names. Poles R. Est. P. Est. F. 



Thomas Wadley 1 5 

Samuel Williams 15 6 

Ebenezer Grant 1 5 2 3 



Sum Total. 




1 


5 




8 


5 




4 


5 


4 


10 


3 


3 


15 


1 


5 





11 



13 6 3 
3 12 4 13 6 

5 5 5 



22 4 

To Capt. James Littlefield. Parish Collector, Sir-pay in unto the Revt. 
Doctor Moses Hemmenway Parish Treasurer the sum of twenty two pound 
four Shilling agreeable to this list and your warrant herewith committed unto 
you. Given under our hand this tent day of January 1795. 

Samuel Ccjrtis ) 

Isaac Pox e > Parish 

John Storer ) Assessors. 

It is a matter of uncertainty as to what assessment the column "F" refers to. 
Judge Morrill suggests that it might have been assessed under what was once 
known as the "faculty" tax. There was also a "held tax." By an act of the 
General Court of Massachusetts, of Feb. 24, 17S6, the proprietors of common fields 
were authorized to regulate the affairs of their common property, with power to 
assess taxes and to commit them for collection. [Editor.] 

(To be continued.) 



AN ACT FOR THE ADMISSION OF THE STATE OF 
•MAINE INTO THE UNION 

Whereas, by an Act of the State of Massachusetts, passed on the nine- 
teenth day of June, in the year one thousand eight hundred and nineteen, 
entitled "An Act relating to the separation of the District of Maine from 
Massachusetts, Proper, and forming the same into a separate and inde- 
pendent State," the people of that part of Massachusetts, heretofore known 
as the District of Maine, did with the consent of the Legislature of said 
State of Massachusetts, form themselves into an independent State and 
did establish a constitution for the government of the same, agreeably to 
the provisions of said Act. Therefore, 

Sec. i. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America, in Congress assembled, that from and 
after the fifteenth day of March in the year one thousand eight 
hundred and twenty, the said State of Maine is hereby declared 
to be one of the United States of America, and admitted into the 
Union on an equal footing with the original States, in all respects 
whatever. 
Approved, 3d March, 1820. 



42 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



The Desire of the Moth for the Star 

Is the title of a beautiful little book of poems from the pen of 
Charlotte Louise Smith of Patten, Maine, one of Maine's bright 
and talented -writers. 

We take the following from this collection : 



MELLIXOKETT LAKE. 

Where wild Aroostook clasps in fear 
■ Her virgin daughters to her breast, 
And hears the fatal axe, each year. 

Ring closer to her greenest nest, 
Caught on the lace of sedge and brake 

Shines pearl-like Mellinokett Lake. 

Through lonely forests, eager rills, 
Thrilled by a thousand vague alarms, 

Fly, singing, down the recks and hills, 
To fling themselves in her soft arms; 

And there perpetual music make 
'Round happy Mellincckett Lake. 

When Autumn's carnival is done r 

The merry maples by her side 
Their faded masks fling one by one 
. With shout and song upon her tide, 
And from her summer dreams awake 
Sweet, startled Mellinokett Lake. 

Her tranquil waters rest afar, 
As soft and deep as twilight skies, 

And safe and white as some pale star 
The lily on her bosom lies. 

The pirate wind scarce dares to shake 
The calm of Mellinokett Lake. 

In her primeval solitudes 

'Twould be no wondrous thing to see, 
Along the mosses of the woods, 
Slim dryads flit from tree to tree, 
Xor hear forgotten Pan awake 

Echoes round Mellinokett Lake. 



DESIRE OF THE MOTH FOR THE STAR 43 



Her limpid tide no rock can hide, 
Her gentle bosom holds no grave, 

The wild face of the suicide 

Has never flashed across her wave; 

It seems as if no heart could break 
Near peaceful Mellinokett Lake. 

Little of earth's despairs she knows, 

In her serenity sublime 
She recks not how life frets and flows 

Above the shifting sands of time. 
Oh, that the human soul might make 

Harbor like Mellinokett Lake! 



The last Legislature enacted a law which becomes operative 
July 7th, providing that every vehicle on wheels whether stationary 
cr in motion shall have attached to it at least one light so displayed 
as to be visible from the front and rear, one hour after sunset and 
one hour before sunrise. The only exemption made was vehicles 
for the transportation of hay, wood, lumber or stone. Anyone 
driving a vehicle without such lights is subject to arrest and fine. 
In nearly every other state in the East all vehicles must carry 
lights. Two years ago New Hampshire enacted such a law with- 
out exceptions. While in this state, heavy teams are exempted, as a 
matter of safety and precaution, they should fall in line with the 
others. 



44 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 
SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 



Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover, Maine, by John 
Francis Sprague, Editor and Publisher. 

Terms : For all numbers issued during the year, including an index and 
all special issues, $1.00. Single copies, 25 cents. Bound volumes 2 and 3, 
$2.co each. Volume 4, $1.75. 

Postage prepaid on all items. 

Commencing with Vol. 3, the terms will be $1.00 only to subscribers who 
pay in advance, otherwise $1.50. 



/ shall be content if those shall pronounce my History useful 
who desire to give a view of events as they did really happen. 
and as they arc very likely, in accordance with human nature, to 
repeat themselves at some future time — if not exactly the same, 
yet very similar. 

THUCYDIDES. Historia. i. i 



The Duty of the State in State 
Historical Research 

At the eleventh and last annual conference of American historical 
societies held during the meeting of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation in Chicago, December 31, 1914, Professor James A. Wood- 
burn read a valuable paper on "Research in State History at State 
Universities.'' In this he makes the undeniable statement that 

It behooves the State to collect and preserve the materials of its history, 
not only for its own sake but for the sake of the country at large. 

The State of Maine from 1889 when its legislature began pub- 
lishing the "Baxter Manuscripts" until the legislative session 01 
191 1, pursued quite a commendable policy along these lines. 

During that time it also published a part of the ancient "York 
County. Deeds," and was in other ways reasonably liberal in aiding 
town and county research work. 

Since 191 1 its policy in this regard has ebbed and flowed, ebbing, 
however, much more than it has flowed until the gate was entirely 
shut down by the Solons of 1917. Undoubtedly the first wrecking 



STATE HISTORICAL RESEARCH 45 

of these historical resolves was caused by the then novel and some- 
what bizarre processes of the "budget system;'' yet several other 
worthy objects, notably the public library stipend, shared a similar 
fate and hung in the balance for some weeks but were finally 
rescued from peril by kindly hands. 

It seems lamentable that the meagre appropriations of this char- 
acter could not have been saved. 

It is unfortunate that the precedent of a complete strangulation 
of everything connnected with preserving some of Maine's rich 
historic sources should have been established. 

We can only hope this was not done with malicious design, but 
that it simply happened almost unconsciously and thoughtlessly ; 
and that future legislatures will treat these matters with more mercy 
and consideration. 



From Professor YYoodburn's important and interesting paper 
we make further excerpts as follows : 

But a State is a people under some form of political organization, and 
every organized society, and more especially the State, owes something to 
its history. A state entirely indifferent to its history would be a sorry 
spectacle. Such a State is hardly known in the record of human life, 
because should a State sink to that low level or fail to attain above it, it 
would cease to have a history and would drop from view. Having lost all 
interest in its own ancestry it would cease to be of interest to its posterity. 
The State is under obligation, for its own sake, not only to preserve its 
history, as found in its materials and memorials, its archives and documents, 
but to celebrate that history, to publish it. and to make it available to its 
students, its historians, and its people. The State may, therefore, very prop 
erly endow and employ its university for the promotion of this end within 
limits consistent with the privileges and duties of the university in all other 
directions. This obligation the State ought to recognize and fulfilll. There 
is not a better, more efficient, or more constant agency for this work of the 
State than the State university. It is the obvious medium, in connection 
with its State historical society and its historical commission, for the prose- 
cution of this function of the State The department of history 

in a State university should be ready and willing, within the limits of* its 
equipment, its powers, and its other duties, to lend its aid and cooperation 
to every agency in the State toward the promotion of a public interest in, 
and a knowledge of, the State's history; to an intelligent, public-spirited 
preservation of historical materials : and toward making the content of this 
material available in published forms. State and local historical societies, 
teachers' associations, the public schools, etc., may be sought by departments 
of history in State universities as fitting instruments for cooperation. 



46 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Notes and Fragments 

What a shoot was that that England, carelessly, struck out 
across the ocean, into the waste land which it named New England ! 
Hail to thee, poor little ship MAYFLOWER, poor common-looking 
ship ; hired by common charter-party for coined dollars ; calked 
with mere oakum and tar ; provisioned with vulgarest biscuit and 
bacon,; yet what ship Argo, or miraculous epic ship built by the 
Sea-Gods, was other than a foolish bumbarge in comparison ! Thou 
little MAYFLOWER hadst in thee a veritable Promethean spark; 
the life-spark of the largest Nation on our Earth. — Thomas 
Carlyle. 



According to Hildegarde Hawthorne's "Old Seaport Towns in 
New England" (Dodd Mead & Co., N. Y. 1916) the first schooner 
ever built was launched in Gloucester in 1713, and was built bv 
Captain Andrew Robinson. As the construction of the queer look- 
ing vessel progressed his neighbors and friends generally laughed 
and jeered at it and at him, but when she slid into the water a 
delighted bystander exclaimed, "Oh, how she scoons." .All right 
said the undaunted Captain, "a schooner let her be," and, breaking 
a bottle of New England rum on her bows so named her. 

Soon the most of the Gloucester ship-building was confined to 
schooners. Today the frigate and clipper, the pride of the brave 
sailor men of two centuries ago, have all gone, but the schooner 
remains and sails on every sea. 



The same author also in describing Marblehead speaks of wan- 
dering down "Orne Street." This street was undoubtedly named 
for Colonel Azor Orne who was a prominent man there at the time 
of .the American Revolution and the intimate associate of Elbridge 
Gerry, James Otis and Samuel Adams, and was ancester of Judge 
Henry Orne, for whom the town of Orneville in Piscataquis County 
was named. 

(See Journal, Vol. 1, pp. 131-6). 



SAYINGS OF SUBSCRIBERS 47 



Major H. A. Shorey, the Xestor of the weekly newspaper editors 
of Maine, Bridgton, Maine. 

"Sprague's Journal received. Was much interested in your 
sketch of Sir Hiram Maxim. Do you know that we have one of 
his machine guns and 200 dummy shells, the latter sent us from 
London just before the war broke out?" 



The Portsmouth Times of May 10, 191 7, published quite an ex- 
tended article, relating to the Journal, under the title of "Maine a 
Historical Magazine," contributed by Justin Henry Shaw of Kit- 
tcry, Maine. 

Among other appropriate things the writer says : 

York County should do its share in encouraging "Sprague's Journal of 
Maine History" at $1.00 a year in advance, for at this price and with the 
character and value of contents the work denotes more real devotion than 
profits. 



Sayings of Subscribers 

Mr. Charles E. Waterman, Mechanic Falls, Maine: 

"I wish to compliment you on the contents and appearance of 
\ olume 4 of the Journal, just ended. I was particularly pleased 
with the ample index." 



Honorable Bert M. Fernald, U. S Senator : 
"Yours is a valuable publication." 



Captain Daniel I. Gould, Bangor. Maine : 

'As I have told you several times, it is a delightful publication, 
as entertaining and entrancing as a good love story well written. 
I want you to keep right on sending it as long as you get it our. 
I have had occasion with pride to point to it many times and thin 1 ; 
perhaps some have become subscribers on my advice." 



4 8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Reverend John M. Harrington. Orono, Maine : 

"I read with keen interest your article on 'St Castin.' I feel like 
thanking you for what you are doing for the history of our state." 



Mr. William E. Gould, Editor of the Chase Chronicle, Boston, 

Mass. : 

"I want to say that I have received your last copy and have read 
it with great interest. It is really a very nice number indeed. I 
think the best that I have seen of your work, and I have spoken to 
several people at different times about the magazine and its use, 
and I hope that you will receive some favors in the future from my 
interest in your work. You are doing a good work, and you are 
doing it on the right lines, and it is far wider in its influence than 
what I am doing, but it is all in the same line.'' 



Honorable Daniel Lewis, Referee in Bankruptcy , Skowhegan, 

Maine : 

"For same reason each number of the Journal as it arrives 
engages my attention for a time to the exclusion of all other reading- 
matter. Historical value, human touch and accurate descriptions 
of life in the country as existing more than half a century ago are 
there. 'Of much interest have been the sketches of distinguished 
natives of Maine, including the sketch of David Barker, whose 
poems I had the pleasure of hearing him read on different public 
occasions, when I was a boy. and who had the happy faculty of 
interesting boys as well as elder persons, and including the very 
interesting sketch of Sir Hiram Maxim in your last number and 
which is a reminder that it is a far cry from fire arms of early 
days to the Maxim Gun and other modern inventions in that line, 
say from the old muzzle loader with percussion cap that I used to 
handle, and still further from grandfather's old flint lock musket 
that he used to let me have at times when I did not care to shoot 
anything. Well, may the machine guns prevent war as predicted „ 
but I am afraid they won't as speedily as had been hoped. 



CONTENTS 49 



CONTENTS 

Page. 

Foxcrof t's Centennial, vote of town, 1917, 51 

Foxcroft's 100th Anniversary, introductory 52 

Centennial Poem, Anna Boynton Averill, 60 

Historical Sketch of Foxcrof t. Rev. George A. Merrill, 62 

Foxcroft in the Civil War, Wainright Cushing 81 

Clergymen of Foxcroft, Liston P. Evans 90 

Doctors of Foxcroft, Edgar T. Flint, M. D 93 

Foxcroft Academy, Willis E. Parsons 99 

Schools and Schoolhouses, W. H. Sturtevant. 112 

Patriotic Societies, Sarah A. Martin 117 

The Masonic Fraternity. John Francis Sprague, 123 

Dedication of Foxcroft Bridge, Willis E. Parsons, 130 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page. 

Joseph Ellery Foxcroft 50 

Centennial Parade, "100 years ago," 53 

Centennial Parade on Foxcroft Bridge 57 

Anna Boynton Averill 60 

Centennial Decorations 71 

Oldest House in Foxcroft 79 

Congregational Church and Chapel 91 

Foxcroft Academy and Soldiers' Monument 107 

Foxcroft Village School 113 

Monument Square and Foxcroft Bridge 125 

Foxcroft Bridge— 1854. 131 

Foxcroft Bridge— 1911 133 



52 



YEARS the Insurance Man of Somerset Co. 

Never a Failure---Never a Law Suit — What more do you want? 
CHARLES FOLSOM-JONES, Skowhegan Maine 



SO SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 





o^^ ^.<jKnz-<yyy y^ 



The original proprietor of Township No. 5, Range 7, North of 
Waldo Patent, now the town of Foxcroft, and so named in his 
honor. Born in New Gloucester, Maine, March 10. 1773, and died 
there September 1, 1852. (See Vol. I, pp. 150-156, for an extended 
sketch of Col. Foxcroft.) 



Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

Vol. V SEPTEMBER (Special Number) 1917 No. 2 



Foxcroft Centennial 

When the centennial of the incorporation of the town of Fox- 
croft was celebrated in 1912, there was no appropriation available 
to be used for publishing the proceedings of the day. At the annual 
meeting in 191 7 an appropriation was made for that purpose, as 
will appear from the following: 

TOWN RECORD. 

Art. 49. To see if the town will appropriate the sum of two 
hundred fifty dollars (S250) or such part thereof as may be neces- 
sary to publish in a special number of Sprague's Journal of Maine 
History the Centennial proceedings of the town of Foxcroft, with 
appropriate cuts, similar to the number published by the Guilford 
Centennial, and appoint a committee with authority to arrange and 

contract therefor. 

* * * * 

Art. 49. Voted to raise the sum of two hundred fifty dollars 
(S250) and appropriate so much thereof as may be necessary to 
publish in a special number of Sprague's Journal of Maine History, 
the centennial proceedings of the town of Foxcroft, with appro- 
priate cuts similar to the number published by the Guilford Cen- 
tennial, and that a committee be appointed by the Chair with 
authority to arrange and contract therefor. 

The Chair appointed C. W. Hayes, E. D. Merrill and E. C. Smith, 
Committee. 

A true excerpt from the town record, 191 7, Attest, 

W. M. Steward, Clerk of Toivn of Foxcroft. 



! 
\ 

$2 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Foxcroft's 100th Anniversary 

Foxcroft celebrated the anniversary of its organization October 
1st, 191 2. The anniversary was August 31st, but belated enthusiasm 
delayed the celebration until then. 

The affair had been planned in a short time and to some of the 
committees especially belongs a great deal of praise for the efficient 
work. 

Tuesday was a cold, raw day and rain fell during the early 
morning and in the afternoon and evening. A heavy fall of rain 
made it impossible to hold the fireworks in the evening. During the 
passing of the trades parade the sun shone and this parade was the 
feature of the day. 

At six in the morning the festivities began. The ringing of bells 
and the firing of bombs on Foxcroft bridge aroused the blood of 
every citizen and gave promise of a day of festival enjoyment, in 
spite of lowering skies. A decorator had been at work for 10 days 
on the buildings and the appearance of some of the residences and 
most of the business places, as well as of Foxcroft bridge, which 
was formally dedicated at noon, was one of gaiety and attractive- 
ness. 

It has been estimated by those who made a tour of the towns that 
there were about five thousand people on the streets during the day. 

At nine o'clock the parade of trade floats and antiquities started 
on Main street, Foxcroft. being formed on this and streets adjoin- 
ing. There were three bands in the parade and 65 teams, rigs,, 
farming implements and floats. Some of the trade floats were very 
attractive creations. The first prize was awarded to Josef L. Brock- 
way, florist, who besides having a beautiful creation, carried out a 
unique idea. The float was drawn by white horses, the harness 
being trimmed in pink. The entire color scheme was pink and 
white. The float represented a bridal party. At the front stood 
the clergyman, Josef L'. Brockway, the "happy couple" were Bela 
Norton and Miss Ruth Day. They stood beneath an arch from 
which was suspended a wedding bell. The arch and bell were 
wound with smilax and decorated with pink roses. The rest of 
the float was occupied by four little flower girls, Rachel and Kath- 
leen Stoddard, Eleanor McNaughton and Mary Moran. The ring 
bearer was Clifford McNaughton. At the four corners were white 
posts on which were palms. Other palms, ferns and white doves 
were part of the dainty, beautiful and artistic piece of work. 



FOXCROFT CENTENNIAL 



53 



The second prize was given to Ober & Clark, dry and fancy 
goods dealers. The float was a creation of white trimmed with 
sweet peas. At each corner was a post upon which was an urn tilled 
with asters. In the center was a birthday cake, three and a half 
feet in diameter bearing candles. The float bore a banner, "Our 
one hundredth birthday.'' 

Geo. H. Hoxie, taxidermist, was awarded the third prize. His 
float was very striking. A small forest of green, with the head of a 
bull moose protruding thr.ough the front. In the body of the float 
was an Indian wigwam with children in costume. Other specimens 



1 



WJ> 



HPPiV\\fR^ 



n\V 



nr ! 



tf8 



, . ■ ui&ra 

lata 



i 

I 

r 






±. A 



Centennial Parade. 
— "ioo years ago"— 



of taxidermy added to the scheme. Following the float was Peter 
Bearce in the guise of an old trapper with his gun and coon skins, 
his hound in leash ahead of him. 

The American Woolen company with its four teams added much 
to the parade. Beginning with a float, attractively trimmed, in which 
was a sheep in the front and wool in the rear, they sieved the in- 
dustry to the finished product worn by a party of young ladies seated 
in a neatly trimmed outfit. 

The Dover and Foxcroft Light and Heat company had an at- 
tractive float. One half showed a fire-place, an old-time hearth- 
stone, with the candles on the mantel. The other side had all the 



54 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



modern electrical devices for lighting, heating and cooking. The 
first was .presided over by an old time madam and the latter by a 
modern housewife. The trimmings and signs were pleasing to the 
eye. 

The telephone operatives had one of the daintiest rigs of the 
day. It was of blue and white and a bower and arch were very 
attractively arranged. Some of the girls occupied positions on the 
float, dressed in attractive gowns. This last float got special men- 
tion from the committee we understand. 

There were many other of the floats which deserve special 
mention. S. G. Sanford had three outfits showing his complete line 
of fine horses and carriages which were a great addition to the show. 
S. A. Annis' livery outfit carriage also attracted much favorable 
comment. 

The list of floats and other features in their order is as follows : 

Division one: Taylor's band; Company F, G. A. R. (2) ; Boy 
Scouts; Mayo & Son, woolen mills, ('3); Dyer Brothers, grocers, 
(2) ; Elmer Nickerson, druggist : E. D. Eldridge, painter ; V. L. 
Warren, hardware and farming implements, (2) ; W. T. Eldridge, 
dry goods ; C. F. Dearth, cider mill ; Smith Bros., gasoline lights ; 
C. A. Brockway, milk ; A. A. McClure, milk. 

Division two : Monson band ; Modern Woodmen ; D. & F. Light 
and Heat company ; A. W. Gilman & Co., grain, (2) ; Ober & Clark, 
dry goods; E. H. Chase, furniture; E. W. Judkins, grocer, (2) ; E. 
E. Cole, druggist; S. G. Sanford, livery and sales stable, (3); 
Lillian Harvey, dry and fancy goods ; W. Cushing & Co., coke ; 
Ober, Clark & Thayer, lumber; Will Williams, (driving horse with 
sleigh 125 years old attached ) ; S. A. Annis, livery stable. 

Division three ; Guilford band ; Eldorado Encampment, I. O. 
O. F., American Woolen company, (4) : N. E. T. & T. Co. ; Josef 
L. Brockway, florist ; P. E. Ward & Co., furniture ; O. H. Bragg 
& Co., $2-trousers for $2 ; five exhibits placed by the committee. 
oxen and farming implements ; Hughes & Son, pianos ; J. G. Sawyer, 
lumber, W r m. Buck & Co., druggists. 

Division four ; Drum corps : Union Hose Co. ; Tiger Hose Co. ; 
Hook & Ladder Co., hand tub ; Curtis & Robinson, harness, trunks 
and bags; Dow & Boyle, clothiers: Lyford & Buck, grocers; J. J. 
Folsom, lumber; H. W. Thayer, shoes; Mrs. F. E. Gellerson, 
millinery; Standard Oil Co.; C. A. Harmon, ox team; F. D. Bar- 
rows, printer ; George Hoxie. taxidermist ; A. N. Merrill, Star 
theatre. 



FOXCROFT CENTENNIAL 55 

One of the features of the parade which attracted the attention 
of the reporter was the advertising car of the Voight Milling Co., 
driven by V. M. Boothby, eastern agent, who made a special trip 
from Portland to join the parade, which was very much appreciated 
by E._W. Judkins, sole agent for Voight's celebrated Royal flour. 

Following the parade was a ball game at the Central Driving 
park between Henderson and Newport, the game being won by the 
latter 6 to o. In the afternoon the winners were defeated by D. & F. 
7 to 2. 

Band concerts were given in the various squares at 10.30 by the 
three bands already mentioned and by the Milo band which arrived 
on the forenoon train. The work of these organizations has been 
highly complimented. The Monson band, made up of men from 
their town only, was deserving of especial mention. 

The new Foxcroft concrete bridge was dedicated at noon. The 
exercises consisted of an address by Hon. W. E. Parsons, music by 
the band and the display of day fireworks. 

The automobile parade at one o'clock was a disappointment, only 
two or three cars bearing any decorations. W. G. Parker had his 
Buick attractively trimmed. There was a good display of cars but 
no finely trimmed ones besides this one. 

There was a football game at the park in the afternoon following 
the baseball game, between Higgins and Foxcroft academy which 
was easily won by Higgins, 38 to o. 

The historical program carried out in the Congregational church 
during the afternoon was as follows: 

Program. 

President of the Day, - A. W. Gilman 

Prayer, Rev. E. L. Gates 

An Original Poem, Anna Boynton Averill 

Historical Address, Rev. G. A. Merrill 

Foxcroft in the Civil War, Hon. Wainwright Cushing 

Clergymen of Foxcroft, Liston P. Evans 

Doctors of Foxcroft, Dr. Edgar T. Flint 

Foxcroft Academy, Hon. W. E. Parsons 

Schools and Schoolhouses, Supt. W. H. Sturtevant 
Custer Command and Ladies of the G. A. R., Mrs. S. A. Martin 

I he Masonic Fraternity, Hon. J. F. Sprague 



56 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

In the evening there was a grand ball at Central hall and a dance 
in the Palace, both of which were largely attended. Kendall's 
orchestra furnished music for the former, giving a concert which 
was much enjoyed. The dance committee, B. T. Genthner; chair- 
man, report a very successful outcome of their end of affairs. 

On account of the heavy rain the fireworks were postponed to 
Thursday evening. I 

The marshal of the day was Walter J. Mayo. He was ably 
assisted by E. C. McKechnie, Elmer R. Blethen, Dr. E. D. Merrill, 
F. \V. Mason, A. J. McNaughton and E. E. Whitney. 

To Elmer C. McKechnie, chairman of the trades parade com- 
mittee, especially, belongs much credit for the good showing made in 
this feature. He and the other members promised to furnish carts 
and horses for floats. They did furnish them ; good carts and fine 
looking horses. If this had not been done the number of floats 
would have been much less. 

Display of Antiques. 

The display of antiques was one of the best ever shown at an 
occasion of this kind, the writer believes. Doctor Mary Lowell's 
display at her home was a very important part of this line of the 
day's features. Monday afternoon and all day Tuesday the Doctor 
entertained many people. The list of articles shown is as follows: 

Seventy-eight pictures of some of the oldest residents of Dover 
and Foxcroft. 

Pictures of Mary E. Chandler and Abbie Tower. 

Desk set owned by Charles Parsons Chandler in 1828. 

Pieces of flag staff and of flag from Marshall house (where E. E. 
Ellsworth was killed) secured by Col. Chandler. 

Autograph letters from Colonel Foxcroft to C. P. Chandler, his 
Att'y. 

Tall hat worn by Charles P. Chandler in 1825. 

Muffler worn by Charles Parsons Chandler, 1825. 

Umbrella used by Charles P. Chandler in 1825 when preceptor 
of Foxcroft Academy. 

Shoe buckle, Col. Isaac Parsons, New Gloucester 

Hand woven table cloth, Mrs. Charles Parsons Chandler, made 
by her mother, Mrs. Isaac Wheeler of Garland, in 1828. 

Hand knit shawl, Mrs. Peleg Chandler St., made about 1780. 



FOXCROFT CENTENNIAL 



57 



Bahy bib worn -by Emily Chandler in 1831. 

Baby's bonnet, worn by Chas. Parsons Chandler who was born in 
1800. 

Baby's outfit made by Mary E. Chandler. 

Pin cushion made by Mrs. Peleg Chandler of New Gloucester, 
after she was 86 years of age. 

Hand made counterpane made about 1820. 

Original bureau scarf. 

Solid mahogany bureau, original brass trimmings, 1830. 

Card table, Mrs. Chandler, 1830. 

Solid mahogany dining table. Mrs. Chandler, 1830. 

Feather bed (in cradle) made about 1794. 



1 f 






-■-r- r- ; -^- : ■-"--•" '« ■■■* 







Centennial Parade. 
On Foxcroft Bridge. 

* • 

Cradle made by Peleg Chandler, 1762, in which Col. Foxcroft 
was rocked when a baby. 

Collar embroidered by Mrs. Charles P. Chandler. 
Set of dining-room chairs to match side table. 
Side table for dining-room, 1830. 
Bedstead used by Mr. and Mrs. C. P. Chandler, 1830. 
Beaded bags made by Mary E. Chandler. 
Beaded purse made by Mrs. Charles P. Chandler. 
Brass cooking kettles. Brass clothes kettle. 
Coffee mill brought from New Gloucester. 



' 



58 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE ' HISTORY 

Brass lamps made tor using sperm oil. . 

Steel knives and forks, dinner and breakfast set, 1830. 

Sampler worked by Mrs. C. P. Chandler, 1819. 

Syrup jar brought from New Gloucester, used by Col. Foxcroft. 

Tea set, Mr. and Mrs. C. P. Chandler, 1830. 

Dinner set eaten from by Col. Foxcroft. 

First dinner set used by Mr. and Mrs. C. P. Chandler. 

Vases, wedding presents, Mr. and Mrs. C. P. Chandler, 1830. 

Soup tureen and platter 120 years old, Peleg Chandler, Sr. 

Platter 130 years old brought from New Gloucester by Peleg 
Chandler, Sr. 

Set of dishes 150 years old. 

Warming pan. 

Candle snuffer and tray. 

First dust pan in Dover. 

Wedding present to Mr. and Mrs. C. B. Chandler, 1830. 

Table made by Peleg Chandler prior to 1762. 

Decanter of New England rum brought from New Gloucester in 
1828. 

Bells set up by Peleg Chandler, Sr., prior to 1793. 

Carpet 1830, house in Dover. v 

Shawl worn by Mrs*C. P. Chandler, 1830. 

First catalogue Foxcroft academy, 1825. 

Second and third catalogues of Foxcroft academy. 

Complete set of catalogues of Foxcroft academy to 1902. 

Commencement program R. I. college 1794 where Peleg Chandler, 
Jr., was graduated. 

Picture of Bowdoin college. 

Massachusetts hall, Bowdoin college. 

First Cong, church, Brunswick. 

Pewter porringer given to Charles Parsons Chandler by his grand- 
father, Col. Isaac Parsons of New Gloucester, with Parsons' Coat 
of Arms, 1800. 

Light stand made by Peleg Chandler, Sr. in 1749. 

Desk chair over 100 years old, Peleg Chandler, Esq. 

Silver comb and tortoise shell comb, Mrs. C. P. Chandler. 

Shaving set, C. P. Chandler, Esq. 

Mirror, over 125 years old, Mrs. Peleg Chandler. 

Library of Peleg Chandler, Jr., over 90 years old. 

Foil picked up on battlefield of Vicksburg after surrender. 



FOXCROFT CENTENNIAL 59 

Gun picked up on battlefield of Bull Run, Va., by Maj. C. P. 
Chandler, 1st Mass. Inf. 

Rebel sword picked up on battlefield of Williamsburg by Col. 
(handler. 

Fire-place set and cooking utensils, 1830. 

Cane, property of Peleg Chandler, Esq., New Gloucester. 

Full set of pictures, five generations of .the Chandler family. 

Peleg Chandler, Jr.'s journal, kept in 1791. 

Toddy glass and spoon brought from Gloucester, England, to 
Gloucester, Mass., in 1657, property of Geoffrey Parsons, grand- 
father six times removed of Mary Chandler Lowell. 

Teaspoons of six generations back to 1739. 

Doll, 1843, Mary E. Chandler, Mrs. Chas. W. Lowell. 

Walking stick of Chas. Parsons Chandler, 1830. 

Spoonholder, 200 years old, brought from England to Charles 
Parsons Chandler. 

Six pieces of china that came from Duxbury, Mass., in 1701, to 
Mrs. Peleg Chandler, belonging to the great great great grandmother 
of Chas. Parsons Chandler. 

Picture of eleven young ladies in Foxcroft academy, about 1855. 

Chair made in 1728 in No. Yarmouth by Joseph Chandler, Jr., 
great great grandfather of Chas. Parsons Chandler. 

Letters from 1788 to 1839. 

Papers from 1788 — 1837. 

One of the most interesting features of the Centennial was the 
display of relics and antiques in the Cong'l chapel. Many articles 
of great beauty and of great historical value were shown and the 
committee in charge deserve great credit for their diligence in 
searching them out. Unfortunately no list was made by the com- 
mittee so we are unable to present the names of the articles and 
their contributors. - 



6o SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Centennial Poem 

1812 FOXCROFT. 

By Anna Boynton Averill. 
Fair Foxcroft, throned upon her hills, 
Where mountain-lake and forest meet, 
The busy village with its mills, 
The gleaming river at her feet, 
Calls for her children far and near 
— To come in her centennial year. 
Leave toil and care and gather here 
In joyous fellowship to greet 
Old friends, old homes, old scenes so dear. 



1912 




* Anna Boynton Averill. 

Her sturdy pioneers who came 
To wrest from forest lands a home, 
Soon saw the rugged wilds grow tame 
With bounteous crops of corn and grain. 
And grass enclosed with walls of stone. 
And then, with foresight of the seer. 
From hard-earned store they gave with cheer, 
To found a seat of learning here, 



CENTENNIAL POEM 61 

Had they foreseen, those sturdy men 
(Who toiled with axe and saw and plow, 
Seeking the future far to ken) 
Machinery's triumph in this glen, 
Man's power increased as it is now, 
Or heard in e'en their wildest dream, 
The motor's honk, the steam cars scream, 
And seen the bright electric light 
Shining beside these falls at night, 
They'd thought the vision, it is plain, 
A wild chimera of the brain. 

And O, dear mother pioneers, 
Now you, unselfish, brave, we see. 
As horseback through the woods you came 
Undaunted, child at breast and knee, 
To share the joys, the hopes, the fears, 
And hardships of the coming year's. 
The creaking ox-carts followed slow, 
With precious household goods/and so 
The homes you made began to grow. 

O, blessed homes ! Your smiling fields 
A royal wealth of tillage yields, 
Where hardy, patient toilers wrought 
For years to reach the goal they sought. 
And higher riches multiplied 
In these loved homes — for side by side 
With toil and sorrow, joy and woe. 
The treasures of the soul may grow, 
And send their silent forces, far 
Beyond the walls that seem a bar. 

And now from over all our land 
From every state, on every hand, 
Come words of faithful love and pride, 
From Foxcroft's exiles, scattered wide, 
But loyal to the lovely town 
By her twin sister nestled down 
Among the hills. With added years, 
Still lovelier she to them appears ; 
While from the crowded marts of care, 
The gay world comes and finds her fair. 



62 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

^ 



And here she stands — a model town, 
Triumphant over trials sore, 
That in the passing years she bore, 
And in their passing lived them down. 
The record clear, no touch of blame 
Doth tarnish now her honored name, 
And in her future, fair, we read 
But promised help for human need. 



Historical Sketch of Foxcroft, 
Maine 

By Rev. George A. Merrill. 

To rescue from partial oblivion the main facts and incidents of 
one hundred years in the history of a town is no easy task. I 
claim no special skill in this kind of effort ; and I must ask your 
pardon if any mistakes or inaccuracies have crept into my record. 
The story of a century, I have found intensely interesting. Much I 
have been obliged to omit, which I would have included gladly, had 
time permitted. What I bring before you today will, I trust, awaken 
old memories, encourage in you all the habit of treasuring up bits 
of history, which may become invaluable in after years, and increase 
your love for this beautiful town. 

In 1794. the Massachusetts Assembly granted to Bowdoin College 
as an endowment, six townships in the district of Maine. The town 
of Foxcroft is one of these six, — being number five in the seventh 
range, north of the Waldo Patent, or, practically, the northern bor- 
ders of Waldo County as it is today. The present boundaries of 
the town are, on the north, Bowerbank, on the east, Sebec, on the 
south, Dover and on the west, Guilford. At the time of its pur- 
chase, it contained 17,915 acres. A part of Sebec Lake is included 
in it; it is half a mile less than six in width ; and a small strip north 
of the lake has been annexed to Bowerbank, so it falls short con- 
siderably of a full township. This deficiency, however, was made 
up to the purchaser by the grant of half a township in another part 
of the State. 

In the earliest history of this town, one figure stands out more 
prominently than all others, — Col. Joseph Ellery Foxcroft, the 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF FOXCROFT, MAINE 63 

explorer and original proprietor, for whom the town was named. 
This man was the son of Rev. Samuel Foxcroft, who was a gradu- 
ate of Harvard College and the first settled minister in New 
Gloucester. Col. Foxcroft became a business man of considerable 
prominence in his native town and was active in military and politi- 
cal affairs. It is well to note that he was a member of the Maine 
Constitutional Convention in 1819, a member of the Maine Senate 
i820-'2i, and an Overseer of Bowdoin College from 182 1 to 1834. 
In October of the year 1800, Col. Foxcroft, in company with 
Thomas Johnson of New Gloucester, set out on a tour of explora- 
tion in the untrodden wilds to the North. Securing at Skowhegan 
a man by the name of Stephen Weston as guide, — who was also a 
competent surveyor, — they proceeded on horseback as far dS Corn- 
ville. Leaving their horses here they pushed on on foot the re- 
mainder of the way, camping wherever night overtook them. Ar- 
riving at length upon the southwest border of the township they 
were seeking, they followed the river nearly down to the falls. In 
a letter, April 3. 1853, Col. Foxcroft says: "We crossed the river a 
little above the falls. This was a pleasant spot, many names marked 
upon trees, but all a wilderness, no sign that anyone ever intended 
to dwell there. We went down the river to the southeast corner 
of the township, and near it, upon the intervale, we found an open- 
ing occupied by Abel Blood and, I think, a hired man with him, 
but there was no family. They had corn growing, and garden roots. 
I well remember the large turnips and beets which they had raised, 
and thus the virgin soil and vigorous nature greeted these first 
efforts of husbandry with liberal productions." 

Being favorably impressed bv his explorations, Col. Foxcroft 
bought the township for $7,940. or about forty-five cents per acre. 
1 he Committee of the College Trustees, William" Martyn, Rev. 
Elijah Kellogg, and Isaac Parker, deeded the land Jan. 22, 1801, 
taking a mortgage back, which was cancelled fourteen years later. 
The college imposed as a condition the settlement of twenty-four 
families within a given period. This was no easy task, and it is a 
tribute to the energy and enterprise of Col. Foxcroft that the con- 
ditions were fully met. The town was first lotted by Moses Hods- 
don of Levant in 1801. It was divided into two hundred acre lots, 
at a cost of $200. In June of the same year, Samuel Elkins of 
Cornville was hired to clear twenty acres of land, — which was on 
lot nine, range one, — one of the lots on which the village is located. 
In 1802, Col. Foxcroft offered forty-six rights of two hundred acres 



64 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

_ . : . 

each, for sale, to be assigned by lot ; and several were soon bought. 
These purchasers met in New Gloucester, legally organized as pro- 
prietors, and took measures to secure settlers. 

Some of the first individuals and families to take up lots in Fox- 
croft located on the hilly portions of the town in the region of what 
is now known as the Centre. For several years permanent residents 
came in rather slowly. In 1802, the first road was cut out across 
the township, running from what was known as the "old Chandler 
place*' to the "four corners,'' now Foxcroft Centre, and thence to 
"Morse's landing" on Sebec Lake. A number o'f clearings were 
made in 1804 and 1805 ; and in 1806, the first permanent settler, 
John Spaulding, came with his family from Norridgewock and set- 
tled in a log house near the falls. He was soon followed by his 
two brothers, Eleazer and Seth, who also moved their families from 
Norridgewock and occupied log houses near by. For some time the 
settlement was known as Spauldingtown. The first saw and grist- 
mill, built by John Spaulding and Abel Blood, was in operation by 
Jan. 1, 1807. This was done at the special instance of Col. Fox- 
croft, who offered to deed a lot and the mill privilege to anyone 
who would build a mill and agree to keep it in repair for ten years. 
In 1807, t ^ le fi rst framed house, with a brick chimney, was built by 
Samuel Chamberlain and Ephraim Bacon, near the site of the 
present soldiers' monument. The bricks were made at Abel Blood's 
brick yard at what is now East Dover. The same year the first 
barn was built by Eliphalet Washburn. The first child born in Fox- 
croft was Joseph Foxcroft Spaulding, a son of John Spaulding, 
and named for the proprietor. The date of his birth was April 16, 
x8c6: but he died at the age of six years. Had he grown up he 
would have been presented with a lot of land by Col. Foxcroft. 
The second child was Sally J. Chamberlain, born Aug. 18, 1808. 
She became in after years the wife of Samuel Greeley and the 
mother of Miss Lizzie Greeley and Samuel Greeley of this town. 
Her death took place only a few years ago. 

Among the early settlers were Joseph Morse, Tristram Robinson, 
John Chandler, Samuel Chamberlain. Ephraim Bacon, John Bige- 
low, Jesse Washburn Nathan Carpenter, Nathaniel, William, Moses 
and Daniel Buck, Gilman Greeley. John Bradbury and Joel Pratt. 
Tristram Robinson settled on the farm, later purchased by Cyrus 
Holmes and now occupied by his grandson, Irving Holmes. Cyrus' 
brother, Salmon, at a later date, occupied the land now owned by A. 
W. Gilman. The home of Nathan Carpenter was the well-known 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF FOXCROFT, MAINE 6 



Herring place on Park street. Eliphalet' Washburn settled on a 
farm near the Averill place on the road to East Dover. Another 
early settler, David Moulton, father of Mr. Isaac Moulton, a promi- 
nent citizen of La Crosse, Wisconsin, who lately visited this place, 
lived on the farm now owned by Mrs. George Lebroke. 

In the early twenties, William Stedman, William Shaw, and 
Daniel Fullen came from Hebron, Maine, and settled in this town. 
They were later followed by the Leavitts, Harmons, and Hazel- 
tines from Buxton. The Howard brothers, Asel and Asaph, cleared 
the farms now occupied by E. A. Bolton and C. A. Foss respectively. 
Along with William Stedman — who cleared the place now occupied 
by Joseph King, came a young man by the name of Andrews, who 
made a beginning on the farm now occupied by F. S. Getchell. 
Young Andrews was engaged to a sister of Stedman. While he 
was busy in this pioneer work, she sent him some apple seeds ; he 
planted them ; and quite a nursery was the result, from which sev- 
eral orchards in the region of Foxcroft Centre were supplied with 
trees. A few of these old trees are now standing. The young lady 
who was responsible for this benevolent act died not long after, 
and young Andrews plans were changed. He sold his farm to Capt. 
Timothy Hazeltine, who, with his son, Timothy, Jr., occupied th.' 
place until their death. 

Abram Bolster and Jacob Lebroke came from Paris, Maine, to 
Foxcroft in 1824. Jacob Lebroke was the son of James Lebroke. 
who was born in Paris, France, and came to this country with 
the French fleet, to fight under Lafayette, serving one year in the 
Continental army. He met his death by falling off the roof of a 
building when he lacked only one month of being one hundred years 
old. Jacob Lebroke moved here soon after the birth of his son, 
Augustus G., who in after years became one of the most able, 
eloquent, and influential lawyers in the State, and a prominent 
citizen of Foxcroft for many years. The oldest house in Foxcroft 
is located on Xorth street and was built by Andrew Blethen in 1818. 
Mr. Blethen afterwards built the first mills at Greeley's landing, 
Sebec Lake, and also the Dennis Brawn home. 

Eleazer Spaulding, with his two brothers, John and Seth, built 
not only the first mill, but the first dam across the Piscataquis River. 
We must realize that this work was done with the greatest diffi- 
culty in those early times. Hardly a horse could be found to haul 
the timber ; every board and timber had to be hewed by hand ; all 
the machinerv and tools had to be hauled from Bangor, and for 



66 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

twenty miles the road was nothing but a trail through the forest: 
the streams and bogs were not spanned by bridges ; the load was 
hauled on two lang shafts, the ends of which dragged on the ground, 
making progress slow and tedious at best. In spite of all these 
difficulties, the dam and mill were finished according to the con- 
tract ; but the dam was so leaky that the mill could be run only at 
high water, and people had to go elsewhere sometimes, to get their 
work done. 

In those days "spirituous liquors" were considered a necessity 
whenever any task of importance was to be performed. When 
Samuel Chamberlain was about to raise his first large barn, which 
must have been about 1809, he announced that he should supply no 
rum. The prevailing opinion was that he would have no raising. 
In face of this direful prediction, however, a bountiful dinner was 
prepared, and the barn went up without a hitch. 

In 1810, the population returned for No. 5, Range 7, was sixty- 
five ; and three years later there were twenty-five voters for State 
officers. The people had made sufficient progress in 1810. to lead 
them to petition the Massachusetts Legislature for an act of incor- 
poration. Mr. Nathan Carpenter carried this petition, signed by 
seventeen residents, to Paris, and sent it to Col. Foxcroft for him 
to approve and forward to Boston. I will read a copy of the 
petition. 

"To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives in Gen- 
eral Court assembled, A. D. 1811 : 

"We," your humble Petitioners. Inhabitants of township N, five, 
Seventh Range of Townships North of the Waldo Patent, County 
of Hancock and Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Humbly shows 
that we labor under disadvantages by reason of living in an unin- 
corporated Plan., the most essential one a want of Roards, schools, 
and many other difficulties incident to new countries, but needless 
to mention to your Honors. 

"We therefore prav your honors to incorporate us into a town 
that we may have some way to remedy (in a measure) the diffi- 
culties that attend us. It is our unanimous wish to be incorporated 
into a Town by the name of Foxcroft- — as in duty bound will ever 
pray." 

(Signed) Eleazer Spauldin. Joel Pratt, Benj. Kittred^e. George 
Harvey, Jeremiah Rolf. Joseph Morse, John Spauldin. John Coxe, 
Jesse Washburn, Met. Towne, Samuel Chamberlain. Nath'l Buck, 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF FOXCROFT, MAINE 6; 



Junr., John Bradbury, Nathan Carpenter, Daniel Buck, Win. Buck, 
\\'m. Thayer. 

Two years later, Feb. 29, 181 2, this petition was granted, and 
Foxcroft became a legally incorporated town, being the second in 
what is now Piscataquis County, — Sebec being the first and just 
one day older. The final form of the Bill of Incorporation as it 
was approved in the Massachusetts Council Chamber, is as follows: 

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

in the Year of Our Lord, One thousand, eight hundred and twelve. 
AN ACT to establish the town of Foxcroft, in the County of Han- 
cock. 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives, in General Court assembled, and by the authority of 
the same, that the township numbered five in the seventh range, 
North of the Waldo Patent, in the county of Hancock, be, and 
hereby is established as a town by the name of Foxcroft, and by 
the following boundaries, viz.. East by the township number four 
in the same range. South by the river Piscataquis, West by number 
six in the same range. North by number seven in the eighth range. 
And the said town of Foxcroft is hereby vested with all the cor- 
porate powers and privileges, and subjected to the like duties and 
requisitions of other towns, according to the Constitution and Laws 
of this Commonwealth. 

Section 2. And be it further enacted that any Justice of the 
Peace for the County of Hancock, is hereby authorized, upon appli- 
cation therefor, to issue a warrant, directed to a freeholder and 
inhabitant of the said town of Foxcroft, requiring him to notify and 
warn the inhabitants thereof, to meet at such convenient time and 
place, as shall be expressed in said warrant, for the choice of such 
officers as towns are by law required to choose, at their annual 
town meetings. 

In the House of Representatives, Feb. 29, 1812. 

This Bill having had three several readings passed to be enacted. 

E. W. Ripley, Speaker. 

In Senate, February 29th, 181 2. 

This bill having had two several readings passed to be enacted. 

Samuel Dana, President. 
Council Chamber, 
29th Februarv. 1812. 

Approved.. E. Gerrv. 



68 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



At the time of Incorporation Foxcroft was as will have been 
noted, part of Hancock County. Piscataquis County itself was not 
incorporated until 1838. It contains more than one hundred full 
townships, with an area of 3780 square miles. 

Foxcroft's first town-meeting ^-as held on Aug. 31, 181 2. I will 
read the warrant, as it was posted. 

. "To Samuel Chamberlain, one of the freeholders and inhabitants 
of the town of Foxcroft, County of Hancock, 
Greeting : 

You are hereby required in the name of the commonwealth of 
Massachusetts to notify and warn the inhabitants of the aforesaid 
town, qualified to vote in town-meeting, to meet at the Dwelling 
House of Mr. Gilman Greeley, on Monday, the thirty-first day of 
the present month, at one o'clock in the afternoon, then and there 
to act on the following articles, viz. : 

1st, to choose a moderator to govern said meeting. 

2d, to choose a town clerk. 
.3rd, to choose three or more selectmen. 

4th, to choose three or more assessors. 

5th to choose a treasurer. 

6th, to choose a collector. 

7th, to choose a constable. 

8th, to choose what other officers thought necessary. 

9th, to act upon all other necessary business. 

And you are to make returns of this warrant and your doing 
thereon on or before the said 31st instant. 

Hereby fail not. 

Given under my hand and seal at Plantation No. 3, range sixth. 
this fifteenth day of August in the year of our Lord one thousand 
eight hundred and twelve. 

Nath'l Chamberlain, 

Justice Peace. 

A true copy. 
Attest: John Bradbury, 

Town Clerk. 

Some of the officers chosen at that first town-meeting were: 
Joel Pratt, Moderator; John Bradbury, Clerk; Joel Pratt, Samuel 
Chamberlain, William Thayer, Selectmen ; Nathan Carpenter, 
Treasurer. About every voter in town had an office. The collector- 
ship was given to Nathaniel Buck for three-fourths of a mill on 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF FOXCROFT, MAINE 69 



a dollar. At the annual town-meeting the next year, $150 was 
raised for the support of schools ; and it was voted to build a town- 
house, 20 by 25 feet. One hundred dollars was voted as a sufficient 
sum to build this house. It was located near the place where W. J. 
Eldridge now lives. This same year it was "voted to accept one- 
half acre of land for a burying ground, laying on the south side of 
the road running northerly from the mill, about seventy rods from 
the corner of the road near Greeley's Mills." This location was at 
the junction of Main and Green streets. The yard was removed 
about 1854. Conveniences in the homes of these first settlers were 
extremely limited. One family of four daughters had only one 
needle. A frequent inquiry was, "Where is the needle ?'* An 
incident that may be recalled by some of the older residents belonged 
to this period. The Spauldings owned some steers, which in play- 
ing around an iron kettle used for washing purposes on the river 
bank, got their horns entangled, and, in trying to get away, pushed 
themselves into the river and were drowned. In 181 2, a whiskey 
distillery was erected near the present site of Merrill's blacksmith 
shop in the village, and A. Blake began the making of potato whis- 
key. This gave a market for the farmer surplus potatoes ; but it 
could hardly be called a worthy adjunct to the town. It did not pay 
either, and after a few years its fires died out. The building, known 
as "the old still house," was used for other purposes until destroyed 
by fire in 1830. In 18 13, John Bradbury built a store, the first in 
town, on the corner now occupied by the Blethen block. The 
building was afterwards moved away to the corner of North and 
Summer streets. In 1816, Samuel Beal started a tannery, which 
was on the river bank between Clark and Thayer's saw-mill and 
Curtis and Robinson's harness shop. 

On Sept. 2, 1816, the town voted. 15 to 5, in favor of separation 
from Massachusetts; and three years later, when the matter came 
up again, the vote was 19 to 1 in favor of separation. In 1820, 
there were forty voters in town, and the first Governor of the 
State, William King, received 30 votes. 

Samuel Chamberlain was elected a delegate to the Convention to 
frame a constitution for the new State; and John Bradbury was 
Representative to the first Legislature in 1820, and also in 1821. 
In 1819, the town voted to raise $150 to build a bridge across the 
Piscataquis River and $500 more to be paid in labor. During this 
and the following year a substantial bridge was built and soon paid 
for by taxes, labor and grain. 



7o SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Previous to the incorporation of the town, Col. Foxcroft visited 
the rising settlement on business, and, though not himself a pro- 
fessor of religion, advised the people to hold meetings on Sunday 
and conduct them as they could. This proposal was readily ac- 
cepted, and the first meeting was held at the house of Eli Towne. 
Mr. William Mitchell, an old school-master, led the service, but 
no one was found to pray until Mrs. Mitchell consented to do so : 
and the Piscataquis settlement was devoutly dedicated to God by a 
woman's public prayer. In 1814, Mrs. Nathan Carpenter and Mrs. 
William Mitchell united with the church in Garland, then consisting 
of nine women and two men. These two women constituted the 
nucleus of the Congregational church of Foxcroft and Dover. 
Meetings were for a time held in the log house of Abel Turner 
and later in another log house. Here on Sundays Joel Pratt read 
the sermon and Deacon Carpenter read the Scriptures and offered 
prayer. As the cold weather came on and the snow became deep, 
those living at a distance could not come and the attendance dwin- 
dled to two, who came one Sunday morning and found the place 
cold and deserted. They remained through the day, despondent 
and dejected, but finally decided to make it the subject of prayer, 
and if no one came the next Sabbath they would give up. The next 
Sabbath came, the house was warm and well filled, and they took 
fresh courage. Subsequently the place of meeting was changed to 
the small town-house, standing, as I have said, on the lot where W. 
J. Eldridge's house is now situated. Occasionally, Rev. John 
Sawyer of Garland would visit the settlement and preach for the 
people. The Sabbath-school was organized in 18 15 by Mrs. Car- 
penter, and is supposed to be the first in the county. 
• July 13, 1822, the town voted "to settle the Rev. Thomas Williams 
as our town minister on the following conditions, viz., that he is 
to have the public lands reserved for the first settled minister in 
Foxcroft. He is likewise to have the privilege of being absent one- 
third part of the time.'' Jan. 1, 1823, Mr. Williams was installed 
as pastor of this church, and the minutes of the installing Council 
are in the town records, signed by the town clerk. Quite a number 
of other ministers attended this installation, and so large an 
assembly was attracted, that the old schoolhouse would not hold 
all of the people, so Blake's "still house" was fitted up for the 
occasion. 

Rev. Thomas Williams, long a prominent and influential citizen 
of Foxcroft, lived in a house on Park street, on the lot now occupied 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF FOXCROFT, MAINE 71 

f by Mr. Chandler. Dec. 30, 1822, Mr. Williams, with the help of 
Rev. John Sawyer, organized eighteen members who had been dis- 
missed from the church at Garland into what was called the Con- 
gregational Church of Foxcroft and Vicinity. Until the organiza- 
fon of the Christian Scientists a number of years ago, this was 
the only church in town. The first church edifice, erected in 1824, 
on the spot now occupied by Mr. Elbridge Libby on Lincoln street, 
was destroyed by fire Jan. 15, 1835, tne day following its dedica- 
tion. The members of the church were about to celebrate the Lord's 
Supper, when the house took fire. The weather was extremely 
cold, and the stoves, standing in the entry at the north end, were 
kept intensely hot, communicating fire to the partition. The wind 
drove the flames directly up into the belfry ; it was impossible to 
save the building and it was soon laid in ruins. 




Centennial Decorations. 

The second meeting-house .built in the summer of 1835, stood on 
the lot on North street, where Mr. Charles L. Merrill now lives. 
This, too, was destroyed by fire, Oct. 21, 1850. After the burning 
of this church services were held for a while in the Academy. The 
present house of worship was built during the summer of 185 1 
and dedicated Oct. 22 of the same year. The present chapel was 
erected in 1875 anf l was largely the gift of Deacon J. G. Mayo. 
During the pastorate of Rev. H. A. Loring (i875-'8o) the meet- 



-J2 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



ing-house was extensively repaired., its seating capacity increased 
and a steeple erected, in which a town-clock was placed. 

Previous to 1822, there has been no schools above the grammar 
grades, but this year, Mr. J. S. Holmes, a graduate of Brown Uni- 
versity, opened at Foxcroft the first law T office in the county, and 
being deeply interested in education, organized a high school in 
the village and was its first principal. A charter for an Academy 
was granted Jan. 31, 1823, and Foxcroft Academy then became 
the first incorporated school of this sort in the State, and lacked 
only three years of being as old as the State itself. The school has 
been, all through its history, as is stated in the act of incorporation, 
"for the promotion of literature, science, morality, and piety." The 
proprietor of the town gave $50 toward the Academy's endowment. 
The site was a "half acre of land lying between the house of 
David Greeley, Esq., and his saw-mill; and here a building was 
erected and ready for occupany in 1825. The Academy soon at- 
tracted students from the surrounding towns. Twenty years after 
its incorporation, it had considerably over a hundred pupils. In 
1859, tne fi rst Academy building was moved to the north end of 
Foxcroft bridge, on the east side of Main street. In 1891, the 
building which replaced the first was repaired and remodeled, and 
in 1904, through the help of large gifts from Mr. and Mrs. Josiah 
B. Mayo, was greatly enlarged and remodeled. 

With the high school scholars of Dover uniting with those of 
Foxcroft and other towns, the Academy has become one of the 
finest fitting schools in the State. The first Principal was James 
Gooch, A. B., of North Yarmouth. In 1825, half a township of 
land was granted by the Legislature as an endowment, and this was 
soon afterward sold for over three thousand dollars. 

As has been intimated before, the drinking of liquors was not 
uncommon in the early part of the last century. We find in the 
Foxcroft town records that on Feb. 3, 1829, "Josiah Spaulding of 
Dover was licensed as a retailer of spirituous liquors at his store 
in Foxcroft for the space of four months." Similar licenses were 
issued later to other individuals. There was 'however, quite a strong 
sentiment against this business ; and in 1832, it was voted that "the 
selectmen should not grant license to retail spirituous liquors, " yet 
for some reason or other one person was licensed that same year. 
At a considerably later date. Elder Bartlett owned and occupied a 
store at the end of the bridge, in what has been known as the Brock- 
way Block. He always sold liquors ; and his son said his father 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF FOXCROFT, MAINE 73 

"sold large quantities of the Piscataquis river." The story is told 
of two neighbors, both of whom had been drinking and quite 
unsteady on their feet, who were walking up the street together, 
when one remarked that he would not be seen walking with a drink- 
ing man, and managed with difficulty to get himself into a near-by 
vard. The first temperance society, a branch of "The Sons of Tem- 
perance," was organized in the hall of the old Exchange in 1844 
b\ a Mr. Dockham, who at that time was settled here as a tailor. 

Every year from the beginning of the town's existence liberal 
provision was made for the poor. For the greater part of the time 
tlley were boarded in different families. For instance, in 1833, 
it was voted "to set up Elisha Gibbs and his wife at auction to the 
lowest bidder.'' "After several bids," — and these are the words of 
the record, — "Elisha Gibbs and wife were struck to Silas Paul for 
the sum of forty-seven dollars and fifty cents for one year, to be 
maintained free' of any expense to the town during said time." 
Evidently the "high cost of living" was no problem in those days 
as it is now. For some years the town maintained a poor farm 
which was on the shore of Sebec Lake near Steadman's Landing. 

In the Act of Incorporation of Piscataquis County, approved 
March* 23, 1838, it was enacted that the town of Dover should be 
the shire town of the county. There was considerable rivalry be- 
tween Dover and Foxcroft, as to which should be the shire town. 
By a bill passed in the Legislature of 1841. the question was referred 
for final settlement to a vote of all the towns in the county. Feeling 
ran high, and when the votes were counted, on the second Monday 
of September, 1841, it was found that Dover had received 1097 to 
Foxcroft 1067. The vote not being decisive, the matter was again 
submitted to the people in 1842, and the result was that Dover 
received 1138 votes. Guilford standing next with 784 and Foxcroft 
third with 31 T. Foxcroft's records give the vote of Foxcroft at 
that time as 114 for Foxcroft, 33 for Dover, and one for Bower- 
bank. 

The industrial development of Foxcroft is a most interesting 
chapter in its history. In 1820. the old mill built by the Spauldings 
was taken down by Daniel Greeley and replaced by a large saw and 
grist-mill. This was on the north side of the river near the site of 
the extension of Mayo's woolen mill. Two years later a mill for 
cloth dressing and carding was erected near by. This was first put 
in operation by Mr. E. R. Favor, but was not long after conveyed 
to Tohn Bradburv, who in 1826 combined this business with that 



74 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

of a saw-mill, which he erected on the southern end of the dam. 
This whole business was bought by Vaughan and Brown and when 
they started their factory in 1836 in Dover, they in turn sold out 
to Messrs. Jordan and Crockett, who kept up the business for many 
years. Deacon L. O. Farnham's tannery was also in operation 
about this time, a building which was twice burned and twice re- 
built. A fork and hoe factory, constructed of brick, was erected 
by Maj. J. Crooker and was operated for several years. In 1844, 
Hon. J. G. Mayo came to Foxcroft, and together with James Bush 
and E. J. Hale, bought the privilege for a woolen factory of 
Vaughan, Bush, and the Chamberlains, and erected a mill on the 
northern side of the river. Not long after, Mr. Mayo became the 
sole owner, and eventually secured control of one-half the water 
power, — associating with him in the business his son, Josiah B. 
Mayo, under the partnership title of J. G. Mayo and Son. In 
1859, the upper story of the mill was destroyed 'by fire, but was 
rebuilt at once and another story added. Since that time the busi- 
ness has steadily increased, the mills have been enlarged and im- 
proved, and a few years ago a splendid reinforced concrete build- 
ing was added to the plant. At present the mill gives employment 
to over one hundred men and women. 

The waters of the Piscataquis river have occasionally been quite 
turburlent. Heavy freshets have done great damage from time 
to time. The freshets of 1854 and 1857 will always be remem- 
bered by those who witnessed them. Both swept away the Foxcroft 
bridge. The freshet of April 7, 1857, as related by an eye-witness, 
was caused by a jam formed at the island. It came down to what 
was then called "Goose Island'' and rested there. For some time 
small cakes of ice were seen coming up from under the main body 
of ice. The tremendous weight of water finally pressed the whole 
body of ice across the cove and over South street, undermining the 
brick hoe and fork factor}- and carrying away also the grist-mill, 
then situated above Mayo's woolen mill. The bridge was taken 
and much more damage done. At this time a boy, living about 
three miles above Foxcroft, in some way got afloat on some drift- 
wood, passed down the river, and was captured by his father shortly 
before he reached the dam. Soon after this great freshet the cov- 
ered bridge was built, last year replaced by the splendid concrete 
structure. For a long time a boat and rope were used by passengers 
while the bridge was being constructed or repaired. Rather than 
go across on this boat, one clear-brained young woman walked 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF FOXCROFT, MAINE 75 

across on a girder of the bridge then being built and carried her 
small child on her back. 

Previous to 1870 a spool factory had been established in Fox- 
croft, and that year it was bought by L. H. Dwelley & Co., which 
company also increased their business by purchasing and operating 
the saw-mill built first by Andrew Blethen at Greeley's Landing, 
Sebec Lake. This spool factory was burned in 1877, Dut was soon 
rebuilt, this time of brick; and since that time, under the able man- 
agement, first of Mr. Dwelley and later of the McGregors, father 
and son, the business has largely increased and gives employment 
to many hands throughout the year. 

In February, 1866, Thomas F. Dyer came from New Sharon, and 
together with John F. Hughes, who came the previous year, pur- 
chased the interest of Jordan and Carr in the building at the north 
end of Foxcroft bridge, formerly the old Academy building, now 
occupied by Thomas & Weatherbee. They remained here one year. 
In the summer of 1867, the Foxcroft Foundry Co. erected the build- 
ing, now occupied by J. H. Steward and Son, which they leased 
for five years. In 1872 they built the store on Lincoln street now 
occupied by San ford Ritchie, remaining there until 1885, when 
they sold their grocery and hardware business and devoted their time 
to manufacturing. Soon after coming to Foxcroft, Mr. Dyer, who 
had formerly worked at the organ business, commenced the manu- 
facture of organs and melodeons in a building which stood where 
the Gilman & Co. mill now stands, working alone most of the time 
for the. first year. Meeting with much encouragement. Dyer and 
Hughes built a small mill on Mechanic street in 1869, where they 
added to their business as it expanded year by year, until 1889, 
when they began the manufacture of pianos, and erected the pres- 
ent factory. In 1894 Mr. Dyer retired from the firm, transferring 
his interest to Mr. Hughes, who now operates it with his son under 
the name of Hughes and Son. A good number of expert work- 
men are employed and a very fine grade of piano is manufactured. 

Mr. Reuben D. Gilman, who died a few years ago, was for many 
ytrars a well-known and successful business man in this town. In 
1854, returning from an extended stay in California, he purchased 
the lumber mill now run by Clark and Thayer and operated it for 
nearly half a century. Besides this business he was also extensively 
engaged in lumbering and agriculture. 

Cushing's Perfection Dye Works was started in 1881 by Mr. 
Wain wright dishing, who later associated with himself his son, 



76 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



C. H. Cushing. The present factory, ioo by 60 feet, was erected 
in 1892, and for twenty years a large manufacture and trade in 
high-grade dyes have been built up, packages being sent all over the 
United States and to foreign countries. 

The H. J. Dexter Wood-Working Company, established in 1886, 
was a successful business plant up to three years ago, when it was 
almost entirely destroyed by fire. Since then it has not been rebuilt. 

Until about 1850, there were no bands from the present day 
standpoint, in any of the small towns in this and adjoining states. 
Previous to that time the music furnished at musters and parades 
was the fife and drum, and occasionally a clarinet and key-bugle 
were added. The first organization that was formed in Foxcroft, 
as I am told by Mr. Thomas Dyer, was Hale's band, organized in 
1858, and was in existence five years. The members of the band 
were : E. J. Hale, Damon and Albion Brockway, Gilbert Chandler, 
Fred Kimball, Will and Bert Haskell, George Colcord, Frank 
Lougee, Henry Warren, Nathan McKusick, William Waterman. 
Frank Good, Sewall Shaw, Joe Porter and a Mr. Sanborn. In 
1867, Major McKusick. who was a veteran of the Civil W r ar. 
returned to Foxcroft and soon after formed a "Drum Corps," 
known as "The McKusick Drum Corps.'' This organization was 
composed of some eighteen or twenty men, but only the following 
names can be recalled : Nathan McCusick, James T. Roberts, 
Thomas P. Elliott, Isaac, George, and Joseph Colcord, Tim Lougee, 
William Waterman, James Bush, Austin Pratt and Charles Sher- 
burne. This Corps served until after the Presidential campaign of 
1872, when they did valiant service. Dyer's band was organized 
April 3, 1875, at a meeting held at Temperance Hall, with the 
following officers : William W. Miller, President ; Fred D. Bar- 
rows, Secretary, William Brown, Treasurer. Members: Thomas 
F. Dyer, Will W. Dow, W. W. Miller, Fred D. Barrows, Geo. E. 
Mitchell, Thos. P. Elliott, Stacy, Wooster and Charles H. Mans- 
field, James T. Roberts. Ben Vaughan. Arthur S. Brown, Sewall C. 
Shaw, William H. Waterman, Charles Dow and George H. Jennison. 
They met for practise and rehearsal the following summer in a 
room in the organ factory. Their first public appearance was in 
September to serenade Senator-elect, S. O. Brown. Later they 
added to their membership until the band numbered twenty- four. 
This organization lasted for twenty years, when it disbanded, leav- 
ing behind this record: in all its life and its many public engage- 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF FOXCROFT, MAINE 



// 



ments, it never had a member under the influence of liquor while 
on duty. 

• About twenty years ago, a drum corps was formed by some 
young men of the town, in connection with The Sons of Veterans. 
This organization was disbanded two years later. 

The first Post-master of this town was John Bradbury, who held 
office from June 19, 1821 to July 29, 1833. He was followed by 
these individuals who are named in the order of their service: R. 
K. Rice, Moses Swett, George V. Edes, Melvin Stevens, Moses 
Swett, Hiram Doughty, D. D. Vaughan, William Paine, O. E. 
Crooker, Jonathan Roberts, J. D. Brown, James M. Wey mouth, 
H. C. Prentiss, John F. Arnold, C. S. Ham, G. L. Arnold, A. P. 
Buck, Grace W. Buck, and Edward B Buck. Of these, Mr. Pren- 
tiss held the office for the longest period, over twenty-four years, 
from March 19, 1861 to Aug. 3, 1885. The last three incumbents 
have held the office since 1898. Mr. A. P. Buck holding it two years, 
his daughter four years, and his son, since 1904. 

Among the important characters in the early history of Fox- 
croft should be mentioned the town's first lawyer, Mr. J. S. Holmes. 
He was, as I have said, a graduate of Brown University, Principal 
of the first High School in town, and an able and influential man 
in all town affairs. He was a brother of Cyrus and Salmon Holmes 
who came to Foxcroft in 181 8. For a while he was a law partner 
of Hon. J. S. Wiley, who was at one time a Representative to Con- 
gress from this district. The story is told of Esquire Holmes that, 
at one time, in trimming trees, he sawed off the limb on which he 
was sitting, letting himself heavily to the ground. Getting up and 
shaking himself, he expressed in vigorous and emphatic language. 
his opinion of the man who sawed off that limb. In 1838, George 
V. Edes came to Foxcroft. He was a printer by trade and cam? 
from a race of printers, his great uncle, Benjamin Edes, with John 
Gill having published the Boston Gazette during the Revolution : 
and another uncle was active in the publishing business in Rhode 
Island and Maine. George V. learned the trade with his uncle 
Peter in Hallowell. Going from there to Norridgewock in 1823, 
he published the Somerset Journal for fifteen years, when he came 
to Dover and started the Piscataquis Herald, the name of which 
was afterward changed to the Farmer, and then to the Observer. 
After a brief residence in Dover, he moved to Foxcroft, where he 
resided until his death in 1875. Mr. Edes' first printing was done 
with considerable difficulty, with a Franklin hand press, and, as 



/8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

he had very little help, the work was often arduous in the extreme. 
His pay came from almost everything the surrounding farms pro- 
duced. In 1839, J- S. Wiley, Moses Swett, A, M. Robinson and 
others started "The Democrat-Republican," which for a while com- 
peted with the Observer ; but it was not a financial success ; and 
in 1843, Mr. Edes purchased the whole outfit, and no further effort 
.was made to establish another newspaper. In company with his 
sons Mr. Edes continued in business for many years. It has been 
stated on good authority that the first type set in the county was 
set by him in a building then located near Mayo and Sons' office 
in the village. 

It is not my purpose to enter largely into the biography of the 
prominent men and women who have made large contributions 
toward the progress of our town. The lives of some of them will 
be quite fully treated in papers that are to follow. Before closing 
this section of my address, however, I wish to pay tribute to the 
late John G. Mayo and his descendants, who have done so much 
for the business, educational and religious advancement of Foxcroft. 
The Congregational church owes much to the benefactions of the 
elder Mr. Mayo ; and the church and the Academy, as well as many 
other worthy objects have been largely aided by the benevolent- 
minded family. The good of the church and the school was upper- 
most in the thought of Mrs. Josiah B. Mayo, who went to her 
reward a few years ago : and her husband and husband's brother, 
though far advanced in years, are still actively interested in all that 
makes for the welfare of the town. 

Previous to 1869, Dover and Foxcroft had no railway facilities. 
If one wished to take the train he was obliged to go by stage to 
Newport; and for a long time, before Waterville and Bangor 
were connected by railway, a stage was run all the way to Water- 
ville. In 1869, the Bangor and Piscataquis Railroad, now the 
Bangor and Aroostook, reached Dover. Foxcroft subscribed 
largely to its stock. At first, over $17,000 was subscribed, and 
later, $11,000 more. The first train reached Dover, Dec. 16, 1869. 
In 1871, the road was extended to Guilford, and eight years later 
it had reached Greenville. The building of the Dexter and Piscata- 
quis branch of the Maine Central, brought through to Foxcroft in 
1888, was a very great benefit to this town. 'The road could not have 
been built, had it not been for the untiring efforts of Col. Joseph 
B. Peaks, J. B. Mayo, S. O. Brown, and a few others. With the 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF FOXCROFT, MAINE 79 



completion of this road, our mail, express, freight, and passenger 
service improved greatly. The first telegraph instrument was 
installed in Foxcroft post-office Aug. 4. 1873 and was operated by 
Mr. H. C. Prentiss, then postmaster. The office was at that time, 
as it was for many years located in the center of the Hale Block. 
Foxcroft began to be lighted by electricity in 1891, when the original 
plant of the D. & F. Light and Heat Company was installed. The 
water-power at East Dover was bought in 1895, an< ^ a very efficient 
system of electric lighting has been maintained ever since. Before 
this improvement, the streets were lighted by kerosene lamps set 
on poles. The present water system was established in 1887, and 
the telephone company was organized a few years later. In case 
of fire, previous to 1887, water had to be taken from cisterns, reser- 
voirs, wells, brooks, or, if it was near enough, from the river. 



r - r 



_ _ 



1 



• 




The Oldest House in Foxcroft. 
No. 86 North St. Built by Andrew Blethen, 1818. 



A comparison between the conditions existing in the earlier days 
of Foxcroft's history and those existing today is interesting and 
instructive. Before the fifties there was only one dwelling-house 
on the north side of Main street above the old Holmes place now 
occupied by Dr. C. C. Hall, Jr. That house was owned by Dr. 
Laughton, and is now owned by Mr. S. A. Annis. All the land 
was farms owned by Mr. Holmes, the Greeley heirs, and Mr. Paul 
as far as Dr. Tucker's, where Mr. Oakes now lives. These farms 
furnished pasturing, and nearly every family kept one or more 



8o SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



cows, so most of the dwellings were enclosed by high picket fences. 
The old part of the Exchange was the first public house. Before 
the railroad came there was much teaming from the up-river towns 
to Bangor, and a daily stage, one day up, the next back, making 
business for the inns. The old Favor House in Dover was the only 

' other hotel until the Blethen House was opened. Before the Ex- 
change was built where the main part of the buliding now stands. 
was a small office occupied by J. S. Holmes. This was burned, 
and with it may of the town records. On the south side of Main 
street, before the fifties there, was no dwelling above that owned by 
Mrs. Lewis Bryant. Above this, as has been stated, the first buriai 
ground was located. Where the church and chapel now stand were 
two cottages, one among the first in town, and for many years occu- 
pied by the family of Daniel Greeley. This was surrounded by a 
board fence. In the corner, next to Mr. Weatherbee's was a deep, 
abandoned well, enclosed by a curb, now covered and under the 
driveway to the church sheds. Ann Greeley, aged between three 
and four years, fell into this well, was taken out unconscious, and 
did not recover for twelve hours. Her first words were, "O pa, I 
drank a lot of that dirty water!" There was a place on the south 
side of the river, near the Dover House, where horses could be 
driven, to be watered. At one time, probably in the year 1840, a 
Mr. Crocker, who was riding in a two-wheeled chaise, drove down 
to this watering-place. His horse got in too far ; the chaise was 
upset ; the horse was drowned, and Mr. Crocker narorwly escaped 
with his life. Aside from Main street, probably North, Lincoln 
and Park streets are the oldest in town. North street was laid out 
very early as far as Goff's Corner; but it was not until the early 
seventies that it was put through to the Lake. Dr. Henry, father of 

. Leonard Robinson, who was a dentist and had an office in the second 
story of the building now occupied by his son, named all the streets 
in town. He had signs painted at his own expense and put up at 
all the corners. Only a few of these signs are now in existence. 
Deacon H. C. Prentiss' father worked in a joiner's shop over where 
Curtis and Robinson are now located. He built a schoolhouse on 
North street, on the site of the present home of Mrs. Julia Vaughan. 
When the-Foxcroft Grammar school building was erected in 1873. 
the land where it stands was exchanged for the old site by Mr. B. 
B. Vaughan, who was a trader and prominent citizen in town for 
many years. Previous to the building of the Congregational chapel, 
a store, kept by E. D. Wade, was located on its site. 



FOXCROFT IN THE CIVIL WAR 81 



These are only a few of the changes in outward appearance which 
have taken place in a century. It will be seen that none are now 
living who were alive when this town was incorporated. All honor 
to those sturdy pioneers who laid so nobly and well the foundations 
of our beautiful town. Though they have passed from earth, they 
are still calling upon us to walk worthily, cherishing their memories 
and imitating their virtues. May the historian of a hundred years 
hence be able to chronicle in a far better manner than I have done, 
the deeds of his fathers ; and may he find inspiration in our lives, 
and a record worthy of those who have preceded us. 



Foxcroft in The Civil War 

By Hon. Waixwright Cushing. 

Foxcroft was ever a loyal and patriotic town, and when repeated 
calls came from President Lincoln for men to go Southward to aid 
in surpressing the rebellion it sent forward its bravest and best. 

The total number of men that were furnished to these repeated 
calls was 135, and in addition to which at least twelve residents of 
Foxcroft served on the quotas of other states. In all probability 
there .were other residents of the town temporarily absent who 
entered the Union service of whom no record can be found. When 
President Lincoln issued his first call for 75,000 men there was a 
general uprising all over the loyal Xorth. I can give no better 
illustration of the patriotic fervor that animated the boys of '61 in 
the Piscataquis valley than by quoting from Col. Charles A. Clark's 
admirable paper entitled "Campaigning with the Sixth Maine" read 
before the Iowa Commandery Loyal Legion of the United States. 
"On the 24th of April, 1861, I piled up my Greek and Latin books 
and enlisted. My fellow students very generally did the same. 
The classes in the old Foxcroft Academy were broken up. For ten 
days our recitations were a farce. When the news of the firing on 
Fort Sumpter came we went to Col. Paul's woods by night and 
felled two of his tallest pines. We hauled them by hand to the 
Academy grounds and all night long we wrought to splice and raise 
them. This made a liberty pole for that town for the war, and 
with the first gleam of dawn in the east we run up the stars and 
stripes with hurrahs which awakened the sober citizens. On that 



82 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

very spot now stands a beautiful monument surmounted by a granite 
statue of an American soldier with arms at parade rest, forever tell- 
ing of my comrades of that night who sealed with death their devo- 
tion to the cause for which our hearts then throbbed so hotly. I 
tossed a coin with Gray my chum and room mate to determine who 
should have the honor of placing his name at the head of the first 
enlistment roll of Piscataquis county in that mighty war, and I won 
first place. His name followed mine and as Captain of Co. A, he 
died like a hero in our charge upon Mayre's Heights at Fredericks- 
burg, Va., in May, 1863." 

First Company Raised. 

The first company raised in Dover and Foxcroft was recruited 
by Charles H. Giandler, Addison P. Buck and Charles Kimball. 
This company later was merged with the Brownville Rifles and 
became Co. A, 6th Me. Vol's. The 6th Me. Regt. was mustered into 
the U. S. service July, 1861, and formed a part of the Army of the 
Potomac and was in nearly every battle in which that grand army 
had a part. Recruits from Foxcroft who served in the 6th Maine 
Vol's : 

Charles H. Chandler, mustered as 1st Lieut. Co. A., promoted 
to Capt. and Lieut. Col. Died in Seattle, Wash. 

Addison P Buck, mustered as 26. Lieut, promoted to 1st Lieut, 
and Quartermaster. Served on the staff of Maj. Gen. Sedgwick of 
the 6th Corps, as Chief Forage Master, was serving his second term 
as Postmaster of Foxcroft when he was finally mustered out. 
Edward L. Emery, Sergt. Co. A was a resident of Foxcroft at the 
time of his decease. 

Oliver L. Brown, Corp'l Co. A, afterwards served as Sergt. in 
the 13th Maine. Died in Auburn, Maine. 

James S. Holmes. Corp'l Co. A. promoted to Principal Musician. 
He was a son of James Holmes the leading legal light in Foxcroft 
before the war. and has joined the silent majority. 

Wellington Besse. Private. Discharged for disability. Deceased. 

Newton Blanchard, private, was severely wounded and dis- 
charged. A resident of Abbot at the time of decease. 

Otis Chamberlain, private, discharged for disability. At the time 
of his decease was Ass't Engineer in the U. S. Navy. 

Franklin H. Daggett, private, discharged for disability, deceased. 

Geo. W. Dawes, private, was killed at Spottsylvania, C. H., May 
10th, 1864. 



FOXCROFT IN THE CIVIL WAR 



Charles E. Edes, Corporal, was transferred to the Navy. Com- 
rade Edes had the honor of having served under Commodore Perry 
in Japan prior to the war. At his decease was living with his 
brother, S. D. Edes. 

Hiram F. Lebroke, private, was wounded at Mayre's Heights and 
died from the effects of his wounds. 

Joseph D. Mansfield, private, afterwards served in the 16th 
Maine. Was a resident of Worcester at the time of his death. 

Ichabod Macomber, private, discharged for disability, deceased. 

Fernando G. Pratt, private, served his full term of enlistment. 
Was a resident of Foxcroft until his decease March n, 191 1. 

Fred E. Plummer, private, served his term, disappeared on his 
way home and was last seen in New York city. 

William G. Sewell, private, lived in Fresno, Calif., passed away 
May, 191 2. 

Rufus G. Chase, private Co. A. Joined regiment Dec. 4, 1861. 
Killed at the charge at Spottsylvania Court House, Va., May 10, 
1864. Comrade Chase was a devout Christian. 

Thomas M. Chase, private, discharged for disability. When last 
known was living in New Hampshire. 

Dr. William Buck, appointed Ass't Surgeon 6th Maine Vols. 
Promoted to Surgeon. He served in the Maine Legislature and 
filled many offices of trust in town. He was a faithful, conscien- 
tious physician, and at his decease was sincerely mourned by his 
townsmen. 

Dr. Freeland S. Holmes, a son of Salmon P. Holmes. Esq., one 
of the early settlers of Foxcroft. He was commissioned Surgeon 
of the 6th Maine. His wife was a sister of the War Governor of 
Maine, Israel Washburn, Jr. Dr. Holmes died in the service, and 
was succeeded by Dr. Wm. Buck. 

Geo. T. Holmes joined the 6th Maine Reg't at Hospital Steward, 
Ferving with his brother, Dr. Holmes, and with Dr. Buck, deceased. 

First Maine Cavalry. 

The next regiment to enter the service with members from Fox- 
croft was the 1st Maine Cavalry, which was mustered into service 
Dec. 31st, 1861. This regiment was in more battles and skirmishes 
than any other regiment in the Army of the Potomac. 

Charles S. Sturgis. Sergt. Col. M, discharged for disability. He 
married a daughter of Col. Samuel Pillsbury and is a resident of 
Haverhill, Mass. 



84 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Alonzo B. Briggs, private, Co. M, discharged for disability, de- 
ceased. 

Henry D. Thayer, private Co. M, discharged for disability, de- 
ceased. 

Cyrus M. Geary, private. Co. M, died from effects of wounds. 

Geo. \Y. Plummer, enlisted in D. C. Cavalry, transferred to ist 
Maine Cav. Now living in Dover. 

The /th Maine Regt. was mustered into service Aug. 21st, 1861. 
It had a distinguished record in the Army of the Potomac. The 
only citizen of Foxcroft who served in this regiment was Henry F 
Daggett, who served in this regiment as Sergt. and Q. M. Sergt. 
Is now living in Milo. 

The 9th Maine Infantry was mustered into the service Sept. 226., 
1861, and saw active and meritorious service in South Carolina and 
Virginia in the Army of the Potomac. 

Justin E. Batchelder. private. Co. D, 9th Maine, was severely 
wounded and lost an arm. Died in Barnard, Maine. 

Joseph Tucker, Co. D. wounded and transferred to Veteran Re- 
serve Corps. No record since the war. 

John A. Hoyt, private, Co. I. discharged at close of war, deceased. 

The 13TH Maine Volunteers. 

The 13th Maine Volunteers was mustered into the.U. S. service 
Dec. 4th, 1S61. This regiment saw active service in the Dept. of 
the Gulf. Was in the Red River Campaign and at the siege of 
Vicksburg was transferred to the Army of the Potomac, where it 
did valiant duty under Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley. 

Alfred E. Buck was commissioned Captain of Co. C, 13th Me.. 
and was promoted to Colonel in a colored regiment. After the war 
he settled in Georgia, and was virtually at the head of the Repub- 
lican party in that state. Served in Congress and was U. S. Marshal 
for the northern district of Georgia, and at the time of his death 
was serving as U. S. Minister to Japan. 

Chas. M. Buck, Co. C. 13th Maine, served with credit, was always 
on duty. Resides at Dover. 

Chas. D. Labree, Co. C. Re-enlisted, transferred to Maine Vols. 
No record since the war. 

Harvey Judkins, Co. C. No record since the war. 

Cyril N. Walker, Co. C, deceased. 



FOXCROFT IN THE CIVIL WAR 85 

Thee 14TH Maine Infantry. 

The 14th Maine Infantry was mustered into U. S. service Dec. 
nth, 1861. Served in the Dept. of the Gulf and was transferred to 
the Army of the Potomac, where it distinguished itself in the 
Shenandoah Valley Campaign under Sheridan. 

Chas. E. Washburn, Co. C. Died in New Orleans, Oct. 14, 1862. 
Chauncey C. Lee. Corporal Co. E, 14th Maine Since the war has 
resided in Foxcroft for 37 years. Has been a school teacher. For 
seven years he was an officer in the reserve militia of Maine. 

The 1 8th Maine, also known as the 1st H. A., was mustered into 
the U. S. service Aug. 25th, 1862. Served in the defences of Wash- 
ington until May, 1864. Received their baptism of fire May 18th, 
1864, where the loss in killed and wounded was heavy. In Grant's 
famous campaign from the Wilderness to Petersburg the 18th 
Maine lost more men killed and wounded than any other regiment 
in the Army of the Potomac. 

Ervin Chamberlain. Co. E. Wounded May 18th, 1864. Lived in 
Lacrosse, Wis., after the war, where he served with his cousin, 
Isaac H. Moulton, Esq., as Ass't Station Agent, deceased. 

Thomas O. Eaton Sergt. Co. E. Xow living in Montana. 

Charles Eaton, Corp'l Co. E. Went to state of Washington after 
the war. Xow deceased. 

Leonard H. Washburn Co. E. was severely wounded and mus- 
tered out of the service. Resides in Foxcroft. 

Daniel V. Plummer, Co. F, transferred from 17th Maine. Now 
living in Williamsport. Penn. 

Lauriston C. Parsons, Co. E died of disease Feb. 16th, 1864. 

Stacy T. Mansfield. Co. H. Mustered as a recruit Dec. 9th, 1862. 
Is a resident of Foxcroft. 

Benjamin Weaver, Co H, wounded May 18th, 1864. No record 
since war. 

William W. Warren, Co. H. Joined as a recruit. Discharged 
for disability. Resides in Dover. 

Leonard W. Lee, Co. H. 1st H. A. Joined the regiment Dec. 4th, 
f863. Killed in action in front of Petersburg June 18, 1864. At the 
time of his death was only 17 years of age. 

The 2oth Maine Infantry. 

The 20th Maine Infantry was mustered into the U. S. Service, 
Aug. 29th, 1862. Fresh from their homes they saw their first 



86 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



service under fire at Antietam and the record of the Army of the 
Potomac would be a history of the 20th Maine. At the battle of 
Gettysburg on Little Round Top they earned undying fame their 
thin line withstood the attack of three lines of battle. Phineas M. 
Jeffords, Capt. Co. B, resigned in 1863, went West after the war 
and settled in Illinois, where he died. His widow lives in Genoa, 
Ark. 

John S. Jennison, Sergt. Co. B. Died in the service, July 24th, 
1863. 

Cyrus G. Pratt, Sergt. Co. B. Discharged for disability in 1863. 
Resides in Foxcroft. 

Job S. Bearce, Co. B. Wounded. Discharged at completion of 
service. It a resident of Foxcroft. 

William C. Brown Corpl. Co. B. Served until the end of the 
war. Is now living in the state of Arkansas. 

Thomas Daggett, Co. B. Mustered out June 15, 1865. Resides 
in Foxcroft. Has been a prominent agriculturalist and for some 
years a member of the Maine Cattle Commission. 

Benj. R. Field, Co. B. Served his term of enlistment. No record 
since the war. 

Jared F. Millet, Co. B. Transferred to the Invalid Corps. Died 
in Foxcroft. 

Hudson S. Oakes, discharged with regiment. Lived in Foxcroft 
up to the time of his decease. 

Alonzo Z. Parsons, Co. B. Killed in action, May 6th, 1863. 

Randall H. Spaulding, Co. B. Mustered out at the expiration of 
his term of service. Deceased. 

Andrew C. Deering, Sergt. Co. C. Re-enlisted. Discharged June, 
1865. No record since the war. 

Wm. H. Jackson, Co. B. Joined the regiment as a recruit, Oct. 
2th, 1862. Discharged for disability. No further record. 

Wm. H. Jennison, Co. B. Discharged for disability. March 13th, 
1863. He re-enlisted and served as sergeant. Discharged June, 1865. 
Co. K, 31st Me. Comrade Tennison enjoys the unique distinction 
of being the oldest citizen of the town, being in his 88th year, and 
is in possession of the Boston Post gold headed cane. 

Danville B. Oakes, Co. B. Discharged for disability, Jan. 3rd, 
1863. He was an honored citizen and passed away at the ripe old 
sge of 83 years. 

Wm. Towne, Co. B. Discharged for disability. Was a resident 
of Dover at the time of his death 



FOXCROFT IN THE CIVIL WAR 87 

The 22D Maine. 

The 226. Maine was mustered into the U. S. Service, Oct. 10th, 
1862, and for nine months served in the Dept of the Gulf. Was in 
the Red River campaign and at the siege of Port Hudson, where 
they were commended in General Orders. 

Gilman E. Fisher, Sergt. Co. I. Graduated from Colby Univer- 
sity after the war; has been prominent in educational matters, and 
is an authority on geography. He is now superintendent of schools 
in Detroit, Mich. 

Love H. Ball, Co. I. Died in service. March 15, 1863. 

Ebenezer Earl, Co. I. Served his term of enlistment. Deceased. 

Samuel R. Gary, Co. I. No record since the war. 

John H. Gould, Co. I. Son of Lincoln Gould. Died in Louisiana. 

B. F. Pratt, Co. I. Served his full term. He was an honored 
citizen and passed away in July, 191 2. 

Edwin N. Pratt, Co. C. Served his term of enlistment and then 
re-enlisted in the 18th Maine. Died in the service. He was the 
only son of Roswell Pratt. 

The 31ST Maine. 

The 31st Maine Infantry was mustered into the service, April 
29th, 1864. They took an active part in the Wilderness campaign 
and in the final work about Petersburg, which resulted in the end 
of the war. Their loss in killed and wounded was greater than 
some of the three-year regiments. 

Joseph S. Harlow. Capt. Co. K. Mustered into service, April 
29th, 1864. Killedjn action, Sept. 30th, 1864. 

Asa F. Davis, Sergt. Co. K. Discharged for disability, May 22d, 
1865. Was a respected citizen of Foxcroft for more than thirty 
years, until his death. 

Alanson Bullard, Co. K. Mustered into service, April 29, 1864. 
Killed in action, Oct. 4th, 1864. 

William C. Kenyon, Co. K. Served his term of enrollment. De- 
ceased. 

Coast Guard's Infantry. 

Lyman U. Lee went to Boston and enlisted in Co. M, 2d Mass. 
H. A.; went out as 1st Sergt. and later was commissioned as a 
Lieut, by Gov. Andrew and served during the war. He was present 
at the Foxcroft centennial. 



88 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Mellen G. Prentiss, Co. B. Served from January 6th, 1865, to 
May 15th, 1865. Resides in Brewer. 

James T. Roberts, musician, Co. F. Served from Jan. 6th, 1865 
to July 7th, 1865. Resides in Dover. 

Geo. F. Mayhew, Co. F. Served from Jan. 6th, 1865 to July 7th, 
1865. No further record. 

Aid furnished Soldiers Families from 1862 to 1865. 70 families, 
209 persons total amount $2, 796.29. 

Total bounties paid by the town of Foxcroft during the war. 
820,425.84. 

Contributions from citizens of Foxcroft to aid the Sanitary and 
Christian Commission $1200.00. 

Drafted Sept. 24th, 1864 — Seth Brawn, furnished substitute; 
Alonzo H. Chandler, furnished substitute; Orin C. Dunham, fur- 
nished substitute ; Hiram S. Davis, furnished substitute ; Augustus 
\V. Gilman, furnished substitute ; Andrew J. Hammond, furnished 
substitute ; Henry A. Robinson, furnished substitute. 

Drafted and held for service — John S. Arnold, Co. E, 8th Maine; 
Chas. V. Bolton, Co. C, 8th Me. ; Leonard F. Blood, 4th Co., un- 
assigned ; John P. Folsom, Co. C, 8th Maine ; Isaac M. Parsons, Co. 
C, 8th Maine. 

Drafted March 25th, 1865 — John J. Bailey, furnished substitute; 
Augustus F. Chandler, furnished substitute. 

Drafted and held to service-*-Alfonso B. Cole, 14th Maine; 
Samuel H. Gower, 14th Maine. 

The population of Foxcroft in i860 was 1102. It is estimated 
that one in five are liable to military duty, so that in the year 1861 
there were approximately 220 citizens who could be called upon for 
military duty. The town of Foxcroft furnished 135 recruits during 
the Civil War or about 60 per cent. 

When the great struggle was ended and the men who had fought 
for the integrity of the Union returned to the pursuits of civil life, 
societies were formed by the survivors to keep alive the memories 
of that great war. In 1881 C. S. Douty Post No. 23, G. A. R. 
(named for that gallant cavalry leader who as Colonel of the 1st 
Maine Cavalry gave up his life for his country at Aldie, Va.) 
was organized in Foxcroft and had its home for some years in thr 
old Academy building at the end of Foxcroft Bridge. For 
many years its meetings have been held in Dover, its present 
headquarters being in Sampson's Hall. In 1893 while I was 
serving my term as Department Commander of the Dept. of 



FOXCROFT IN THE CIVIL WAR 89 



Maine, G. A. R., Charles Peleg Chandler Post was organ- 
ized, and for many rears held its meetings in the building now 
owned by C. S. Douty Circle Ladies of the G. A. R. Its ranks 
becoming decimated by death they surrendered their charter. 
Charles Peleg Chandler for whom this Post was named was the 
only son of Charles Parsons Chandler, the first Principal of Fox- 
croft Academy, an eminent lawyer and foremost in his profession 
in the county. Charles Peleg Chandler was born in Foxcroft, Jan. 
4th, 1835, graduated at Bowdoin in 1854 and at Harvard Law 
school in 1857. He was in the law office of the War Governor of 
Massachusetts, John A. Andrew, from 1875 to 1861. He was 
commissioned Major of the 1st Mass. Infantry May 22d, 1861, later 
promoted to Lieut. Colonel and his commission as Colonel reached 
the camp the day he was killed at Malvern Hill, Va.. June 30th, 
1862. Comrade Chandler was the highest type of a citizen soldier. 
and who filled every station to which he was called with fidelity. 
His life filled with successes that came to him as a reward for 
honest endeavor, uprightness of character, and devotion to duty 
must serve as an inspiration to his surviving comrades. 

List of Comrades who have become residents of Foxcroft since 
the War: 

Osgood P. Martin, Sergt, Co. F, 20th Maine Vol. Infantry. Is 
now serving as Dep't Commander of the Union Veterans L^nion. 
In politics he is a Progressive. 

James R. Martin, Sergt. Co. F, 20th Maine Vols. Was a resident 
nearly -forty years until his death. 

Isaiah B. Davis. 1st H. A. Lives on Main street. Has served as 
1st Dep. Commander U. V. U. 

Erastus T. Monroe, Co. F, 1st H. A. Is one of the Centennial 
Committee. Is serving his fourth term as Colonel of Custer Com- 
mand, U. V. u. 

Elbridge T. Crockett. Co. A. 6th Maine. Has passed to a higher 
life. 

John H. Herring. Sergt. Co. M, 1st Maine Cavalry, deceased. 

W. Cushing. Co. A, 6th Maine Vols. One of the Centennial Com- 
mittee. 

J. H. Manter, Co. D, 9th Maine. Has served as Post Commander 
C S. Douty Post. 

Wm. M. Hutchins, served in a Calffornia regiment. Was a resi- 
dent of Foxcroft at the time of his death. 

In conclusion I wish to thank all who have assisted in making 
tin's Centennial observance such a glorious success. 



90 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Clergymen of Foxcroft 

By Liston P. Evans. 

I have assumed that I was expected to write of the clergymen 
who have been connected with the Foxcroft church. Ministers who 
have served the Dover churches have lived in Foxcroft, but it would 
not be possible to ascertain who they were. 

My work has been made easier than it could otherwise have been 
by a paper prepared by the late Major C. H. B. Woodbury on the 
occasion of the 75th anniversary of the institution of the Foxcroft 
and Dover Congregational church, Jan. 2, 1898. and he gave credit 
to a sermon delivered by Rev. J. H. Gurney on the 50th anniversary 
of the institution of the church. 

The first minister in the town of Foxcroft was Rev. Thomas 
Williams, who was installed Jan. 1, 1823, over what was called the 
Congregational church of Foxcroft and vicinity. 

He was to have no salary, only "the use of the lands located for 
the use of the ministry in said town" and likewise one-third of the 
time to be appropriated in such a manner as he might think proper. 
It is no wonder that Mr. Williams, in accepting the call, said that 
the prospects of providing for his family under the above conditions 
were by no means flattering, for the land was wild and the people 
too poor to give him additional support. 

Mr. Williams' pastorate continued until April 3, 1835, I2 vears 
and three months. During that time, in addition to the 20 original 
members, he received into the church 115 members, an average of 
about nine each year. He also baptized between no and 120 chil- 
dren. 

Elias Wells, Jr., was called direct from the Seminary and was 
ordained and installed Nov. 7, 1837. His salary was $300, with 
wood and a house, or part of one, and a vacation of three months. 
He resigned July 24, 1842, the principal cause being sympathy for 
the slave and hostility to the institution of slavery, which he de- 
nounced from the pulpit. He had no support in this position among 
his people and his resignation was inevitable. 

Rev. Wooster Parker was installed Xov. 9, 1842. His salary was 
to be $450. It would seem that Mr. Parker was wise to the experi- 
ence a minister might have, for among the conditions of acceptance 
were these: 1st, that the salary should be understood as money, 
2d, that such articles of produce and merchandise as he might re- 



CLERGYMEN OF FOXCROFT 



9i 



ceive should be at cash prices ; 3d, that the payments should be made 
promptly. 

The salary was to be raised by subscription, but in case a suffi- 
cient sum was not pledged, the following persons agreed to be taxed 
in proportion to their means to make up the deficiency: Gilman 
Clark, S. P. Brown, Dominicus Mitchell, Nathan Carpenter, Jotham 
Ryder, G. \Y. Sawyer, L. Harmon, Lyman Lee, Joel Pratt, Caleb 
Prentiss, Benjamin Johnson, Gideon Dawes, James Bush, Samuel 
Greeley, Samuel Mitchell. 



1 r ~v* » *- 



3&£i 



V"^ "'■*"' ~&" ^te *% * 

. sis ^# 






S& 








Congregational Church and Chapel. 



Mr. Parker resigned August 28, 1856, after a pastorate of nearly 
'4 years. It was during his pastorate that the second meeting- 
house was destroyed by fire. 

One hundred persons were admitted to the church during his 
pastorate, 65 on confession of faith. Among the number was his 
son Edwin P., who has but recently resigned as pastor of the South 
Church, Hartford, Conn., after serving with great success over 50 
years. 



92 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Rev. E. S. Palmer was installed Oct. 13, 1857, and resigned Oct. 
7. 1858, a reason assigned being "the prospect of inadequate support 
for the future." 

There was a great revival throughout the country during his 
pastorate and 46 persons were admitted to the church during the 
year, 40 at one time. 

Rev. Calvin Chapman was installed pastor of the church Oct. 26, 
1859. His ministry did not prove successful and closed Jan. 1, 1862. 

Rev. W. E. Darling was installed May 20, 1862, and resigned Jan. 
20, 1864, because of ill health. 

Rev. B. C. Chase was installed May 8, 1866, and died in office 
Oct. 13, 1868; deeply regretted by his people and the churches of 
Dover. 

Rev. J. H. Gurney was installed Oct. 19, 1869, and resigned April 
4, 1875. His ministry had been successful and his resignation was 
deeply regretted. Many before me today will recall his eloquent 
sermons and the impressive manner in which he read the hymns./ 

Rev. H. A. Loring was installed June 10, 1875, and resigned 
Sept. 1, 1880. The council held to dismiss him said: "They (the 
members of the council) wish to bear the strongest testimony to his 
ministerial and Christian character, to his faithfulness as a preacher, 
and especially to the earnestness and zeal with which he has labored, 
not only with his own people but also in all the region round about.'* 

Rev. D. A. Morehouse was installed October 18. 1881, and re- 
signed March 24, 1889. because of ill health. His pastorate had 
been very successful and his resignation was accepted with great 
reluctance and only when his decision was known to be final. 

Rev. Wellington R. Cross was installed June 5, 1890, and died 
in office Sept. 5. 1891. three hours after preaching the morning ser- 
mon. Mr. Cross had been a faithful minister and his death was a 
great sorrow to his people. 

Andrew L. Chase was installed Dec. 31. 1891, and resigned May 
9, 1896. 

Mr. Chase had been untiring in his efforts to advance the chari- 
table and philanthropic phases of church life and the church is un- 
doubtedly profiting today by his efforts alon^ those lines. He was 
also an earnest preacher and devoted to all the interests of his 
people. It was largely through his efTorts that the money was raised 
for remodeling the church building as it is today. 

Rev. Norman McKinnon commenced his pastorate in June. 1896, 
and resigned February 24, 1900. Mr. McKinnon and his people 



DOCTORS OF FOXCROFT 93 



had worked together very harmoniously and the church had pros- 
pered under his ministration. 

Rev. "v\ M. Hardy, D. D., was called to the pastorate July 22 y 
1900, and resigned Nov. 19, 1904. Dr. Hardy was an able preacher 
and, as the council on dismissal expressed it, "a worthy, devoted and 
faithful Christian minister." 

Rev. George A. Merrill accepted a call to the church June 3. 1906, 
and is its minister today. The future church historian will be able 
to speak well of his work. 



Doctors of Foxcroft 

By Dr. Edgar T. Flint. 

In attempting to give a brief history of those physicians who have 
practiced in Foxcroft. the chief obstacle has been that there are no 
records or documents available to which reference might be had* 
and it has been necessary to depend, with few exceptions, upon the 
memory of those now living. In such instances the information has 
been largely of a fragmentary character and somewhat speculative 
as to dates and names. 

The time alloted to this task was very limited for such an under- 
taking and no claim is made for completeness or absolute accuracy. 

It is hoped that with what few facts are here recorded the in- 
formation and corrections which will undoubtedly come to our atten- 
tion subsequent to this occasion, it will be possible to compile a 
better and more complete history of this profession. 

Loring's history of Piscataquis mentions one physician, Josiah 
Hobbs, regarding whom no information can be obtained, and in the 
absence of such mention of him is hereby made in connection with 
the rest. 

Loring's history records the fact that in 1808 Capt. 5. Chamber- 
tain being ill of a fever sent to Bangor for Dr. Rich, who made the 
trip up in twenty-four hours, presumably by horseback, and charged 
fifteen dollars. One year later a Dr. Winthrop Brown came here 
from Berwick, but his field was so limited that he soon sought 
another and until 18 18 the settlers were without a local physician. 
At this time Jeremiah Leach came to Foxcroft and fortified his 
income by the manufacture of potash, but his health soon com- 



94 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

polled him to seek aid in Boston and in 1818 Dr. Stacy Tucker 
located here and remained until his death. He was a man of con- 
siderable consequence in the early history of the town, being identi- 
fied with all public enterprises and holding many offices. He built 
the house on Main street now owned by William P. Oakes and had 
two sons and three daughters, Martha Tucker, Mabel Warren and 
Frank Turner, grandchildren of Dr. Tucker, still reside in this 
community. 

Dr. Sumner Lawton settled in Foxcroft somewhere about 1840, 
at which date he was one of the founders of the Baptist church in 
Dover. He lived first on Lincoln street in a small house which was 
demolished some twenty-five years ago and which stood near the 
site of the residence now owned by Leo Libby. He later built and 
occupied the house on Main street owned by Stanley Annis, it being 
at that time the next house on that side of the street to the James 
S. Holmes residence, later occupied by Dr. Preston Fisher and at 
present by Dr. C. C. Hall, Jr. 

Dr. Lawton enjoyed an extensive practice here and in 1849 moved 
to Bangor. He married Mary A. Parker and their children were 
Frances L. Mace, who went to California and was somewhat cele- 
brated as a poetess, and F. M. Lawton, an ex-mayor of Bangor. 

Dr. Josiah Jordan came here in 1848 and the next year bought 
the practice and good will of Dr. Lawton, who was about to leave 
as above stated. He built the residence on North street now occu- 
pied by Dr. Chamberlain, where he continued to reside until 1865. 
Dr. Jordan was a man of very engaging personality and had a wide 
practice, but in 1857 or '58 his two children died of diphtheria and 
he became so impressed with the futility of medical science in the 
face of disease at that time, that he gradually relinquished his prac- 
tice and in 1858 was elected Register of Deeds for this county, a 
position which he held until 1862, when he enlisted in the army, 
was made surgeon and served until the end of the war. Subsequent 
to his being mustered out of the service he moved to Springfield, 
Mass., where he died. Dr. Jordan had two sons, Charles of Chicago 
and W'illiam of Massachusetts. 

Dr. James Edgecomb came to Foxcroft in 1853 and remained 
about seven years. He first located in the village but later married 
Miss Julia Howard and moved to the farm cleared by her father, 
Asaph Howard, where they continued to reside until 1856, when the 
records show that it was sold to Ansel Crockett and the Doctor and 
Mrs. Edgecomb moved to Turner. 



DOCTORS OF FOXCROFT 95 

Dr. Freeland Holmes was a native of this town, a son of Salmon 
Holmes. In 1858 he located here to practice his profession and 
ultimately bought and occupied the house of Dr. Jordan on North 
street. Dr. Holmes enlisted in the army, was made surgeon and 
was killed on the field while in line of duty. 

A diary kept by Mr. Henry Prentiss of this town makes note of 
the sad occasion when Dr. Holmes' body was brought home from 
the front for burial. A Rev. Mr. Godfrey preached the funeral 
sermon and the interment was in the Foxcroft cemetery. 

Dr. Holmes was a popular practitioner and a public-spirited and 
patriotic gentleman, and his death was a sad blow to the community. 
He married a Miss Washburn, sister to Gov. Israel Washburn and 
to two other brothers, one a congressman from Illinois, the other 
a congressman from Minnesota and the founder of the Washburn 
flour mills. 

In 1863 Dr. Joseph W. Cook, a homeopathic physician, came to 
Foxcroft, and resided on Lincoln street in a house now owned and 
occupied by John F. Arnold. Dr. Cook practiced here for a number 
of years and afterward moved to Dover. He corresponded for the 
Observer and reported many political meetings in the surrounding 
county, it being a time of political strife. He had one son and two 
daughters. Dr. Cook's reputation for professional ability was ex- 
cellent. 

In 1864 Dr. Costello Hamilton opened an office here and remained 
a short time. But little can be learned of him except that he was 
not in full sympathy with the government in relation to the Civil 
W ar and it is due chiefly to this fact that any record of his presence 
here was preserved. 

Dr. William Buck was a native of Hodgdon, Maine, and received 
his medical degree in 1859. After serving as surgeon and being 
mustered out with the Sixth Maine Regiment, he spent a year in 
New York and located here in 1865. For many years he was a 
familiar figure about town and a welcome visitor to the sick, a 
public-spirited, kind-hearted and skilful physician and a surgeon of 
marked ability. 

Dr. Buck occupied various municipal offices and represented this 
class in the legislature in 1877; he also served the county as treas- 
urer for six years and was United States examining surgeon for 
thirty years. He was a member of the Maine Medical Association 
and a contributor of original articles to the County Medical Society. 
Dr. Buck died at his home on Main street in August, 1908, aged 75 



96 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

. . — — . _ . _Ol 

years. He left beside his wife, a daughter, Anna, and a son, Lieut. 
Guy M. Buck, all of whom still reside in the old home. The phar- 
macy which the Doctor established in 1865 on Monument Square is 
still operated by his son. 

Dr. Evelyn G. Buck, wife of Dr. John Buck, came here from 
Philadelphia soon after the death of her husband in 1870 and began 
the practice of medicine according to the homeopathic school. Dr. 
Buck remained here until 1879. having an office and home in the 
Masonic block over what is now Batchelor & Sawyer's store. 

In 1879 she married Lyman \Y. Keene and moved to Atkinson, 
returning to Foxcroft in 1884, where she continued to reside and 
practice until her death in 1901. 

The Doctor was licensed as a physician under the act of 1895. 
She resided at the time of her death at her farm on the North and 
South road near Foxcroft Center. 

Dr. J. B. Cochrane, a native of Fayette. Maine, came here from 
Minnesota in 1873 and married Elizabeth M. Cochrane of Dover. 
He located in his present residence, the Cochrane homestead on 
Lincoln street, near the site of Piscataquis Falls and on the town- 
line between Dover and Foxcroft. 

Dr. Cochrane received his degree in 1866 and did general prac- 
tice, serving between 1882 and 1883 as pension examiner, being 
secretary of the board. Dr. Cochrane retired from active practice 
several years ago and devotes much of his time to agriculture and 
the raising of small fruit. 

Dr. A. T. Walker came here from Sebec Village in 1875, where 
he had been in practice since 1870. He boarded at the Exchange 
while building his residence on North street, the next above Osgood 
Martin's. 

Dr. Walker remained in Foxcroft until the spring of 1883. when 
he removed to Falmouth, Mass., ultimately retiring in 1889 and now 
residing in Woburn, Mass. The Doctor sends greetings to his old 
friends and expresses the hope that the centennial will be a grand 
success in every way. While here Dr. Walker enjoyed an extensive 
practice and the reputation of a successful business man. 

About 1877 Dr. T. H. Merrill came to this place and built the 
house on Main street now owned by W. L. Sampson. His office 
was in the apartment now occupied by Dr. W. G. Buswell as a dental 
office. 

Dr. Merrill had several children, among whom was a son Fred. 
now a Congregational minister in Massachusetts. About 1890. Dr. 



DOCTORS OF FOXCROFT 



Merrill moved to Taconia, Wash. He is now a resident of Brock- 
I ton. Mass. 

Dr. Preston Fisher came here in 1885 from California and resided 
in the James S. Holmes house on Main street. He remained about 
(en years and moved to Jamaica Plains, Mass. 

Dr. Fisher had a wide practice here and in surrounding towns, 
was a practical, conservative man and one of good judgment al- 
though somewhat eccentric and the author of many original tales. 
His father practiced in Corinna. where Dr. Preston was probably 
bom. 

Dr. E. D. Merrill was born in Dexter. Maine, 1866. received his 
'iegree in medicine in 1885 and located here in 1886. He married 
Miss Lora Dyer of Foxcroft and maintains his office and residence 
on Winter street. Dr. Merrill is of the Homeopathic School, is a 
member of the Maine Medical Association and treasurer of the 
Piscataquis County Medical Society. He enjoys the distinction of 
being the senior physician in active practice as regards the date of 
his location in this community. 

Dr. A. H. Chamberlain, son of Chester and Minerva (Spauldingi 
Chamberlain, was born in Foxcroft in 1861, received his degree in 
medicine in 1888 and located here in 1891. Dr. Chamberlain 
resides in the house on Xorth street built and occupied by Dr. 
Jordan and later by Dr. Holmes. He attends to general practice 
but specializes to quite an extent in diseases of the eye and ear. 

Dr. F. W. Merrill, son of Adams H. Merrill of Williamsburg, 
came here early in 1895 from Winn, and for two years occupied 
the W. L. Sampson house on Main street. 

At this time there were registered in Foxcroft five physicians and 
^onie time in 1896 Dr. Merrill returned to Winn. While here he 
occupied as an office the rooms in the Opera House Block now 
occupied by the E. E. Whitney Insurance Company. 

In 1894 Dr. A. H. Stanhope moved from Milo to Dover and 
opened an office in the Opera House Block in Foxcroft. He con- 
tinued in this town until 1897 when he moved his office to Dover, 
where he still resides and practices. Dr. Stanhope is a member 
of the Maine Medical Association and an ex-president of the count} 
Medical Society. Dr. Stanhope received his medical degree in 1887. 

Dr. Harold C. Martin, son of Mr. and Mrs. .Osgood Martin and a 
native of this town, was born Oct. 23. 1870. He received his medi- 
cal deeree in 1895 and after serving as surgeon for the Canadian 
Pacific Railroad and house physician at the Kineo House. Moose- 



i)8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



head Lake, he located in his home town in 1900, where he had an 
office in the building on North street moved from the site of the 
present Opera House Block. 

Dr. Martin died of angina pectoris the year that he came here. 
He was an able, competent physician, a man of exceptional brilliance, 
and his untimely death was mourned by a host of friends who re- 
member him for his many fine qualities and companionable nature. 
Dr. Martin was a member of the Maine Medical Association. 

Dr. M. O. Brown, a native of Dover, after practicing in Aroos- 
took county for several years, located in Foxcroft in 1908, main- 
taining his office and residence in the Masonic Block on Union 
Square. In 191 1 he moved across the street into Dover, where he 
now resides. 

Dr. Brown received his medical degree in 1902. is a member 01 
the Maine Medical Association, and at present president of the 
Piscataquis County Medical Society. 

In 1910 Dr. C C. Hall, Jr., son of Dr. and Mrs. C. C. Hall of 
Dover, having received his degree in medicine, located in Foxcroft 
and purchased the James S. Holmes house on Main street, formerly 
occupied by Dr. Fisher. Dr. Hall maintains an office in the Opera 
House Block formerly occupied by Dr. E. D. Merrill, is a member 
of the Maine Medical Association and at present vice-president of 
the Piscataquis County Medical Society. 

Dr. Edgar T. Flint, son of Henry B. and Caro E. Flint of this 
town was born June 2, 1877. He received his degree in medicine 
in 1901 and practiced ten years in Aroostook county, coming here 
in 191 1. residing at his old home on Lincoln street and maintaining 
his office in the Masonic Block. Dr. Flint was a member of the 
First Maine Regiment in the Spanish-American war and is a mem- 
ber of the Maine Medical and Countv Medical Societv- 



HISTORY OF FOXCROFT ACADEMY 99 

History of Foxcroft Academy 

By Hon. W. E. Parsons. 

Hon. Willis E. Parsons gave the following address upon Foxcroft 
Academy. 

Foxcroft Academy. 

Fellow Citizens of Foxcroft: 

We observe today the centennial of this thriving municipality, not 
so much for our own pleasure, as that we owe it to the fathers, those 
sturdy pioneers who blazed the way, cleared the forest, let in the 
sunshine and the warmth, and here upon the banks of this beautiful 
river built their homes. 

Through hardships and privations wholly unknown to the present 
generations, they persevered in establishing a settlement, which by 
their heroic efforts soon developed into a community worthy a char- 
ter from the General Court of Massachusetts. 

We are now interested in the contrast between the log cabin and 
school house of those early days and the palatial residences and com- 
modious school buildings of our own time, but more and above all 
we are interested in the character and unselfish motives of those 
noble men and women who then wrought so valiantly for themselves 
and posterity. They were not satisfied with a mere subsistence for 
themselves and their dependent families, but believed in a proper 
development of the mind, such training of their children in both 
heart and intellect as would fit them for the great battle of life and 
make them valuable citizens of the republic. 

What big hearted men and women, what self-sacrificing fathers 
and mothers. We realize their characters and lofty purpose as we 
remember, that with all the burdens of a new town, the building 
of highways and bridges, schoolhouses and supporting schools, the 
town was only eleven years old when in 1823 they established here 
and where we now are an institution of learning that for 89 yars 
has been of untold value to our own people and the whole State. 

Of this institution, Foxcroft Academy, I am requested to speak. 
Owing to the length of the program, only a brief outline of its his- 
tory can be given. 

The town of Foxcroft, which is one of the six townships granted 
to Bowdoin College by the Massachusetts Assembly in 1794. and 



ioo SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

purchased of that college by Joseph Ellery Foxcroft in 1800, re- 
ceived its first permanent settler in 1806. 

Although incorporated as a town six years later, or February 29, 
1812, clearing the forest and establishing homes in the wilderness 
proved a slow process, even for the sturdy pioneers of those early 
days, and when the act of separation from Massachusetts took 
effect in 1820, Foxcroft numbered but 211 souls. 

Common schools, furnishing the rudiments of education, were 
then supported by Foxcroft and surrounding towns, but nothing 
like a high school was attempted until 1822. 

Early in that year James Stuart Holmes, a brilliant young law- 
yer and graduate of Brown University, opened at Foxcroft the first 
law office in the county. Presumably while waiting for his first 
clients and seeing the great necessity of a higher branch of learning 
in the county, Mr. Holmes organized a high school in Foxcroft. 
acting himself, as preceptor. 

This high school immediately became the Mecca of learning for 
the more advanced students of Foxcroft and other towns, and so 
much enthusiasm was created among the inhabitants by this young 
lawyer, that the next Legislature was asked for a charter for an 
academy, which was promptly granted, January 31st, 1823. 

That charter the institution is still working under; hence. Fox- 
croft Academy lacks but three years of being as old as the State and 
it was the first one incorporated after Maine became a separate com- 
monwealth. 

By the act of incorporation certain conditions were imposed, 
which, if not complied with, would render the charter nul and void. 
From a perusal of that act we may understand something of what 
this then poor and sparsely populated town had to contend with in 
order to establish for themselves and posterity this higher institu- 
tion of learning or what they termed "poor man's college." 

Act of Incorporation. 
State of Maine. 
In the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty- 
three. 

An Act establishing Foxcroft Academy. 

Section 1st. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives in Legislature assembled : That William Emerson, Daniel 
Wilkins, Thomas Williams, John Bradbury, Samuel Chamberlain, 



HISTORY OF FOXCROFT ACADEMY ioi 

James S. Holmes, Philip Greeley, Joshua Carpenter, Joseph Kelsey, 
Samuel McClanathan. Samuel C. Clark and Jason Hassell and their 
successors forever, be and they hereby are constituted- a body politic 
by the name of the Trustees of Foxcroft Academy, with power to 
prosecute and defend suits at law ; to have a common seal and to 
alter it at pleasure, to establish an Academy at Foxcroft, in the 
County of Penobscot, for the promotion of literature, science, moral- 
ity and piety ; to make any bylaws for the management of their af- 
fairs, not repugnant to the laws of the State ; and to choose such 
officers as they may deem proper, to hold any property, real and 
personal, by gift, grant or otherwise, the yearly income of which 
shall not exceed the sum of three thousand dollars, and to receive 
ali property which may heretofore have been given or subscribed 
for the benefit of such Academy. 

Section 2d. Be it further enacted, That said Trustees may at any 
time remove any one of their number whom they shall adjudge in- 
capable of discharging such trust, and choose additional Trustees, 
and fill vacancies in said board by ballot. Provided, however, that 
the number of said Trustees shall at no time be less than nine, nor 
more than fifteen, any five of whom shall constitute a quorum. 

Section 3d. Be it further enacted, That Joshua Carpenter. Es- 
quire, is hereby authorized to call the first meeting of said Trustees, 
in such manner as he shall deem proper ; provided, however, that 
the Legislature shall at any time have power to alter or repeal the 
provisions of this act ; and provided further, that unless the said 
Trustees' shall within one year from the passing of this act, be in 
possession of funds or property for the use of said Academy or 
vested in a building for the same purpose which together shall 
amount to at least fifteen hundred dollars, and have also commenced 
instruction in said institution, within that time, the powers granted 
by this Act shall be nul and void. 

How to Raise $1,500? 

It will be seen by the act that the trustees must, within one year 
from its passage, have in possession funds or property for the use 
of said academy, or vested in a building for the same purpose, which 
together should amount to at least $1,500, and also commence in- 
structions in said institution within that time. 

The voters of Foxcroft in 1823, as shown by the records of the 
town meeting held in April of that year, numbered but 57. The 
whole assessment for town purposes in 1823 was but $1,140, of 



102 SPRAGUE/S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

which $900 was to be paid in work on the highways, $100 was for 
schools, $90 for town charges and $50 for powder and balls. The 
records do not show whether the powder and balls were to be used 
for bears or Indians, but the aggregate was $1,140, or $360 less 
than was required to be raised by subscription for the academy in 
a single year. The same ratio above our assessment last year would 
have given a fund of over $35,000. 

A meeting was promptly called, however, on Feb. 22, 1823, by 
Joshua Carpenter, esquire, as authorized in the act, at the house of 
John Bradbury, located where the Exchange now stands, and the 
trustees proceeded to organize under the act. 

David Wilkins, esquire, was chosen president, and James S. 
Holmes, secretary, which position he held for many years, and 
Samuel Chamberlain, esquire, was chosen treasurer. 

At this meeting a committee consisting of John Bradbury, Joshua 
Carpenter, Samuel McClanathan. Jason Hassell, Thomas Williams, 
Samuel C. Clark and Daniel Wilkins was appointed to ascertain 
"what sum of money could be obtained for the purpose of erecting 
a building for an academy and as funds for the use and benefit of 
the same." 

And the records further say that "Nathaniel Chamberlain, Esq., 
then came before the board of trustees and informed the president 
that Joseph E. Foxcroft, esquire, had deposited in his hands $50 
to be paid over to the treasurer of the board of trustees of Foxcroft 
Academy for the use and benefit of said academy, provided the 
trustees should fulfill the requisition of the act establishing the 
same." 

Other meetings were held in rapid succession to hear reports of 
committees on subscription and to discuss generally ways and 
means of raising the coveted amount. The subscriptions were made 
to be paid in labor, boards, shingles, and other necessary materials, 
with small sums of money, and so much encouragement was given 
that on March 8th of the same year a committee consisting of 
Joshua Carpenter. John Bradbury and Rev. Thomas Wilkins was 
appointed to select a site for the building. 

Chose the Site. 

This committee a few days later reported in favor of a half acre 
of land "situate and lying between the house of David Greeley, Esq., 
and his sawmill." This half acre was secured and is the present 
site of the academy. The house of David Greeley, Esq., stood 



HISTORY OF FOXCROFT ACADEMY 103 

where the Congregational Chapel is now located and his saw mill 
I occupied the present site of Mayo & Son's woolen mill. 

On the 28th day of the following May, Col. Joshua Carpenter was 
appointed agent to superintend the erection of a building for an 
academy, and a general superintending committee from whom the 
agent should receive instructions, was appointed, composed of John 
Bradbury, Thomas Davee and the Rev. Thomas Williams. 

Work was soon begun, but the building was not ready for a school 
until 1825, although it was let for religious services as early" as 
October 1, 1824. 

One of the provisions of the act of incorporation was that instruc- 
tion should be begun within one year from the passage of the act, 
and December 31. 1823, at a meeting of the trustees, a committee 
consisting of James S. Holmes, Thomas Williams and Thomas 
Davee, was appointed to notify the legislature that they had com- 
plied with the conditions of the act, showing that a fall term must 
have been held in 1823, although not in the academy building. 

The First Teacher. 

The records also disclose the fact that James Gooch taught from 
March, 1824, until the following June, as a committee was then 
appointed to settle with him ; and no other teacher being mentioned, 
it is presumed that he taught the previous fall term. 

Then followed Charles P. Chandler, as preceptor, for several 
terms and Foxcroft academy was well launched on its long career 
of usefulness. 

That the trustees understood the value of continuous educational 
work, is shown by the by-laws, which provided for three terms a 
year of twelve weeks each ; and that they also stood upon a proper 
amount of decorum is evidenced by the fact that one of the fir-* of 
the bylaws provided that no trustee should speak in any meeting 
of the board without first rising and addressing the president. 

Half Township of Land. 

In 1825, a half township of land was granted to the academy by 
the legislature, being what is now the north half of the town of 
Springfield. This half township embraced 11,020 acres and was 
sold the same year for 30JC. per acre, thus creating a fund for 
the use of the academy of $3,361.10. A small tuition of $2.50 per 
term was charged, but in some instances even this was abated. 



104 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

At the annual meeting in 1829, James S. Holmes. Charles P. 
Chandler, Thomas Williams and Thomas Davee were chosen a 
committee to "look into the propriety of purchasing some land to 
be connected with the academy whereby scholars, if they desire, 
may have the privilege of working thereon and thereby pay a part 
of their expenses, and further to consult the public opinion on that 
subject." 

A Mechanic Shop. 

Two years later, in 1831, a committee was appointed to inquire 
into the expediency of having a mechanic shop connected with the 
academy. So much interest was manifested that the committee 
was reappointed the next year although no such building was 
erected. They did, however, by their, action anticipate instruction 
in manual training which is a comparatively new idea among edu- 
cators in this country. 

In 1832, a committee was chosen u to finish off the chamber and 
entry of the academy." 

That the academy was formerly used by the preceptors as a step- 
ping stone to the professions is shown by a vote taken in 1838, not 
to engage as preceptor any person "who is or may be studying for 
any profession or engaged in any other business than the care and 
attention of the academy.'' Certain it is, as will be seen by a perusal 
of the list of preceptors annexed to this article, that many did rise 
to professional distinction in later years. 

'Ihe academy in the early days, the same as now, was a great 
blessing to the entire community. Students gathered within its 
walls from near and far and in 1843, there were 130 pupils. Young 
men did not cease their attendance on arriving at the age of twenty- 
one. Not having the present advantage of thirty-six weeks a year 
in the common schools but only a short term in the fall and winter, 
or winter and spring, rarely more than two terms a year, the young 
men and women were usually of a maturer age on entering the 
academy than now. 

I remember well of hearing my father, Levi Parsons, who fitted 
himself for teaching in this institution, speak of the young men 
who attended after they had become voters. 

The students had their exhibitions and one was given in 1840, 
which continued six hours. It does not state whether the auditors 
sat on benches or in cushioned pews. 



HISTORY OF FOXCROFT ACADEMY io= 



Debating Societies. 

The young men had, too, their lyceums, or debating societies. 
The first one in the academy was organized Oct. 4, 1842, and it 
may interest the good people of the present day to know that the 
first question opened for debate was in relation to temperance. 
"Resolved That the Old Temperance Society Has Done More 
Toward Advancing the Temperance Reformation Than the YVash- 
ingtonian Society, Now in Operation." 

A story is told of A. G. Lebroke, when a student in the academy, 
that indicated at least that masterly oratory for which he after- 
ward became famous. He had entered into the spirit of one of the 
debates with such vigor that it was promptly decided in his favor. 
He thereupon asked for the privilege of speaking again, which was 
granted. He then took the other side, tore his former argument 
into fragments and won that side of the question, the students then 
and there voting that he had beaten himself. 

Larger Building Erected. 

In 1859, the first academy building, which had long been inade- 
quate to the needs of the school, was removed to the north end of 
Foxcroft bridge on the east side of Main street, where it is now 
occupied as a store and workshop, and in i860, a much larger and 
more commodious building was erected. Although this was done 
partly by subscription, it reduced very materially the funds of the 
institution. 

In 1868, by Chapter 277 of the Resolves, the legislature granted 
one thousand dollars to the trustees of the academy to be deposited 
in the treasury of State the annual interest to be paid annually to 
the trustees of said academy. The annuity of sixty dollars, thus 
created, is received regularly by the trustees. 

The second academy building, like the former, stood on stone 
posts and was heated with stoves. Its rooms were ill arranged, 
with poor ventilation, and in 1891, the trustees voted to make gen- 
eral repairs. A cellar was dug, a good stone foundation put under 
the building, large furnaces installed for heating, and the rooms 
generally remodelled at an expense of about 2,500, which was paid 
out of the balance of the funds and liberal subscriptions of the 
citizens. Also a large piazza was thrown across the front end of 
the building, adding much to its architectural appearance as well 
as the comfort of the students. 



io6 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

The piazza was the liberal gift of the late Eliza Ann Mayo, who 
later joined her husband, Hon. Josiah B. Mayo, in presenting to 
the trustees the imposing three story structure which, annexed to 
the former, makes one of the finest academy buildings in the State. 

Many students from Dover as well as Foxcroft fitted for college, 
or completed their education in this old institution, and for many 
years there was a strong feeling on the part of some that it would 
be an advantage to both towns to unite in support of Foxcroft 
Academy. 

Finally, in 1903, the voters of Dover discontinued their high 
school and voted to expend their free high school money in Fox- 
croft Academy to pay tuition for such of their high school scholars 
as wished to attend that school. 

By this move the student body was increased about one-third 
and, although additional seats were provided and everything done 
that could be to make room for the increase, the old building proved 
wholly inadequate, and an enlargement of the building became 
absolutely necessary. Architects were employed to draw plans 
and specifications for a new building on the front of the old and 
annexed to it so as to make one large school building. 

At a meeting of the trustees held March 4, 1904, the plans were 
examined and approved by the trustees but, as the academy had no 
funds for the purpose, the erection of a large three-story structure 
provided with an expensive heating plant, school furniture and 
necessary equipment, seemed an almost hopeless undertaking. It 
must be done by voluntary contribution. 

While the ways and means were being discussed, one of the 
trustees Edward J. Mayo, in behalf of his father and mother, Mr. 
and Mrs. Josiah B. Mayo, made the following offer. — That if the 
trustees and other citizens would raise a fund sufficient to put in a 
good heating plant, build the foundation for the new building and 
thoroughly equip the school, that Mr. and Mrs. Mayo would erect 
the building, according to the architects' plans. 

The generous offer was promptly accepted and an earnest vote of 
thanks and hearty appreciation of the same then and there spread 
upon the records. Two of the trustees, James Bathgate and W. E. 
Parsons acted as soliciting committee, and not only the trustees but 
citizens of both towns responded generously, raising a fund of 
about $3,100 for the purpose. 



HISTORY OF FOXCROFT ACADEMY 



ic: 



Three trustees, E. J. Mayo, C. C. Hall and W. E. Parsons, were 
appointed a building committee, and work was immediately begun 
on the new building and the next year saw the present large and 
beautiful structure which faces Foxcroft Square, fully completed 
and thoroughly equipped as one of the best fitting schools in Maine. 

New Building Dedicated. 

In June, 1905, the new building was dedicated and formal pre- 
sentation of the keys made by J. B. Mayo to the treasurer. W. E. 
Parsons, in the presence of a grateful throng of Dover and- Fox- 
croft citizens. 

In addition to the contributions previously spoken of, John G. 
Mayo gave $600 for the purchase of a laboratory, which is of great 
advantage in physics and chemistry. 






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Foxcroft Academy and Soldiers Monument. 



The school is now thoroughly equipped and in a prosperous con- 
dition, being well patronized by the surrounding towns. What it 
needs most is an endowment fund. Some years ago a small endow- 
ment fund was raised of about $2,700, of which Josiah B. Mayo 
and Sarah C. Vaughan gave $1,000 each. Hannah E. and Julia R. 



108 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Gilman by soliciting made up largely the balance, while Evans S. 
Pillsbury, one of its alumni, gave $100. This fund was invested 
in the new dormitory. 

The school has always been non-sectarian and has gathered 
within its portals for mental training and advancement the well 
meaning seekers of knowledge of every sect or denomination in the 
country. It has ever been the aim of the trustees to furnish a 
school where students could not only tit for college but where the 
great majority who could not afford to attend higher institutions of 
learning, could equip themselves for business and the great duties 
of life, and well they have succeeded. 

The long list of illustrious names among its alumni testifies to 
that success. After the early struggles of this institution, followed 
by a noble career of usefulness, its future seems now assured. Its 
commodious building, its thorough equipment, and loyal support of 
Dover and Foxcroft bespeaks for it that success which must meet 
the expectations of its most sanguine supporters. 

The recent development of the school has been such that refer- 
ence to it can scarcely be made without giving credit to the Board 
of Trustees who labored so zealously for its accomplishment. The 
Board of Trustees in 1904 consisted of E. A. Thompson of Dover, 
president ; J. B. Mayo of Foxcroft, vice-president ; Willis E. Par- 
sons of Foxcroft, secretary and treasurer; the remaining trustees 
being also residents of Dover and Foxcroft; S. O. Brown, J. B. 
Cochrane, J. B. Peaks. C. C. Hall, F. E. Guernsey, and Henry S. 
Towne of Dover, and William Buck, A. W. Gilman, W. T. Stubbs, 
John F. Hughes, E. J. Mayo and James Bathgate of Foxcroft; 
the fifteen trustees being divided as nearly as possible between the 
two towns, with a preponderance of one in favor of Dover. 

Foxcroft Academy during its long career has been remarkably 
successful in its preceptors, being ranked today as one of the best 
fitting schools in Maine. In fact, it has been on the preferred list 
for several years, and is one of the few fitting schools of our State 
whose graduates are admitted to the New England colleges on 
certificates without examination. 

A four years' commercial course is now well established, whose 
graduates are qualified to perform intelligent work in offices and 
business houses, for, unlike business colleges, no one can be ad- 
mitted who has not had at least two years in the academy or its 
equivalent. No grammar school scholars can gain admission to the 
commercial department. 



HISTORY OF FOXCROFT ACADEMY 109 

School City Government. 

A feature of the school is the school city government, introduced 
by Principal Fred U. Ward in 1905, with consent of the trustees 
which has proved a great success, and was the first to be undertaken 
by any school in Maine. It is no longer an experiment. Space 
will not permit an explanation of its workings, but by it the stu- 
dents take pride in not only maintaining the best of discipline in the 
assembly room, but in all departments of the school, so that the 
expense of one teacher is practically saved to the institution each 
year. And the students are also getting valuable training in the 
forms and duties of municipal government. 

The graduating class of 1906, at an expense of $100, furnished 
with desks and chairs a room in the third story of the academy for 
the school city government. 

Other gifts have been made by friends of the institution. The 
Cosmopolitan club gave the institution $50 for shelves and furni- 
ture in the library, and recently S50 towards furnishing a reception 
room in the dormitory, the balance required to be made up by the 
ciub as needed. 

The C. S. Douty Circle, Xo. II, Ladies of the Grand Army of 
the Republic, of Foxcroft, gave $75 for furnishing an additional 
recitation room ; the citizens, $105 to furnish cabinets for the lab- 
oratory ; and the Carnival committee gave a balance on hand of 
$30 to the academy. Hon. J. B. Mayo donated some electric lights, 
and Sarah J. Lebroke a cluster of electric lights in the library in 
memory of her deceased husband, A. G. Lebroke, and daughter, 
Harriet Beecher ; these gifts showing the kind regards which the 
people have for the academy. This substantial aid from time to 
time is greatly appreciated by the trustees. 

This article would not be complete without a list of those trustees 
who in the past have given liberally of their time and moneys that 
it should not falter but be preserved in all its usefulness to future 
generations. 

Trustees. 

A list of the trustees not previously mentioned, and date of their 
election : 

Trustees eletced : Feb. 22, 1823. Thomas Davee ; May 28, 1823, 
Oliver Crosby and Nathaniel Robinson; Nov. 17, 1824, Samuel 
Whitney. Nov. 15, 1825, Isaac E. Wilkins ; Nov. 15, 1826, Isaac 
Macomber and Charles P. Chandler; Oct. 15, 1823, Costillo 



no S PRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Hamlin, Nathan Carpenter and Nathan W. Sheldon ; Nov. 24, 1829, 

James Norcross; Oct. 20, 1830, David R. Straw; Oct. 19, 1831, 

Dennis Lambert, Anson Hubbard and Solomon Parsons; Oct. 17, 

1832, Moses Greenleaf; Oct. 16, 1833, Jonathan C. Everett and 

John H. Loring; Oct. 15, 1834, Gilman Clark and Abram Sanborn ; 

Oct. 21, 1835, Gilman Burleigh; Oct. 19, 1836, Jonathan F. Page, 

Caleb Prentiss and Harvey Evans; Oct. 18, 1837., William Oakes, 

Benjamin P. Gilman and Stephen P. Brown; Oct. 17, 1838, Calvin 

Chamberlain; Oct. 16, 1839, Richard K. Rice and James S. Wiley; 

Oct. 20, 1842, Salmon Holmes; Oct. 21. 1846, Benjamin Johnson; 

Oct 15, 1850, Wooster Parker and Alex M. Robinson; Oct. 16, 

1855, Simeon Mudgett and Elihu B. Averill ; Oct. 19, 1858, Thomas 

S. Pullen; Oct. 15, 1861, Ephraim Flint; Oct. 21, 1867, Edwin P. 

Snow, Stanley T. Pullen and S. Orman Brown ; Oct. 18, 1870, 

Elbridge A. Thompson, Theodore Wyman and David R. Straw. 

Jr.; Oct. 15, 1872, Elias J. Hale and William Buck; Oct. 21, 1873, 

William P. Oakes ; Oct. 19, 1875, Ezra Towne and Benjamin F. 

Hammond; Oct. 17, 1876, Augustus W. Gilman; Oct. 15, 1878, 

Augustus G. Lebroke ; Oct. 19, 1880, Josiah B. Mayo; Oct. 18, 

1887, Willis E. Parsons, James B. Cochrane and William T. Stubbs ; 

Oct. 15, 1889, Joseph B. Peaks and John F. Hughes; Oct. 25, 1892, 

Crowell C. Hall; Oct. 30, 1894, Edward J. Mayo; Oct. 23, 1895, 

James Bathgate; Oct. 27, 1898. Frank E. Guernsey; Oct. 29, 1900, 

Henry S. Towne; Oct. 31, 1906, Charles W. Hayes; Oct. 29, 1908, 

Walter J. Mayo; Oct. 25, 191 1, Liston P. Evans; Sept. 27, 1912, 

F. C. Peaks. 

Much credit is due to those members in the early days, who, liv- 
ing at a distance, were constant at the meetings of the trustees and 
active in their support of the institution, notably Colonel William 
Oakes of Sangerville and Joseph Kelsey of Guilford, both of whom 
were at different times president of the board. 

The presidents of the board, in their order have been Daniel 
Wilkins, Thomas Williams, Nathaniel Robinson, Abram Sanborn, 
Thomas Davee, Joseph Kelsey. Dennis Lambert, James S. Holmes, 
William Oakes, Elihu B. Averill, Stephen P. Brown, Ephraim 
Flint, Elias J. Hale, Calvin Chamberlain, Alexander M. Robinson. 
Elbridge A. Thompson and the present incumbent, Josiah B. Mayo. 
The secretaries hove been six in number, James S. Holmes, 
Thomas Davee, John Bradbury, Caleb Prentiss, James S. Wiley and 
Willis E. Parsons. 



HISTORY OF FOXCROFT . ACADEMY in 

In 87 years there have been seven treasurers, Samuel Chamber- 
lain, Charles P. Chandler, James S. Wiley, Freeland S. Holmes, 
Ephraim Flint, James S. Wiley, Willis E. Parsons and Walter J. 
Mayo. 

The Teachers. 

From the records of the secretary and books of the treasurer, a 
list of preceptors is gleaned and here given in the order in which 
they were employed and approximately their terms of service: 

James S. Holmes, 1822-3; James Gooch, spring of 1824; Charles 
P. Chandler, fall of 1824 and until 1827; Samuel H. Blake, spring 
of 1827; Charles P. Chandler, fall of 1827; Randall A. Sanborn, 
Mr. Richardson. Dr. Stevens, William H. Ropes and James S. 
Wiley, then fill up the time to 1838; Thomas Moulton, fall term of 
1838; Robert Wyman, spring term of 1839; an d Samuel Johnson, 
fall term of 1839; Mr. Dole. 1840; Ezra Abbot, 1841 ; Thomas Tash 
from 1842 to 1848; in 1845, David Bugbee, late of Bangor, held 
. h«s first writing school in the academy. Samuel F. Humphrey 
taught, 1848 to 1851 ; J. F. Butterfield, 1851-3; Freeland S. Holmes, 
1854: Warren Johnson, fall of 1854; Silas Hardy, 1855; F. C 
Davis, 1856-7 S. C. Belcher, 1858-60; Mark Pitman, 1861-3; 
Stanley T. Pullen, 1864; William S. Knowlton, 1865; M. C. Fer- 
nald, 1866-8; J. G. Soule, 1868-70; James S. Rowell. 1871-3; 
Thomas X. Lord, 1873; William S. Rix, 1874; William Goldth- 
waite, spring of 1875; James R. Brackett, fall of 1875 to 1878; 
Edwin P. Sampson. 1878-83; Stephen A. Lowell, 1883-4; Frank- 
Rollins, 1884; R..E. Donnell, 1885-88; C E. B. Libby and G. H. 
Libby, 1888-90; Eugene L. Sampson, 1890-4; William F. Sims, 
1895: W. R. Fletcher, 1896-8; Lyman K. Lee, 1898-1903; Fred U. 
Ward, 1903-1907; 1907 to September 1911, Louis B. Farnham : 
191 1, G. W. Cole. 

Famous Alumni. 

Among the alumni of Foxcroft Academy have been many who 
have distinguished themselves in civil and military life. Hon. 
Josiah Crosby, late of Dexter, is remembered for his great ability 
and legal acumen. Hon. N. A. Luce, once State superintendent of 
schools, is still remembered. 

Mrs. L. M. N. Stevens, president of the National Woman's 
Christian Temperance L'nion received her early training in this 
academy as did Hon. Charles E. Littlefield, late distinguished mem- 



ii2 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

ber of Congress; the late Hon. Samuel F. Humphrey of Bangor, 
Hon. Alfred E. Buck, late minister to Japan, now deceased; the 
late Hon. A. G. Lebroke of Foxcroft, and Hon. A. M. Robinson of 
Dover. The late Hon. Lewis Barker, the lawyer, and David 
Barker, the poet, were both educated in this institution. 

M. C. Fernald, so long president of the college of Orono, received 
a part of his training here, and there were the military heroes. Gen- 
eral Jameson, Col. Calvin S. Douty, Col. Charles P. Chandler, Col. 
Lowell, Col. Clark, and a hundred more gallant defenders of the 
Union in her hour of peril, better qualified to serve their country by 
reason of the instructions received in the old academy. 

The roll of honor embracing many, many distinguished citizens 
both living and dead, is a long one, too long to be given here, as I 
must close. 

Already Maine is indebted to this academy as to but few others 
within her borders, and may the years to come increase its powers 
and prolong its usefulness to the State and nation. 

It stands today a monument to those sturdy pioneers, who, by 
great sacrifice and heroic devotion to the cause of education, 
wrought valiantly in establishing for their own and succeeding 
generations such an institution of learning. 



Schools and Schoolhouses 

By Supt. W. H. Sturtevant. 

The space of time allotted to me for the preparation of this 
article prohibits the careful study necessary to establish the accu- 
racy of certain valuable historical information ; while any attempt 
to give the complete history of the common schools of Foxcroft 
would simply weary the listener. 

I shall at this time give just a brief account of our earliest 
common schools, the location of some of the first schoolhouses 
the names of early teachers, a flash light picture of school condi- 
tions in the town of Foxcroft nearly one hundred years ago, and 
contrast with that picture school conditions of the present, and 
allow some historian of the future to fill out the intervening space. 

The earliest schools were, no doubt, held in private houses, or 
in barns, and in some of the school districts of Foxcroft there were 
no school houses until about 1830, or even later. In fact, persons 



SCHOOLS AND SCHOOLHOUSES 



ii.? 



are still living in town who were fifteen or sixteen years of age 
before they ever entered a school house. The school in their dis- 
trict having been in a private house until they had reached that 



: age 



It is stated that the first school in Foxcroft was kept by Miss 
P.etsey Mitchell, the daughter of William Mitchell of East Dover, 
in a barn which stood on, what is now the farm of Albert H. Boss. 
Miss Giddings of Brunswick also taught in this barn. 

The settlers in the southeastern part of the town, which is now 
East Dover, but which at that time was considered a part of Fox- 
croft, sent their children to a private school in the house of Eli 
Towne. It is said and verified that one of those who taught here 



mm 







MPBP m E SP»f 






*&,z+u±~-:*ai*m,. 






^M 



Foxcroft Village School. 



was a man who brought a jug of rum with him each morning and 
kept it behind the door in the hall, occasionally slipping into the 
hall to test its quality. In what is now the village limits of Fox- 
croft, there was also a private school which at one time was located 
in what is now the old part of Foxcroft Exchange. 

The first school building erected by the town was in 1813 when 
a townhouse was built to be used for schools and also for religious 
end town meetings. 

This building which was twenty by twenty-five feet cost $ioo, 
and was located on upper Main street, where the residence of W. J. 
F.ldridge now stands. This building in all probability continued 



ii4 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

to be used for school purposes until 1822, when it was sold at auc- 
tion. 

At about this lime, Eli Towne erected a school house in the East 
Dover settlement opposite where Henry Towne lives at the present 
time. This was a square room with a square roof. For seats, 
planks were placed along the walls. No desks were in the house. 
Books were few, necessitating that many use the same copy. The 
room was not finished inside. Spruce studs were used with the bark 
on them, only being scored down on one side with an axe so that 
boards could be nailed £0 them. This building was later moved 
nearer the upper village, and finally was destroyed by fire. 

This schoolhouse probably accommodated the scholars in the 
southeastern section of the town until about 1822. In 1814 the 
town voted not to build a schoolhouse in the north west district of 
the town. 

The amount of money raised for school purposes in 181 3 was 
$125 ; and from this time on the amount raised by the town was 
increased each year until in 1820 the town voted $200. This same 
year, 1820, the town elected Eliphalet Washburn, Nathaniel Car- 
penter, and Daniel Buck as a committee to divide the town into 
school districts. 

At the next town meeting the committee reported the following 
division: District No. I, to include the village limits and west to 
the Guilford line; District No. 2, was east of the village and in- 
cluded the ''Washburn neighborhood'' and east to the Sebec line ; 
District No. 3, was northwest of the village, the present Gilmaii 
school neighborhood ; District No. 4 was the territory north of the 
village ; No. 5 and No. 6 were respectively the northeast and north- 
west sections of the town. 

As to how many scholars were in these districts in 1820 I am 
unable to ascertain but in 1827, District No. 1, had 47 scholars; 
No. 2, had 34; No. 3 and 6 which were combined had a total of 61 ; 
District No. 4 had 45 ; District No. 5 had 19 and District No. 7 
had 13, a total of 219 scholars for the town; and the instruction of 
these pupils for the year cost the town $312.31. 

In 1824 the people of Foxcroft Center, District No. 5. engaged 
Samuel Palmer of Dover to teach a winter school. This was taught 
in Mr. Hersey's house, and the following summer a school was 
held in a barn a little east of the house of C. A. Harmon's. Dur- 
ing this summer (1825) the old school house at Foxcroft Center 
was built. As its location was near the center of the town this 



SCHOOLS AND SCHOOLHOUSES n 



building was used for a great many years for religious and town 
meetings. This schoolhouse served the pupils of the district until 
1903 when it was replaced by the present modern structure. 

The records of the Gilman school District begin in 1828 and at 
the first meeting in May of that year, the voters deliberate as to 
whether they shall sell or repair their old schoolhouse. The build- 
ing then stood opposite where Harrison Chandler lives. For year? 
the question of location and whether to build a new schoolhouse or 
repair the old was discussed in nearly every meeting of the district. 
It was not until 1849 tnat tne present Gilman school house was 
erected. The voters of the district not being able to agree upon a 
location the selectmen of the town were finally called into the dis- 
trict meeting and after hearing both sides decided the schoolhouse 
should be located upon the spot where it now stands. 

As to what time the first schoolhouse in "Washburn neighbor- 
hood," District Xo. 2, was built, I am unable to ascertain, but it was 
probably between the years 1822 and 1830. In 1822 we find the 
-cholars of Deacon Washburn and Major Crooker, the two lead- 
ing families of the neighborhood, attending school in the Dow 
schoolhouse then located one-half mile south of East Dover. When 
erected the schoolhouse stood at the top of the hill northeast from 
the residence of Luther Averill. It was later moved toward the 
north until it stood half way between the two roads upon the farm 
owned by Mr. Lee. - Still later it was moved still farther to the 
north and became the present "Lee schoolhouse. '' 

In the village, the old schoolhouse. or town-house, erected in 
1813 served the district until about 1822, and at about this time a 
second building was erected, but just where this building stood, I 
am unable to find any record. Tradition has placed it upon the 
west side of North street on the lot now occupied by B. A. Thomas. 
Wherever it stood, it was replaced by a new school building which 
was built in about 1840, and which is the "old schoolhouse" which 
many of the old inhabitants remember as standing upon North 
street on the Vaughan lot. 

This building was outgrown and in 1873 ^ e present grammar 
school building was erected. 

The wages of the teachers in these early schools as well as the 
price of board form an interesting contrast with present conditions. 

The winter term was generally kept by a "master," and was 10 
weeks or in some cases, eleven weeks in length. The summer 
term, kept by a "mistress" was generally a ten weeks' term, and 



n6 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

for her salary she received the magnificent sum of one dollar per 
week and board, or if experienced, and of especialy ability, as high 
as one dollar and seventy-five cents per week. The teacher's board 
was bid off at the annual meeting of the district. For the board 
of the "master." the town paid $1.50 or $1.75 per week, while the 
"mistress" was bid off for about 90 cents. If the price paid for 
board is any indication the "teacher" was desired for the social 
rather than the financial gain. 

The furnishing of wood for these early schoolhouses came up 
at the annual district meeting and was generally bid off by some 
person in the district. The prices paid for fuel ranging from 60 
cents to 90 cents per cord for wood delivered and piled at the 
schoolhouse. The studies which occupied the attention of the pupils 
were for the most part the "three RV reading, writing and arith- 
metic with spelling and grammar for good measure. History and 
geography were in the making and the pupils learned these at home 
by listening to the conversation around the fire place rather than 
from a text book at school. The old time lyceum and the spelling 
bee must not be forgotten in a. historical picture of these early days, 
but each would require more time and space than could be given 
here. 

Some of the teachers who taught in the town of Foxcroft be- 
tween the years 1826 and 1836 are the following: Alphonso Whit- 
man, Sarah S. Sprague, W. Godwin, George C. Campbell. Ira Allen. 
Estsy Dwinell. Samuel Palmer, Elisha Daggett, R. K. Rice, Thatch- 
er Blake, Jr.. Sally Buck, Minerva Garland, Jane Thayer. Susan 
P. Greeley and Ruth Daggett. 

I cannot close this paper without showing what Foxcroft is doing 
along educational lines at the present time. 

In 181 3 the town of Foxcroft had one schoolhouse valued at 
$100. In 191 2 the estimated value of our school buildings and 
equipment was $16,000. In 1813 the town of Foxcroft expended 
$125 for common schools, this past year we expended over $6800. 
In 181 2 there were probably about 80 scholars in the town, the 
census of 191 2 gives us 457. In all educational matters there has 
been a corresponding growth and the pioneer spirit of early days 
is still manifest in the desire to place Foxcroft schools in the front 
ranks. We were the first towns in the county to introduce regular 
instruction in music and drawing. Music being introduced into 
the Foxcroft schools in 1000 and drawing in 1910. At the present 
time, Dover and Foxcroft hire a special teacher as supervisor of 



PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES OF FOXCROFT u; 



music and drawing. For the sake of improving their schools, 
Dover and Foxcroft formed a union in 1903, the second district 
to be formed in the State for professional supervision of schools.. 

We were one of the first towns in the State to send boxes of 
books from the public library into the rural schools, and also one 
of the first to send pupils to the library for regular instruction. 

We have in our town a high school that practically governs itself, 
the only school in the State where the School City form of govern- 
ment exists. During the past year manual training has been intro- 
duced into our schools. 

Our citizens are all interested ; our teachers are trained and ex- 
j>erienced ; our schools are the equal of any in the State. 

The spirit of self sacrifice and progressiveness in educational mat- 
ters, shown so clearly by the early settler of Foxcroft, is still an 
active force in the town of Foxcroft in 191 2. 



Patriotic Societies of Foxcroft 

By Mrs. Sarah A. Martin. 

Organization, 1886 — C. S. Douty, W. S. R. C, No. 42, was or- 
ganized in Favor's Hall, Foxcroft, May 13th, 1886, with twenty- 
four charter members. President. Mrs. Sarah Lucas Martin; Sec- 
retary, Mr. Abbie Z. Holmes. 

Qualification for Membership, and Change of Name — The mem- 
bership of this organization consisted of wives, mothers, daughters 
and sisters of soldiers and sailors of the Civl War. This kind of 
membership, restricted to wives, mothers, daughters and sisters, it 
has always maintained, though in process of time, for loyal reasons, 
the name was changed to that of C. S. Douty Circle. No: 16, 
Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic, which name it now 
bears. 

Employment of New Name. — Although this change of name was 
not made until Nov. 5th, 1905. and although until that date, the 
organization was working under the name of C. S. Douty, W. S. 
R. C. No. 42, to avoid confusion the name of C. S. Douty Circle, 
N T o. 16, Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic, will herein- 
after be employed in this paper, no matter to what period of the 
history of the organization reference is made. 



n8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Removal to Dover, 1889. — With the ease which has characterized 
organization in these twin villages, although our charter named 
Foxcroft as our home, owing to the increase in our membership 
and the inadequacy of Favor's Hall, after about three years we 
removed without any special formality to Dover. Our first meeting 
was held in Sampson's Hall on March 20th, 1889, where we resided 
in peace and ever increasing prosperity for a period of about four 
years. 

Material Prosperity. — We added much to our household goods, 
but the first record I find of money deposited in the bank, was 
from the proceeds of a Centennial Observance of Washington's 
Inauguration, April 30th, 1889. Later the net receipts of a lecture 
by Mary A. Livermore of $30 was added thereto, and a Trades Car- 
nivaHn February, 1890, yielded net $270. 

Incited by this, we began to treasure thoughts of a hall for our- 
selves and the soldier organizations. We gave suppers and held 
entertainments in Sampson's Hall, all liberally patronized, and laid 
up much pelf. 

Communication from Knights of Pythias. — Then the Knights of 
Pythias, having leased the hall, we were astounded at receiving the 
following communication from them under date of Feb. 24, 1893.: 

"By vote of the Lodge it has been decided there shall be no 
refreshments of any kind in the lodge-room. Neither shall there 
be any public entertainment in the lodge-room. Voted that the 
janitor shall be instructed not to open the hall for any such purpose. 

C. H. Cushing, C. C. 
R. W. Hughes, K. of R. & S." 

Return to Foxcroft, 1893. — Our means of acquisition thus being 
torn from us, I find this vote appearing in the same record of the 
Ladies of the G. A. R., "Moved, seconded and voted that we re- 
move immediately to Town Hall in Foxcroft." We did so, return- 
ing to the town of our birth and the cradle of our liberty, the record 
of the first meeting in Town Hall being on March 10, 1893. 

This action, so innocent in appearance and intent, was fraught 
with consequences of importance. 

C. S. Douty Post Separated from Us. — The birth-place of C. S. 
Douty Post, like our own, was in Favor's Hall, Foxcroft, and its 
charter named Foxcroft as its home. Like us it had migrated in- 
formally to Dover. We had assisted them on Memorial Days and 
divers other occasions through the period of seven blissful years. 



PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES OF FOXCROFT 119 



They now looked with disfavor on this independent act, and took 
unto themselves another organization, not restricted to wives, 
mothers, daughters and sisters. 

Organization of Charles Peleg Chandler Post, 1893. — Hence on 
Nov. 21, 1893, a petition from E. T. Crockett, O. P. Martin and 
twenty-one others for the formation of a Post in Foxcroft was 
granted by Wainwright Cushing Department Commander of the 
G. A. R. of Maine, and on Nov. 2^, 1893, was organized with twen- 
ty-three members under the name of Charles Peleg Chandler Post, 
for Major Charles Peleg Chandler, a citizen of Foxcroft, a graduate 
of Harvard and a gallant soldier, killed on the battlefield. 

Incorporation, 1893. — For many reasons it seemed wise that the 
Ladies of the G. A. R. should become incorporated. This was con- 
summated on August 11. 1893. State President Mrs. Samuel L. 
Miller of Waldoboro and State Inspecting Officer Mrs. Atwood of 
Auburn were present. Hon. Willis E. Parsons acted as legal 
advisor and in the record of Aug. 25, I find recorded a copy of his 
receipted bill for his professional services, freely given us. A vote 
of thanks is recorded which we wish to renew in this paper. 

Dedication of Soldiers' Monument — On Oct. 21, 1893, under the 
direction of the G. A. R. occurred the dedication of the Soldiers' 
Monument, situated in the square, where drilled the boys of '6i-'65 
in preparation for going to the front. I have no record of the exer- 
cises of that day, but our book shows that the Ladies of the G. A. R. 
served a free dinner to some four hundred people, the citizens of 
Foxcroft generously contributing with supplies. The rooms of the 
entire second floor of the Opera House were used as dining-rooms. 

Purchase of Present Home. — In December, 1895, the organiza- 
tion having long desired a home of their own purchased of Timothy 
L. Jennison his shop situated on North street, Foxcroft, for $1200. 
I he building was but a shell and extensive repairs as well as re- 
modeling were needed. With a membership of 82 and a bank ac- 
count of $942 this was undertaken. One hundred dollars of this 
sum was the gift by will of Mrs. Emily S. Douty, a valued member 
and widow of Col. Calvin S. Douty. for whom our organization is 
named. 

The building was insured for $1000. One thousand dollars was 
obtained by loan from the Building /Association, who held the 
mortgage. A building committee, consisting of Mrs. Sarah Buck 
Davis, Mrs. D. M. Whittredge and Mrs. Sarah Lucas Martin, was 
appointed, who invited from the Post to assist them, Comrades 



i2o SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



O. P. Martin, A. P. Buck and J. H. Steward. To these comrades 
they were deeply indebted. 

A committee on ways and means was also appointed, namely ; 
Mrs. A. P. Buck, Mrs. Ellen Ober and Mrs. Eliza Ladd. The 
first floor was fitted up as a store and readily leased. 

Charles Peleg Chandler Post fitted up the third floor as a Post- 
room and continued to occupy it as such until they disbanded on 
May 26, 1906, about 13 years after their organization. 

Placing of Cannon. — It was through Chandler Post, Comrade 
Martin acting as committee, that the cannon on the monument 
grounds were obtained from the Navy Yard and placed in position. 

Memorial Gift to Charles Peleg Chandler Post. — The evening of 
Dec. 23, 1908, was a most pleasant occasion. A beautiful and valu- 
able memorial volume was presented to Charles Peleg Chandler 
Post by the brothers J. B. and J. G. Mayo and their sons, Edward 
J. and Walter J., in memory of their father and grandfather, the 
late Hon. John Gould Mayo. In the volume are now inscribed the 
war records of the veterans. The volume is deposited in Thomp- 
son Free Library. 

Disbanding of That Post. — We are indebted to Charles Peleg 
Chandler Post for aid and courtesies and many pleasant social hours 
through those busy years. On disbanding they turned over to the 
Ladies of the G. A. R., tables, chairs and flags, also the picture of 
Major Chandler which holds an honored position in our room. 

The first meeting of the Ladies of the G. A. R. in their new 
building, the second floor, was Feb. 14, 1886. 

The repairs immediately necessary when completed, as reported 
by Mrs. Davis, the careful and exact chairman of the building com- 
mittee, amounted to $934.16. 

Completion of Payment for Home. — We pass swiftly over the 
following eleven years, to the joyful payment of the last assessment 
in the Building Association and the burning of the mortgage on July 
16, 1907. 

During that time we had further improved the building. 

Custer Command, Union Veterans Union. — For sixteen years, 
Custer Command, Union Veterans Union, has been a most pleasant 
and profitable tenant, also good comrades. Their meetings are held 
in the same room on alternate Tuesdays from ourselves. Twenty 
of their number are honorary members of our organization and 
many of them are members of our former companion organiza- 



PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES OF FOXCROFT 121 



tion, C. S. Douty Post. The free use of the small hall on the 
upper floor we have voted to Cvil War veterans as a club-room. 

Real Object of the Organization Being Carried On. — We are 
pleased to note that through those years, with debt upon us, we 
then, as now, forgot not the prime nature of our organization ; the 
aiding of the needy, the sick and the sorrowing of families of 
soldiers and sailors. 

We did some other things as well : A benefit for the band netted 
some $80. We instituted the first successful efforts to resurrect 
the old Cemetery Association, and paid the first $25 toward putting 
the water in the cemetery. 

We have placed flags in every schoolroom in Foxcroft and fur- 
nished a room in the Academy at an expense of $80. We share the 
labors and duties of Memorial Day and forget not the graves of 
our own dead. We send each autumn some gift to the Good Will 
Home, for there, sons and grandsons of veterans are under its fos- 
tering care. 

Present Membership and Officers. — We now have a member- 
ship of 76 active and 22 honorary members. We are out of debt 
with a little surplus. The efficient chair officers at present are : 

President, Mrs. Xancy Bearce. 

Secretary, Mrs. Lola B. Hayes. 

Treasurer, Mrs. Evelyn D. Buck. 

Conclusion. — With the fleeting years, the mothers who so loyally 
and unselfishly gave to our country their sons, have passed. 

Duty of Daughters and Granddaughters — The wives and sisters 
are keeping step adown the hill of life with the aging veterans. 
Upon the daughters and the granddaughters rests the duties and 
the privileges which have been ours. 

When one hundred years more shall have passed, and at our 
second Centennial some one shall stand where I now stand and tell 
the story of the years, it will be her glory as a descendant of a 
Civil War veteran to say, "I am a daughter of the Grand Army of 
the Republic." 

Brief Sketch of Custer Command. 

Organization, 1896. — Custer Command, Xo. 16. Union Veterans 
C nion of Battle-field Soldiers, Department of Maine, was instituted 
in Town Hall. Foxcroft. April 30. 1896, by Col. F. E. De Merritte. 
Xational mustering officer, assisted by Lt. Col. Lewis Selbing. chief 
mustering officer, Department of Maine. 



122 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Charter Members — The charter members were twelve in number, 
namely : v 

Wainwright Cushing, William W. Miller, Osgood P. Martin. 
Leonard H. Washburn, John G. Herring, Edward L. Emery, Fer- 
nando Pratt. Isaiah B. Davis, Sewall C. Shaw. Asa S. Davis, Job 
S. Bearce, William W. Warren. 

Five of these charter members have answered to the last roll 
call. The next meeting was held in the Post room of Charles 
Peleg Chandler Post on North street, Foxcroft, May 12, 1896. At 
this meeting was received a communication from the C. S. Douty, 
W. S. R. C, now C. S. Douty Circle. Ladies of the G. A. R., offer- 
ing the Command the use of their hall free of rent for all future 
meetings, paying only for heating, lighting and janitor service. 
The Command extended a vote of thanks for the generous offer 
and friendliness, but voted instead to pay full value for its use 
and have occupied it continuously ever since, over sixteen years in 
perfect harmony and to their mutual advantage. 

Colonels of the Command. — The Colonels of Custer Command 
have been: Wainwright Cushing, 1896; J. G. Herring, 1897, 
Osgood P. Martin, 1898; Wm. W. Warren. 1899; Volney A. Gray, 
1900; Wainwright Cushing, 1901 ; Job S. Bearce, 1902; Elbridge 
T. Douglas, 1903; W. W. Miller, 1904; E. T. Crockett, 1905; E. B. 
Fox, 1906 ; E. T. Monroe, 1907 ; E. T. Monroe, 1908 ; E. C. Mor- 
rill, 19C9; E. T. Monroe, 1910; E. T. Monroe, 1911 ; E. T. Monroe, 
1912. 

Qualifications for Membership. — The organization of Union 
Veterans Union is peculiar in that it is composed only of those 
who on land or on sea actually battled for a nation's life ; who have 
rendered at least six months' continuous service in the army or 
navy and have faced the enemy in battle. 

Marked Growth of the Command. — Such is the membership of 
Custer Command. Organizing with but twelve members, they have 
prospered and grown in membership till now they are the large-t 
Command in the L^nited States ; substantially proving that here in 
this little corner of the old State of Maine, went forth many who 
stood shoulder to shoulder where bullets hummed and stricken 
comrades fell. 

Membership Statistics. — Custer Command has mustered in its 
ranks 180 in all. The largest membership at any time was 118 
The number of members at the present time is in. 



THE MASONIC FRATERNITY 123 

Conclusion. — The days of active mustering of battle-field soldiers 
are well over. To the sons and grandsons must they look for 
recruits in an honorary membership to aid and maintain when the 
"keepers of the house shall tremble." Yet still they sing in un- 
broken voices : 

"We've stood on many a battle-field 
A firm unbroken line 
And faced the foe and scorned to yield 
In days of Auld lang syne. 

And as the years roll swiftly by 

And weaker grows the line 
Let's keep together till we die 

For the sake of Auld lang syne. 



The Masonic Fraternity 

By John F. Sprague. 

Mosaic Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons, was granted a char- 
ter by the Grand Lodge of Maine, July 16th, 1827. Charles Fox 
was Grand Master, George Thatcher was Senior Grand Warden, 
Robert P. Dunlap, subsequently Governor of Maine, was Junior 
Grand Warden, and William Lord, Grand Secretary. 

The charter members were William Frost, Moses L. Hobbs, 
Joseph Kelsey, James S. Holmes, Salmon Holmes, T.olman Cary, 
Hiram Folsom. Solomon Cushman, Andrew Cushman, Samuel 
Roby, John McLaughlin, George Haskell, Jedediah P. Leland and 
Samuel Pingree. 

The first meeting of this Lodge was held at Carleton's Hall in 
Sangerville on the 19th day of November, 1827. 

The members present were William Frost, W. M., Samuel Roby, 
S. W., Jedediah P. Leland, J. W., Joseph Kelsey, Tyler, Samuel 
Pingree, John McLaughlin, Solomon Cushman, Salmon Holmes 
and James S. Holmes, Addison Martin, Appolos Pond and Orrin 
Morse. 

James S. Holmes was chosen Secretary, Joseph Kelsey, Treas- 
urer. Grin Morse was S. D., Jedediah P. Leland. J. D., John Mc- 
Laughlin, S. S., and Salmon Holmes was J. S. The following were 



i2 4 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



made a committee to draft and report a code of by-laws : J. S. 
Holmes, Moses L. Hobbs, Pierce P. Furber and William Frost. 

The second annual meeting was held December 17, 1828, when 
Samuel Roby was elected \Y. M. and John McLaughlin Secretary. 
Samuel Roby was re-elected W. M. in 1829. In 1830 Pierce P. 
Furber was elected \Y. M., and 1831, John McLaughlin was elected 
to this office. 

The intense and bitter opposition to Free Masonry which had 
such a strange and almost phenomenal growth for several years 
throughout this country, extended to the State of Maine, and the 
lodges here suffered as elsewhere. It is evident from the few 
meetings which it held during the year 1831 that it was in a strug- 
gle for existence. 

At the annual meeting December 14th, 1831. it was voted to 
suspend the operation of the sixteenth article of the by-laws which 
provided for the payment of annual dues of one dollar a year. 

At this meeting James S. Holmes was elected Worshipful Mas- 
ter and John McLaughlin Secretary. The last meeting of that year 
was held February 15th. in Carleton's Hall in Sangerville, when 
there were present James S. Holmes, W. M.. Samuel Roby, S. W. ; 
Woodman W. Magoon, S. D. pro tern ; William R. Goodwin. Sec- 
retary pro tern ; B. Haskell, S. D., and Salmon Holmes, J. D. 

This Lodge did not hold another meeting or communication and 
did no Masonic work of record till April 9th. 1845. when they met 
in Foxcroft and again made choice of James S. Holmes for Master 
and other officers to serve till the next annual meeting. 

It does not appear in what place this meeting was held, but it was 
presumably at Academy Hall, as the next meeting of May 21st was 
held there. At the annual meeting in December, 1845, James S. 
Holmes was elected W. M. and at the annual meeting in 1846, 
Elihu B. Averill was elected to that office. R. K. Rice had been 
Secretary during the past year and this year was elected S. W. 
Mordicai Mitchell was made a proxy to attend the Grand Lodge. 

The names of Russell Kittredge, Charles P. Chandler and S. L. 
Carpenter appear frequently at this time. Elihu B. Averill was 
also Master in 1847, '48 and '49. In 1851 John Sherwood was 
elected Master and also in 1852. In 1853 James S. Wiley was 
Master, in 1854 E. B. Averill, in 1855 James S. Wiley, in 1856 
Sands Bailey, in 1857 Edward P. Edes, in 1858 James S. Wiley, 
in 1859 anc l '6° E. B. Averill, in 1861 James S. Wiley, in 1862 Ivory 
K. Jordan, in 1863 W. H. Edes, in 1864-5 Nathaniel Parsons. 



THE MASONIC FRATERNITY 



12 



Vol. I of the records of this Lodge begins with the first meeting, 
Nov. 19, 1827, and ends with the record of the annual meeting, 
December 8, 1864. The officers elected at this meeting were: 
Nathaniel Parsons, W. M. Charles F. Greene, S. W. ; S. M. Sewall, 
J. W.; James S. Wiley, T. ; A. P. Buck, Sec; T. Hibbard, S. D. ; 
T. L. Jennison, J. D. ; F E. Hutchins, S S. ; Daniel Whittredge, J. 
S. 

Among the names frequently appearing in these early records 
are those of John H. Rice, D. W. Hussey, L. O. Farnham, Daniel 
Wyman, Edward Jewett, A. B. Brockway, Charles P. Chandler, 
Ivory H. Jordan, Samuel Webber, Simeon Mudgett, William Paine, 
William McCoomb, A. J. Chase, Henry C. Pratt, Richard Dear- 
born and Hiram Douty. either as officers, members or visitors. 






I QfSi L^lp^HteSKT* rrf%1 ft 



tie gjT -. 

Viz? ~\ *-'.- - 

■-•: ... J • 






•" :*4x jap* ■ 



I 



BB^-'tfiV-ii »o^^ «-'^_iW- JL^wK 



q»^H3*35»5"T — 



Monument Square and Foxcroft Bridge, Masonic 
Block in the Distance 



At a meeting Sept. 15, 1857, the visiting brethren were Lewis 
Barker and his brother David Barker, the well known Maine poet. 

On January 16, 1862, there was a public installaton of the officers 
of the lodge when David Barker was expected to be present, "but,** 
the record says, "did not make his appearance owing to the bad 
state of the travelling and a poem lately from his pen was read by 
Bro. Aver-ill.*' 

This was that stirring and patriotic poem by Barker, "The Old 
Ship of State," which may be found in his published works. 



126 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

This was followed by singing "Burns' Farewell" and "Auld Lang 
Syne." 

The record of this meeting closes as follows : 

Thus closed the festivities of the evening and we cannot doubt 
that the occasion will long be remembered by all present, and that 
the Brethen separated with a warmer feeling of Brotherly love and 
a stronger attachment to the principles incarnated by the order." 

In the Second Volume of records the name of Louis Annan.ce, the 
old Chief of the St. Francis tribe of Indians, who lived around 
Moosehead Lake for so many years, occasionally appears as a vis- 
itor. 

Since the year 1865 the Worshipful Masters have been: Charles 
F. Green, William Buck. Stanley T. Pullen, Elbridge A. Thompson, 
S. B. Jackson, Jas. E. Rowell. Asa S. Davis, James T. Roberts, Wm. 
T. Elliott, Wainwright Cushing, Thomas P. Elliott, Marcell W. 
Hall, D. E. Dinsmore, F. D. Folsom. John C. Cross, W. W. Thayer, 
W. L. Stoddard, C. W. Brown, Allen*P. Clark, F. H. Glover, W. C. 
Woodbury, W. M. Steward, R. W. Hughes, W. W. Blethen, F. G. 
Warren, V. L. Warren, B. B. Anderson, J. W. Hawkins. E. S. 
Genthner. and E. W. Crocker. 

In 1870-71 this Lodge erected the Masonic Block in Foxcroft 
in which is its present commodious and beautiful hall. 

This hall was dedicated in accordance with the customs and rites 
of the Order, June 22, 1871. 

The Piscataquis Observer in its report of this said : 

"The dedication of the new Masonic Hall in Union Square in 
this village occurred yesterday with imposing ceremonies. 

"The services were participated in by all the Masonic bodies in 
the county, and also Olive Branch Lodge of Charleston, Penobscot 
Lodge of Dexter, DeMolay Commandery of Skowhegan, and St. 
John's Commandery of Bangor. 

"For two days previous the weather had been 'showery,' but on 
Wednesday nature gratified the craft with as beautiful a day as 
could have been desired. 

"At an early hour the people began to arrive from the surrounding 
towns, and by ten o'clock it began to be wonderful w r here so many 
people came from. The hotels were full — the streets were crowded ; 
until it was intimated that never had so many people been together 
in the county before. 



THE MASONIC FRATERNITY 127 

"At 10.30 the special train on the Piscataquis road brought the 
Bangor Commandery, which was escorted to the Foxcroft Exchange 
by the Skowhegan Commandery which had arrived the evening 
previous, and had been quartered at the Blethen House. 

"At eleven o'clock W. M. John H. Lynde, Grand Master of the 
Grand Lodge of Maine, conducted the services at the hall, which 
were said to be grand and impressive. 

"At noon the procession formed under the direction of Chief 
Marshal J. B. Peaks, as follows : 

Order of Procession. 

Aid. Aid. 

Bro. G. F. Dan forth. Bro. T. P. Elliott. 

FIRST DIVISION. 

Bro. M. W. Brown, Marshall 

Bangor Cornet Band 

St. John Commandery K. T., Bangor 

Doric Lodge, Monson 

Mt. Kineo Lodge, Abbot 

Mosaic Lodge, Dover and Foxcroft. 

SECOND DIVISION. 

Bro. T. J. Peaks, Marshall 

Skowhegan Band 

DeMolay Commandery, K. T., Skowhegan 

Piscataquis Lodge. Milo 

Penobscot Lodge, Dexter. 

THIRD DIVISION 

Bro. \Ym. McComb, Marshall 

Corinth Cornet Band 

Olive Branch Lodge. Charleston 

M. W. Grand Lodge of Maine 
Orator, Poet and Invited Guests. 

"The line moved through Main street, Dover, to State street, 
through State to Lincoln street in Foxcroft, through Lincoln and 
Main street to Chamberlain's Grove, where the different organiza- 
tions filed into the tent provided for the occasion, and partook of a 
bountiful collation furnished by the wives, mothers, daughters and 
'sweethearts' of the members of Mosaic Lodge. 



128 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY' 



"After refreshments were served for the fraternity, an oration 
was pronounced by General Harris M. Plaisted of Bangor, which 
was a credit to the orator and an honor to the fraternity to which 
he belonged. 

"The poem by David Barker, Esq., was in the author's happiest 
strain, and everybody was ready to shout 'Long live the King' — of 
Poets. 

"We never saw an affair better conducted, and never expect to 
see a more brilliant procession in the county." 

Gen. Plaisted, the orator of the day, above referred to, was des- 
tined to later serve the people of Maine as representative to Con- 
gress and Governor of Maine, and was the father of our present 
Chief Executive, the Hon. Frederick W. Plaisted. 

James S- Wiley was toastmaster, and there were responses by 
Lewis Barker of Bangor, Sumner A. Patten of Monson. Jeremiah 
Fenno of Bangor, John H. Lynde of Bangor, Rev. Mr. Fenlason of 
Exeter, Col. A. W. Wilds of Skowhegan, Wm. P. Young of Milo, 
and James Foss of Abbot. 

In 1901 the Lodge owed a debt on this property amounting to 
$711.56. This amount was raised and paid by a subscription among 
the members. 

Its financial condition is now most excellent and satisfactory. 
The present membership is about 160 members. James T. Roberts, 
its efficient secretary, is now serving his twenty-seventh term. 

Only seven years after Maine had changed from a Province under 
Massachusetts to a sovereign member of the government of States, 
these worthy men living in widely separated places in a new and 
sparsely settled region organized this Lodge of Free and Accepted 
Masons. 

Of the charter members Solomon and Andrew Cushman resided 
in Monson. Hiram Folsom either in Greenville or Monson, Samuel 
Pingree in Parkman, James S. Holmes, a prominent lawyer, in 
Eastern Maine, and others resided in Foxcroft and vicinity. 

When this Lodge was instituted Enoch Lincoln was Governor of 
Maine and John Holmes and Albion K. Parris represented the new 
State in the Senate of the United States. 

The history of its small and feeble beginnng, of its early struggles, 
its trials and adversities, its pathetic suspension of work for thirteen 
years in the dark days when the public mind was obsessed with an 
ignorant prejudice against this great fraternal order; and then when 
reason began to assert itself in the nation and the public viewed Free 



THE MASONIC FRATERNITY " 129 

Masonry from a more rational and tolerant view-point, its loyalty 
to the sublime principles of the Masonic brotherhood, and its de- 
termination to renew the work of Free Masonry here in this com- 
munity and demonstrate that "Truth crushed to earth shall rise 
again. " and its steady advancement to its present day of splendid 
prosperity, is an important part of the history of Foxcroft and of 
Piscataquis County. 

No accurate history of our county and its development and the 
evolution of the high character and the intelligence and integrity of 
its citizenship could ever be written without giving this story of 
the achievement of Mosaic Lodge a prominent place in its pages. 

And I will close this meagre and hastily drawn sketch by quoting 
the closing lines of Gen. Plaisted's oration on that bright June day 
more than half a century ago when he assisted in the dedication of 
Foxcroft's Masonic Temple. 

"Moreover, also, we are here taught the great lesson of Masonic 
labor, that the search after truth, that divine truth symbolized by the 
'lost word,' constitutes the work of life; and as it can never be 
thoroughly attained in this life, we must be content with its sub- 
stitute, and wait with patience until the building of the second tem- 
ple — the temple of Eternal Life. 

"Finally, Brothers, may it be our happy lot thus skilfully to erect 
the living temple of thoughts, and words, and deeds, according to 
the designs laid down for us by the Grand Architect of the universe, 
and at last when raised from the filth and corruption of mortality. 
be accepted as living stones, fitted for a place in that temple not 
made with hands — Eternal in the Heavens." 



130 SPRAGUES JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Remarks of Willis E. Parsons at 

Dedication of Foxcroft's 

New Bridge 

It has been thought by many that this occasion, our iooth anni- 
versary, would be a fitting time to dedicate the new bridge in which 
all our citizens take an honest pride. 

Poor indeed is that municipality which cares only for the present. 
Selfish and unworthy is any community that has no thought of the 
future, no desire to leave something for posterity. In all ages the 
world's great beacon fires have been kindled by men who loved 
humanity, who were spurred to great achievement and proud en- 
deavor by the inspiring thought that their work would live after 
them, a blessing to all posterity. 

So in the dedication of this bridge today, solid and substantial, 
erected for all time, or at least a thousand years, we feel that it is 
not alone for the benefit of the present generation, but when many 
centuries have rolled away here will stand a structure spanning the 
Piscataquis as it flows to the sea, speaking to the then flourishing 
population of the unselfish work of their fathers. We will have 
been forgotten, our records may be destroyed and every vestige of 
the men who fought for its construction disappear, but here will 
remain a monument to the whole town, speaking of the energy and 
loyal enterprise of the citizens who built not only for themselves 
but the generations to follow. 

Our early settlers, as the little community grew, felt the necessity 
of some kind of a bridge across the river between Foxcroft and 
Dover, but it was not until 1819, seven years after our incorpora- 
tion as a town that the people felt equal to the undertaking. 

At a town meeting held April 6, 1819. the inhabitants, then but a 
handful at most, less than fifty voters, voted to raise $150 in money 
and S500 in labor for a bridge across the Piscataquis, and that a 
man should receive $1.00 for eight hours' labor and a pair of oxen 
the same. 

The next year, March 20, voted to raise $500 in labor, and $100 
in grain, wheat at 8 shillings and rye at $1.00 and to allow 12^ cents 
per hour; and again, March 12. 1821, the town voted $100 to be 
paid in grain at the same price, making $1,350 to build the bridge. 



DEDICATION OF FOXCROFT BRIDGE 



131 



That it was not an up-to-date structure is shown by the records 
as at a meeting Sept. 8, 1823, the town voted to repair the bridge. 
1S25, voted to repair the bridge and raised $300. 1828, voted to 
choose a committee to examine the bridge, and then a few days 
later, Sept. 27, 1828, voted to choose a committee to agree upon a 
plan and make a draft for a new bridge across the Piscataquis 
where the old one stood. The committee later made a full report, 
with plan and bill of lumber, estimating the entire expense at 
$1,223.68, and that they would be allowed for the old bridge $153.00. 
The building of the bridge as finally struck off to Alden Z. Dwinal, 
he being the lowest bidder, for $1,300. 

This second bridge, completed in 1830, seems to have been no 
more substantial than the first as the next year, 1831. the town 



?*m 




tw— ■ El \m — 

■MM ' j{ | J *-,--_-,. ._.- ">•_ 



r \ 










Foxcroft Bridge — 1854. 



raised $300 to repair the bridge. In 1834 they again voted to repair. 
I" J 837, still more repairs. 

In 1842 the town chose a committee to examine the bridge, and 
that committee reported that on the south side they found most of 
the posts and long braces very rotten. Then began an old-fashioned 
bridge fight, and at a town meeting held Dec. 17, 1842, they voted 
to build a new bridge ; but only eight days later, on Dec. 25, the 
anti-bridge party prevailed for the town voted to reconsider the 
vote to build a new bridge and voted to repair the old bridge. 
6 



132 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



March 13, 1843, another committee was appointed by the town to 
examine the bridge and its report was such that Nov. 25 of the same 
year, the town again voted to build a bridge, and that the contractor 
have his choice to build a brace bridge or an X bridge, and that the 
contractor have all the old bridge but the stone piers. Again the 
fight was on and the anti-bridge forces showed such strength that 
Dec. 11, the same year it was voted to reconsider the vote to build 
a bridge and all other votes relative to a bridge. 

Voted to choose a committee to repair the bridge, but the rugged 
old fighters had worked up so much feeling that it was hard to 
find any of the leading citizens to act on that committee. Nathaniel 
Chamberlain refused and the town voted to excuse him and tried 
Chester Chamberlain. He refused and the town tried T. H. Cham- 
berlain, but the town had to excuse him also. Finally Leonard 
Robinson was chosen who with Caleb Prentiss and Amos Morse 
made up the committee on repairs. But the fight was not ended. 
A meeting was again called, Dec. 25, less than a month later, and 
the town again voted to build a bridge. Abel Turner, David Gilman 
and Moses Swett were chosen a committee. 

Dec. 30^ a few days later, the town voted to build a covered 
bridge, but this was too much, a covered bridge, never ! And again 
the anti-bridge forces rallied and on the 9th of January. 1844. re- 
considered the vote to make it a covered bridge, and voted to build 
it like the old one and to be finished by the first day of November, 
1844, and gave the contractor the old bridge. In 1850 this bridge 
had to be repaired at an expense of $490. March 10, 185 1, a com- 
mittee was again appointed to examine the bridge. 

May 9, 1854, a freshet having swept away this bridge, the town 
voted to build a bridge across Piscataquis River at the village 
similar to the old one. May 20, voted to reconsider the vote to 
construct a bridge similar to the old one, and June 2 the town 
voted to build a bridge according to Howes' patent, and out of the 
votes at succeeding town meetings evolved in 1854 the Foxcroft 
bridge as used for 57 years, being repaired from time to time until 
last season when we saw it disappear forever, to be replaced by the 
noble structure upon which we now stand. 

March 13, 191 1, the town voted that a committee of three be ap^ 
pointed by the chair to ascertain the cost of a new bridge, also the 
cost of repairing the old structure. Made choice of E. J. Mayo, 
S. F. Atwood and O. P. Martin, committee. 



DEDICATION OF FOXCROFT BRIDGE 133 



April 11, 191 1, the inhabitants assembled in town meeting to 
hear the report of the committee and take action in relation to the 
bridge. I now quote from the records made by the town clerk. 

"Voted on motion of W. E. Parsons that the town build a con- 
crete bridge the present season across Piscataquis River on Main 
street, the roadway of which shall be not less than 30 feet wide with 
sidewalks on each side of not less than six feet, to take the place of 
the old wooden hridge. The number of ballots thrown 346, 2iu 
being 'yes' and 127 'no.' 

"On motion of W. E. Parsons voted that we authorize the select- 
men and town treasurer to execute in behalf of the town the obli- 
gations of the town either in notes or bonds as deemed best by the 




I 



I 












' ■ . 



Foxcroft Bridge — 1911. 

finance committee, for a sum not exceeding $25,000, payable $1,000 
a year and interest, to be used in the construction of a concrete 
bridge, said obligations not to bear interest exceeding 4 per cent 
per annum. 

"Voted that we appropriate $1000 out of the highway money 
raised this year to be expended on the approaches to the new 
bridge. 

"Voted that a committee of three be appointed by the chair, to 
be called a finance committee, to act in conjunction with the bridge 
committee and selectmen to finance the building of the bridge. 



134 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Made choice of G. L. Arnold, W. J. Mayo, W. E. Parsons, finance 
committee. 

"Voted that the chair appoint a bridge committee of three whose 
duty it shall be in conjunction with the finance committee and select- 
men to procure plans and specifications and execute a contract in 
behalf of the town and superintend the construction of the new 
bridge and grading the approaches to the same. Made choice of 
E. J. Mayo, S. F. Atwood, O. P. Martin, bridge committee." 

The bridge committee thus consisted of nine members. E. J. 
Mayo was elected chairman and W. E. Parsons secretary, the com- 
mittee serving without pay. Bearce & Clifford of Lewiston were 
the contractors and the contract price was $20,926.00, and the ex- 
tras, and a few changes, the building of a foot-bridge and the 
damage to abutting real estate owners, made the whole expense to 
the town practically around $25,000. 

The old wooden structures, four in number, with their endless 
repairs and never-ending expense of general maintenance, have been 
replaced by this concrete arch and broad roadway, which in point 
of construction is unsurpassed in all New England. 

To the present and future generations who will pass to and fro 
over this principal highway of the county, it is now dedicated. 

May it stand forever a monument to the courage and enterprise 
of our citizens, who having but recently passed from under one 
great burden, were willing to meet the expenditures necessary for 
so worthy an object and so beneficial to the present and future gen- 
erations. 



CONTENTS. 

O. R. Emerson, M. D. J. J. McVetv. M. D. 



135 




The E. & M. Hospital 

Newport, Maine 
Admits all medical and surgical cases except conta- 
gious and mental diseases 
For information, rates, etc.. address: 

OLGA J. HANSON. Supt., Newport, Me. 



C O N T 

PAGE 

Margaret Goff and her Family 137 

The Germans in Maine 140 

Welchville and some of its 

Early Families r 47 

1 ombstone Inscriptions 155 

King's Tavern 159 

L'ncle Tom's Cabin 160 

A Bit of Maine Mining History 162 

Daniel Sullivan 163 

An Appeal to Maine Writers.. 104 



E N T S . 

PACE 

Documentary 166 

Has Maine a History? 173 

Judge Henry Sewall Webster.. 175 

Honorable Xahum Morrill .... 176 

Baron St. Castin 178 

What Others Say About Us 179 

The Telos Canal i8d 

Good Work by the Sullivan 

High School 181 

Savings of Subscribers 182 



52 



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136 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



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The State Capitol, Augusta, Maine. 



Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

Vol. V AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER 1917 No. 3 



Margaret Goff and Her Family 

By Lina Goff McKenney 

Lina Goff McKenney is a descendant of the subject of this sketch 
and was the first Regent of Margaret Goff Moor Chapter D. A. R. t 
of Madison, Maine. 

Margaret Goff Moor holds an unusually interesting place among 
the women who sacrificed loved ones to the cause of our country. 
She came of sturdy, old New England stock and bravely bore the 
hardships of the times in a manner which makes her a fitting ex- 
ample of those who shared the loneliness and heartache so hero- 
ically. 

Her family has a record of service which should be of interest 
to any who love the reading of olden days. 

Her parents were Colonel John Goff and Hannah Grigg. 

Hannah Grigg was the granddaughter of James Grigg who was 
born in Ayrshire, Scotland, and located in Ireland in 1680. He 
married Janet Cargill, having four sons and one daughter. In 
171 8 he removed to America where his son, John, married Janet 
Rankin, who was the third daughter of Hugh Rankin, born in 
Antrim, Ireland, but arrived in Londonderry N. H., in 1722. These 
last had ten children, one of whom was Hannah. 

The first Goff of whom we have any record was John Goff, of 
Scotch-Irish descent. He came to America in 1662 or 1663. He 
was a member of Increase Mather's church in 1663. His son, 
John born in Boston in 1676 was agent for the first Scotch-Irish 
immigrants and came to Londonderry- where he was the proprie- 
tor's clerk from 1719 to 1723. He was a member of the first 
Presbytery formed in New Hampshire. He was a man of consid- 
erable business ability and performed his stipulated duties to the 
satisfaction of his employer as is shown by the fact that he had a 
special grant in the charter for his "good service in promoting the 
2 



138 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

settlement of said town." In addition to this he had bestowed 
upon him one hundred acres and half a mill stream. His son, 
John, born in 1701 and died in October, 1786, second day, married 
Hannah Grigg in Derry field, New Hampshire, September 8, 1754. 
Thus we have the statistics of Margaret Goff's ancestors. In her 
own immediate family there were seven children of whom this 
much is known: 

1. Marcia, married Nathaniel Martin, first settler of Weare, N. H. 

2. , married Benjamin Kidder of Londonderry. 

3. , married Edward Singfield of Londonderry. 

4- Rebecca, married Samuel Moor of Manchester, N. H. 

5. Margaret, married Col. John Moor of Manchester. 

6. , married a Walker and had two daughters, who married 

Joseph and Abraham Moore. 

7. John, a major. 

"In the old graveyard, in Bedford, there rest, side by side, the 
mortal remains of John Goff, Esq., Col. John GofT and Major John 
Goff. At the right of each is buried his wife." * 

The father of Peggy Goff, as she was known, was colonel in the 
French war and military instructor during the Revolution ; her 
husband, John Moor, was captain in the French war and entered 
the Revolution as captain but was promoted the day following the 
battle of Bunker Hill to the rank of major for bravery in the 
field; her father-in-law, Samuel Moor, was major in the French 
war; her brother, John GofT, Jr., was major in both the French 
and Revolutionary wars ; her brother-in-law, Samuel Moor, Jr., 
served as a soldier in both wars ; her brother-in-law, Joseph Moor, 
was a soldier in the Revolution ; and her two eldest sons, Benjamin 
and Goff, did duty as soldiers in the Revolution. 

Her very heartstrings must have been torn, for her best beloved 
were facing untold dangers that our own country might one day 
gain its independence. 

Among all these brave men Col. John Goff stands out most 
firmly. His is an honored name in the records of New Hampshire. 
A brief sketch of his life cannot be amiss. 

John Goff was a man of marked character and for sixty years 
was identified with the most stirring scenes of the exciting periods 
of our country's history — from Lovewell's fight of 1725 through 
the French and Indian war — and although too old to do active 
service during the Revolution he entered the conquest head and 



O History of Weare, p. 132. 



MARGARET GOFF AND HER FAMILY 139 

heart, doing as much by precept, example and money as did any 
other man in support of the cause. 

"He was the military teacher of the Rogers, the Todds, the 
Hazens, the Stevens, the Starks and that host of brave soldiers in 
the Seven Years' War and the Revolution so nobly upon the battle- 
field did honor to their teacher and themselves." J 

In 1759 Col. Goff had been second in command of the Regiment 
of New Hampshire under Zacheous Lovell who marched across 
the country and joined General Ampert at Lake George and after 
a cold, disagreeable winter proceeded on the expedition against 
Montreal. 

"He filled many town offices, was represented in the Provincial 
Legislature and first Judge of Probate for Hillsboro County, hold- 
ing that office from 1771 to 1776 and may justly be ranked with 
the prominent men of anti-Revolutionary times. His name is at 
the head of the names of the Justices of Hillsboro County Court and 
he seems to have taken the lead in the organization of the country." 3 

"Although a man of war, Col. Goff was thoroughly a religious 
man, often officiating as chaplain in his regiment and after his 
military career was ended sometimes officiated in the pulpit during 
the absence of the clergyman of the town." * 

Of Margaret Moor, herself, there is not much told us. There 
is, however, a story of her which is explanatory of her sterling 
qualities and holds not a little of romance. 

Shortly after the battle of Bunker Hill she heard that someone 
by the name of Moor had been killed. The anxiety and uncertainty 
preyed upon her until she resolved to learn for herself whether or 
not it was her husband. It was fearfully hot and she had to walk 
the distance of about four miles carrying her youngest child, then 
about two years old, most of the way. The mental torture and 
physical effort combined with the oppressive heat caused an illness 
from which she never recovered. Her husband was alive but her 
love for him was the indirect cause of her death, which occurred 
the following September, 1775. 

She was magnificent in character, possessed of a dignified bear- 
ing and rightfully a leader of the women with whom she associated. 

Such was our Margaret Goff Moor. 

(*) History of Hillsboro County, N. H. 
( J ) Ibid. 
( 4 ) Ibid. 



140 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

The Germans in Maine 

By Garrett W. Thompson, University of Maine, Orono, Maine. 
(Continued from page 7.) 

During his many visits to Europe, Waldo was untiringly active 
in inducing emigrants to join his settlements. With such purpose 
he went to Germany in 1738 20 spread circulars among the people 
with most alluring notices and promises, making at the same time 
arrangements for the transportation of all who might accept his 
offer. The results of his efforts are embodied in the following cita- 
tions. 

There 11 were two or three families at Broad Bay in 1739 and accessions 
were made in '40. A few 22 emigrants located at Broad Bay, supposed to 
have come in the summer or autumn of '39 on a vessel which brought letters 
of marque and reprisal from the King of England against the subjects of 
Spain. In* 3 '40 and '41-2 other families came from Brunswick and Saxony, 
tempted by the imposing offers of Waldo. A few 24 families came in '39; the 
next year more; by '60 nearly 1000. Germans 25 come from Brunswick and 
Saxony in '40. To Waldoboro, 2 * Maine, 40 or more families of Germans 
had been decoyed by flattering promises, which were never fulfilled, as early 
as 1740. Waldoboro. 27 plantation name Broad Bay, was inhabited by the 
Germans and perhaps a few Irish as early as 1740. Accessions 28 were made 
to Broad Bay in '40. In 29 '40 Waldo succeeded in inducing 40 families to 
come. In the promises 30 of '40 Waldo gave lots of 100 acres, 25 rods in 
front and running back into the wilderness 2 miles. In 1740 31 he succeeded 
in persuading 40 families from Brunswick and Saxony to accept his offers 
to "form a colony at Broad Bay. They settled on both sides of the Medomak 
river, but lived in poor circumstances until a larger number joined them. 
They did not understand the art of fishing and complained much of dis- 
appointment in their expectations. 

(") Eaton's Annals of Warren, 2nd Ed. p. 62. Also Der Deutsche Pionier, 
XIV, p. 9. 

( M ) Rev. John W. Starman in a letter to Wm. Willis Aug. 31, 1848. 

( a ) The German Colony and the Lutheran Church in Maine, by Rev. Dr. 
Pohlman. 

C 3 ) Eaton's Annals of Warren, 2nd Ed. p. 65. 

("*) Hist. Sketch of the Moravian Mission in Maine, by John W. Jordan. 

C 5 ) The Ancient Dominions of Maine, by R. K. Sewall, p. 269. 

(*) Hist, of the Evang. Luth. Ch. in the U. S., by Henry E. Jacobs (Am. 
Ch. His't. Series). 

{*) Williamson Hist, of Maine, Vol. II, p. 398. 

(") Ibid., p. 285. 

(**) Rattermann in "Der deutsche Pionier," Vol. XIV, p. 9. 

(*•) Rev. Dr. Pohlman, as above. 

(**) Eaton's Annals of Warren, 2nd Ed. p. 62. 



THE GERMANS IN MAINE 141 

As Williamson's History of Maine appeared in 1832 the fore- 
going statements, all of which are later, are based on his findings, 
while he in turn refers 32 to the MS. letters of M. R. Ludwig as 
authority. Even Ratterman's assertion rests on a similar one in 
Coll. Maine Hist. Soc., Vol. VI, p. 322 (series I), which goes 
back to Williamson as source. 33 In speaking, however, of the 
arrival of the colonists of 42 Rattermann says : 

By the few German families which had already settled here, from Bruns- 
wick and Saxony, they received with loud acclamations. 

The evidences of a settlement in '40 at Broad Bay are therefore 
to the above extent clearly established. 

But Waldo soon discovered that the business of immigration, if 
properly attended to would require more attention at home and 
abroad than he could personally bestow upon it ; he therefore en- 
gaged Sebastian Zuberbuhler 34 to act as agent for him, and we find 
him in the Palatinate in the year 1741 working for the colonization 
of the Broad Bay settlement. Given ample freedom in his methods 
and movements, Zuberbuhler lived in Speyer at the hotel "zum 
goldenen Lowen" and caused to be distributed through the Palati- 
nate a recruiting pamphlet, which he had printed entitled : 

Kurtze Beschreibung derer Landschafft Massachusetts Bay in Neu Eng- 
land Absonderlich dess Landstrichs an der Breyten Bay so dem Koniglichen 
Britischen Obristen, Samuel Waldo, Erbherrn der Breyten Bay, zugehorig, 
sampt denen Hauptbedingungen nacher welchen sich fremde Protestanten 
daselbsten ansiedeln mogen. Speyer. 1741. 

It is signed by both Waldo and Zuberbuhler under date of July 
14. During the ensuing winter Zuberbuhler was not idle, for he 



(*) Williamson, Vol. IT, p. 285, 

(") Williamson's Work (1832), while it antedates other published his- 
tories of Maine, is itself preceded by the manuscript data of Cyrus Eaton, 
which the latter embodied later (1851) in his "Annals of Warren." 

(**) Sebastian Zuberbuhler (or Zeuberbuhler) was probably born at Lin- 
den in the Canton Appenzell, Switzerland. He was sent in 1734 to S. Carolina 
to make investigations for settlements there. He associated himself with 
one Simon, a ship owner of Rotterdam, and a Swiss, Tschiffell, in a plan 
to establish a colony of Appenzell Swiss on the Santee river near the 
border of X. Carolina, having acquired a large grant of land from English 
land owners. It is not known if he really founded the colony of New 
Appenzell. Beside his career as Waldo's agent he was at one time a magis- 
trate of Luneburg (Lunenburg) in Nova Scotia, and when he died was in 
good financial circumstances, as appears from the inventory of his and his 
daughter's possessions given by Des Brisay (Hist, of the Co. of Luneburg, 
pp. 69-72). 



142 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

got together more than 200 persons from Palatine and Wirtember- 
gian families, most of whom were in good financial circumstances, 
among whom also were many Lutherans, who on account of the 
coalition 33 between the Reformed adherents and the Catholics in 
the Palatinate found more joy than sorrow in leaving thus tneir 
native land. Zuberbuhler had designated Mannheim as the rendez- 
vous of the emigrants, and in March of the following year ('42) 
a party from Speyer under his personal leadership assembled 
there; they were soon joined by another party from Wirtemberg. 
Ihey reached Mulheim below Cologne in safety but great difficulty 
was experienced in securing ships and they were obliged to remain 
there several weeks so that the middle of June was at hand before 
they could proceed. Again in Rotterdam vexatious delays were 
encountered, and the emigrants lost thus the best time of the year. 
That they felt these inconveniences is evident from the fact that 
about 30 of them forsook the expedition and embarked for Penn- 
sylvania; some returned home and many young men joined the 
English army in service. Through these depletions the number of 
emigrants fell to 150-160. Finally they left Rotterdam early in 
August on the "Lydia," and on the 16th gained the open sea. It is 
probable from a letter of Zuberbuhler that they sailed north of 
Scotland to avoid French and Spanish privateers who infested the 
waters along the sea coast. 36 At length Marblehead was reached 
in October, where a brief stay was made. Waldo had foreseen 
the necessity of making a good impression on these newcomers, for 
he wished them to write home favorably and thus advertise his 
subsequent emigration plans. Accordingly he met them at Marble- 
head with Governor Shirley several x\ssemblymen and an inter- 
preter, A. Keller. After being cordially greeted and entertained 
the Germans proceeded on their way under the escort of Waldo and 
Zuberbuhler, stopping at St. George's to land some Scotch pas- 
sengers. They then sailed, on a November day, into the mouth of 
the Medomak, where in Broad Bay a few huts stood to mark the 
site of their new home. 3 " 

The experience which lay before the settlers of '42 was marked 
by intense physical and mental suffering. To be sure their meeting 



( B ) Beficht von der Pfaltzischen Kirchenhistorie, chaps. 13 and 14, by 
B. G. Struve. 

(*") Der deutsche Pionier, Vol. XIV, p. 54 seq. 

(") A. B. Faust, The German Element in the U. S., Vol. I, p. 250. 



THE GERMANS IN MAINE 143 

with the Germans who had preceded them must have been pleasant 
in the extreme ; but when the first greetings were exchanged and a 
moment of reflection came two facts stood forth only too clearly, 
that their new environment had been falsely represented to them 
and that they were helpless to cope with the crude realities of this 
veritable wilderness. They realized at once that precious time had 
been wasted in these long delays en route for the winter which soon 
set in was unusually severe, "as 38 had never been previously ex- 
perienced in the region/' The huts which had been hastily put 
together for their shelter had neither windows nor chimneys. Their 
clothing already worn and scanty, was utterly insufficient for the 
low temperature of that region. They could not sow until the next 
spring; hence their supplies had to be brought from Boston. But 
they could not fetch these themselves, and their money had 
already been spent for sustenance during the long detentions in the 
Netherlands. However willing their compatriots might have been 
to render assistance they were also desperately poor and suffering 
from the fevers to which unacclimated settlers were easily exposed. 
When we consider furthermore, that they could not speak English 
and were therefore segregated from all intercourse with their 
-Anelo-Saxon neighbors; that coming from the interior they were 
not accustomed to shore life; that they had different ideas of 
meadow, glebe, woods, tide, land, etc., as applied to sea coast 
regions ; that the land, covered with trees and dense undergrowth, 
seemed incapable of cultivation ; that wharves, mills and other 
paraphernalia of civilization were lacking; they did not under- 
stand the art of fishing, an occupation so necessary in those meagre 
times; that the beasts and savages of the forests deterred them 
from hunting ; when we consider, in addition to these untoward 
conditions, that the country itself was as bleak and desolate as the 
sea, it is small wonder that discontent and disappointment reigned 
among these colonists. 

Their food for the winter consisted of pickled pork 30 and beef, 
with "Roggen," which their countrymen shared with them. Meal 
was ground at home with such devices as were at hand. 

They had brought with them a learned and pious minister, 
Philipp Gottfried Kast 40 and an educated physician, Friedrich 

( M ) Der deutsche Pionier, Vol. XIV, p. 60. 
( n ) Ibid., p. 61. 
C) Ibid., p. 54- 



144 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Kurtz;" also a school teacher and a surveyor. These men were of 
no small comfort to the settlers during the joyless experience of 
that memorable winter. Zuberbuhler 42 remained with them until 
December, then went to Boston and was never seen by them again. 

One episode 43 stands out less painfully in the life of these Ger- 
man settlers against the darker background of suffering and gloom. 
It seems that they were not on good terms with their Scotch and 
Irish neighbors, a fact due largely to the influence of a Scotchman. 
Burns, and an Irishman, Boice Cooper, both practical jokers and 
boisterous characters. These two had on every opportunity stirred 
their kinsmen against the Germans of '40 and veritably terrorized 
them. But when the Germans of '42 came upon the scene the tables 
were turned ; fists were freely used, and subsequently the worsted 
mischief makers moved to the more congenial environment of the 
St. George. 

When spring came the settlers could not improve their condi- 
tion or depart from the country. They petitioned 44 Governor 
Shirley and the Assembly to be taken away and employed "in such 
business as they were capable of to support themselves, their wives 
and children." The appeal to the Assembly is a severe arraign- 
ment of Waldo, "who has failed in every part of his contract with 
us by which means we have lost our substance and are reduced to 
penury and want." It bears the date May 25, 1743, is signed by 
Dr. Kast and witnessed by Dr. Kurtz. The General Court investi- 
gated the matter and the report was given that Dr. Kast, the 
preacher of the Germans, and his Palatines had suffered greatly, 
and if help was not given soon they might stand in need of the 
compassion of the government. As Waldo was absent at this time 
a settlement was deferred until the next meeting of the Court. 



(**) Dr. Jacob Friedrich Kurtz (later Curtius) appears in divers crooked 
transactions. Dr. Kast had a note against Zuberbuhler for 1000 Gulden; the 
latter denied the debt. Kurtz was called as umpire by the disputants and 
getting the note thus in his possession is said to have altered Zuberbuhler's 
interest, so that Kast lost his claim. The matter came before the court and 
Kurtz had to leave the country in flight. He is also said to have cheated a 
Boston merchant, named Baumgarten, out of a lot of goods. In New York 
(where he appears as Curtius) he defrauded a land owner of his lands, 
substituting his own name in the original deed, for which crime he was 
forced to leave America. He appears later in Rotterdam as a shipper. 

( tt ) Faust, p. 250. 

(**) Eaton's Annals of Warren, 1st Ed. pp. 62-3. 

O Mass. Resc. (MS), Vol. 15, A. p. 33 seq. 



THE GERMANS IN MAINE * 145 

The committee maintained that each party had violated the con- 
tract : Zuberbuhler in not providing shipping in due time ; Waldo 
in not paying the officers' wages ; the Palatines in not paying their 
passage money. They recommended that a suitable person be 
appointed to settle their accounts, and that a sum of money be 
granted for provisions and clothing to aid them through the winter. 
The report was not adopted by the Assembly and the colonists were 
left to their own resources. 
Faust* 5 says : 

The second winter must have been one of even greater trials, since the 
applies of Waldo failed them after October, his contract requiring him to 
serve them only the first winter. 

On the other hand Rattermann 46 states : 

How the poor Germans fared during the second winter we have absolutely 
no information. 

Mr. S. L. Miller, the historian of Waldoboro, in his "Hist. 
Sketch of Waldoboro" in 1873 doubted the existence of these early 
settlements, but acknowledges them in his "History of Waldoboro," 
of 1910. We offer documentary evidence which would settle such 
a contention. 

There are two letters from Joseph Plaisted of York to Waldo, 
regarding certain .supplies and provisions to be sent to the latter. 
These letters are dated Oct. <)*' and Nov. 26 , 4S 1742. There is also 
a letter 49 from James Littell to Waldo dated Dec. 9. 1742, at Broad 
Bay, as follows : 

This is to lett Know my Missfortunes Since you wass with us last ye 
Ingeneares man Hass Kilt a Steere of mine & Settled with ye Ingenear abour 
Itt he fell a tree en him & Brooke his back they Killed & Kept him for 
nine Days & Sent ye 4 Quarters & hide to my house with a Gard of men 
thru them in & went thire way now body a tome but my wife I would 
Doo nothing to him until I sent you — If there is not Method taken with 
them they may kill All ye Creaters wee have — (Signed). 

While LittelFs English would not indicate that the pen is mightier 
than the sword, the date and place are important for our present 



(**) Faust, p. 251. 

(*) Der deutsche Fionier, Vol. XIV, p. 62. 

(") Coll. Maine Hist. Soc, Vol. XI, p. 258 (Documentary series) 

(*) Ibid., p. 269. 

(*) Ibid., p. 269. 



146 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

A letter 50 from Gov. Shirley to Col. Noble elated June 5, 1744, 
and containing orders for the assignment of soldiers, has the fol- 
lowing items : 

At Madomock & Broad Bay 10 (men) 

At ye new Block House one ye River being the Duch Church 10 
At Mr. Zuberbuhlers garrison 10 

At Capt. Lanes at the Point of Broad Bay 10 40 

We have a memorial' 1 which states that Philip Christopner Vogler 
came with his father in 42 to America and located in New England 
near Broad Bay. There is also a legal paper 52 endorsed by Elihu 
Hewes May 29 1797, for Lutevick at Broad Bay, which reads: 

There is an instrument in being that the late Samuel Waldo signed and 
sealed to Seb. Zuberbuhler anno dom. 1741, for the transportation of 300 
families from Rotterdam to New England. Signed Elihu Hewes to the 
descendants of the German families that settled at Broad Bay in the year 

M. R. Ludwig 53 states that a settlement of Germans was made 
at Broad Bay in '42. There must also have been Germans in 
Broad Bay before the Louisburg expedition of '45, for Eaton'* 
writes that all the men of the settlement accompanied their leaders 
on that occasion. These references demonstrate beyond a doubt 
the existence of early German migrations to Broad Bay, 

(*) Coll. Maine Hist. Soc, Vol. XI, p. 296 (Documentary series). 

( w ) Eaton, 2d Ed. p. 67. Vogler (1725-1780) was born at Gundelsheim 
in the Palatinate. As a youth he learned the tailor's trade, became a farmer 
later, and was forced through the Indian war to become a soldier. Though 
brought up as a Lutheran he joined the Moravians at Broad Bay in '6i 
and went South with them in '70. He died at Bethania, N. C. 

( a ) Eaton, 2nd Ed. p. 68. 

( B ) The Ludwig Genealogy, p. 201. 

( M ) Eaton, 2nd Ed. p. 67. 

(To be Continued.) 



Solomon Kimball gentleman of place called Little Isle of Holt, in 
Penobscot Bay, bought said island of Massachusetts, Nov. 5, 1788 
for J2> pounds, 18 shillings, said island containing 340 acres, on. con- 
dition that said Kimball shall quiet the settlers who made distinct 
improvements on the same, prior to January, 1784, by granting them 
100 acres each to be laid out together so as to include improvements 
made by them. 

(From Isle Haute papers, Bangor Historical Magazine, Vol. 3, p. 

2.) 



WELCHVILLE AND SOME EARLY FAMILIES 147 



Welch ville and Some of Its Early 

Families 

By Charles E. Waterman 
(Continued from page 22.) 

About the time these young men from Robinson Hill were taking 
lots near Welchville, people north of that hamlet and south of 
Norway and Paris had also discovered the desirability of the 
bottom lands and had begun settlements. As a result, a county 
road through the valley was built about 1820, which crossed the 
river a few rods north of the dam at Welchville, meeting the 
Court of Sessions Road on Pigeon Hill about a mile south of the 
village. For many years the town records called this "the new 
county road." The grades of this road were so much easier than 
the old court road, it took most of the travel and led to the aban- 
donment of the "Jam Bridge.'' About 1841, a road was built along 
the eastern bank of the Little Androscoggin to Mechanic Falls, 
and that portion of the old Court of Sessions Road lying between 
the new road and the junction of the new county road on Pigeon 
Hill was discontinued. 

Here an explanatory note of a sentence in the earlier part of this 
article might be inserted. It was stated the old Brown farm lay 
about three-fourths of a mile from Welchville, but by road it was 
two miles-. The Brown farm is situated on a cross-road. At the 
time of settlement, there was no incentive for roads to the falls 
in the river, but there was for one to join the "Old Court of Ses- 
sions Road" on Pigeon Hill ; therefore a junction was effected on 
that hilltop. When the new county road was built the way to the 
Brown farm from Welchville took the form of an acute angle, 
with the distance about two miles. 

Welchville may have had the second hotel, or tavern as it was 
then called, in the town of Oxford. The building of the county 
road was responsible for this. The first tavern was built on 
Robinson Hill by James Soule. but when traffic changed to the new 
road, a new hostelry was needed. It was built on the northern 
end of the village by Benjamin Fessenden Perry son of James 
Perry, who Gime from Rochester, Mass., to settle in Hebron. He 
was born April 22, 1787. He married Christiania Cushman and 
bad these children : 



148 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Charles Clark, born March 25, 1815. 

Benjamin Fessenden, born March 4. 1817. 

Christania, born May 28, 1821. 

Zebedee Cushman, born May 5, 1824. 

Adeline Collins, born November 18, 1830. ■ 

Hiram Gilbert was probably the next proprietor. He came from 
Connecticut where he was born in 181 1. He and his wife Sarah 
had these children : 

Harriet \V., born in 1837. 

Cynthia X., born in 1840. 

Elihu T., born in 1847. 

About 1870. the last proprietor took the tavern, Abner Haven, 
who came from Chelsea, Mass.. and was a descendant of Andrew 
Craigie, one of the proprietors of Hebron. There were five chil- 
dren in his fa mil v : 

Abner, Susan, Ida, Genie and Frank. 

The land about Welch ville was a part of the original grant to 
Alexander Shepard, Jr., a civil engineer, for making a map of the 
District of Maine for the State of Massachusetts, and which was 
known as the Plantation of Shepardfield. In due course of time, 
quite a portion of the land became the property of Andrew Craigie, 
apothecary- general of the Revolution and owner of the old Vassel 
house in Cambridge, Mass.. headquarters of Washington during 
the siege of Boston, and later the home of the poet, Longfellow. 
Shepardfield was incorporated in 1792 as the town of Hebron, and 
in 1829 this town was divided, the western half becoming the town 
of Oxford. 

On a hill at the northern outskirt of the village is an old building 
which is of interest. On Mav 4, 1829, the following communica- 
tion was read at a meeting of the town called by the selectmen ; 

We the subscribers, heirs of the late Andrew Craigie, hereby authorize 
William C. Whitney, Esq., our agent at Hebron, to erect a meeting-house for 
the use of said town, to be located on the new county road leading from 
Poland to Paris, in such place as the said town shall determine, with the 
consent of said. Whitney ; the said house not to cost more than twelve hun- 
dred dollars, and we authorize the said Whitney to promise the said town, 
not exceeding three acres of land round the said meeting-house for a common 
burying-ground, etc., not to be more than sixteen rods wide on the road. 
Witness our hands this second day of March, 1829. 

Samuel Haven, 

Andrew Foster 

Thomas Foster for himself and 

John Foster 



WELCHVILLE AND SOME EARLY FAMILIES 149 

This proposition of the Craigie heirs was accepted. The church 
was built and the burying- ground laid out. By vote the building 
was declared the center of the town, and municipal meetings have 
been held there from that year to the present (1916). It was the 
intention of the donors that the building should be used as a church 
by any denomination, upon paying the janitor bill. To prevent 
trouble, the town passed a vote at a meeting held November 5, 
1832, that the denominations using the building shall be in the 
following order: 

The Congregationalists the first Sunday of each month ; the Baptists the 
second; the Universalists the third; the Methodists the fourth, and when 
there are five Sundays, the fifth shall be for any denomination which shall 
give seasonable notice thereof, by posting the same on the meeting-house 
door. 

General Craigie bought the unsold portion of the Shepard grant. 
In 1832 his heirs sold their remaining lots, amounting to about six 
thousand acres, to Jacob D. Brown a son of the first settler, for 
which $20,000 was the price named. Brown died in 1850. He 
married Sally, daughter of John Gardiner, April 19, 1827. They 
had these children : 

Jacob Washington, born in 1829. 

Lucy A., born in 1833. 

Roscoe, born in 1837. 

Mary, born in 1840. 

John Welch, of Boston, a son of William Welch, one time com- 
mander of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery, who had won 
money in the West India trade, began to buy lands in Oxford in 
1836. He has twenty-six titles recorded in the Oxford County 
Registry of Deeds, acquired during a period of ten years. He 
bought six thousand acres of Brown's land, also the water priv- 
ilege and mill built by the five Robinson Hill men. He did not 
give up his city residence, although he built a commodious house 
across the river from his mill where he spent a considerable por- 
tion of his time, and which was also occupied by bis sons, who 
became voters of Oxford and held town office. He exported lum- 
ber and gave employment to a number of men ; so the village which 
bears his name, grew. He died in 1850. He married Elizabeth 
Hunt and they had six children : 

William F., captain of militia, 
John Hunt, 

Wilson Jarvis, a lawyer, 
Thomas Jefferson, 



150 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



George Washington, 

Harrison Shattuck, who afterwards changed his christian name to Harri- 
son Gray Otis. 

About the time of the death of Welch, an important thing hap- 
pened, not only to the village of Welchville and town of Oxford, 
but a string of towns stretching from Portland to the White Moun- 
tains. It was the building of the Grand Trunk Railway, or Atlantic 
& St. Lawrence Railroad at it was then calied. Before the railroad 
was built all merchandise to and from Welchville had to be trans- 
ported by the slow medium of horse or ox power; so it can readily 
be understood what an advantage the new method was over the 
old, and what an impetus to its growth. 

Welchville took all the advantage she could from the new de- 
parture. A siding was built to the depot, which was situated a 
half-mile outside the village, and cars were hauled therefrom to 
the bank of the river opposite the mills, by ox power, to be loaded 
with lumber. This siding was used for about ten years when it was 
discontinued. 

The first agent of the railroad, as has already been said, was 
Benajah Pratt, Jr. ; the second was Robert T. Boynton, who be- 
came a prominent man in Oxford. The following children were 
in his family: Josephine, Clarence. Alice, Isabel, Irving and 
Ernest. One son died. 

A few years after the death of Mr. Welch the balance of his 
holdings passed into the possession of Captain George W, King, of 
Portland, who carried on the mills and lumbering operations for 
some fifteen years. Beside lumber, he made boxes and matches — 
that is the wooden part. They were dipped in Portland. Captain 
King died about 1870 and the mill privilege was sold to A. C. 
Denison & Company of Mechanic Falls, when the sawing of lumber 
came to an end. 

Captain King occupied the Welch house while at Welchville. 
His family consisted of five children (perhaps there were others) : 

Frank, who at one time was a steamboat captain on Moosehead 
Lake, and in 1853 had Henry D. Thoreau for a passenger, and 
afterward a merchant at Welchville. His daughter, Mary, married 
Horace Hall, a son of William Hall, a prominent man in Welch- 
ville. There was another son, Charles Hall, a lawyer; 

Mary, the wife of Major William S. Dodge, who was quarter- 
master of the First Maine Regiment during the Civil War, and 
afterwards brigade and division quartermaster. After the war he 



VV -EL-LrV—n. V ±1_,J^I^ A.NL' OW1V1IL. JZ---A..CV.L, X r .-VxVXl J^i.JJ.0 1 3 1 



built a house on the opposite bank of the river from his father-in- 
law. He was much interested in politics ; 

William H. ; 

Minerva who married Lieutenant William Dodge, a son of 
Major Dodge by a first wife (there was another son by his wife, 
Fred). Lieutenant Dodge was stationed in Alaska at the time of 
his marriage and took his bride to that newly purchased portion of 
the United States. At that time it was considered a God- forsaken- 
country of frost, snow and ice, unfit for human habitation. They 
lived in a dugout roofed over. Mrs. Dodge wrote home after the 
birth of their first child, that the baby was making mud pies on 
the parlor floor. After a time Dodge left the army and settled 
in Idaho ; 

Philander, married Susie Harper, daughter of Welchville's first 
woolen manufacturer. They settled in Idaho. 

It might be added that to Mrs. Major Dodge passed the odds 
and ends of land that had belonged to her father, and by her was 
sold to individual owners, and thus ended the proprietary estate of 
Oxford. To Major and Mrs. Mary King Dodge were born these 
children : 

Eva who married William Walker one time agent of the Harper 
Manufacturing Company; Myra, who died young; and Harry I. 

A year or two prior to 1870, one-half of the water privilege was 
leased to John Harper, a Scotchman, who built a woolen mill. This 
mill was in operation until September 20, 1891 when it was 
burned down and was not rebuilt. Mr. Harper did not continue it 
as an individual industry, but made it into a corporation, known as 
the Harper Manufacturing Company. 

Mr. Harper's family consisted of six children; 

John, William, Mary, (who married Arthur McQuillan, assist- 
ant superintendent of the woolen mill) ; Susan; James and George. 

Shortly after Mr. Harper began the manufacture of cloth, Emory 
Andrews, of Lawrence. Mass., came to Welchville for the purpose 
of manufacturing a substitute for leather, and leased the other 
half of the water power to that used by the woolen mill. Accord- 
ing to the custom of Oxford and other towns manufacturing con- 
cerns were exempted from taxation as an inducement for them to 
locate. The Harper manufacturing company had been thus ex- 
empted, and Mr. Andrews had been promised the same favor. He 
in return had promised to build a factory, but instead had repaired 
and enlarged the King Mills. The town's people thought he had 



152 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

not fulfilled his part of the agreement and refused to exempt him. 
Mr. Andrews thought he had not been rightly used, and litigation 
was brought about, whereupon the courts decided tax exemption 
unconstitutional. Mr. Harper, as well as Mr. Andrews, were thus 
forced to pay taxes by this decision. 

Mr. Andrews very shortly after this decision opened a branch 
of his business at Kennebunk and after about ten years the plant 
at Welchville was moved to Hackett's Mills in the town of Poland. 

This finishes the industrial history of Welchville so far as its 
water power is concerned unless notice is taken of an' industry 
which flourished for a few years right after the Civil War. North 
of the village is a large tract of sandy land, covered today, mostly, 
with gray birch bushes, but which, formerly supported a forest of 
pitch pine trees. Most of these trees had disappeared early in the 
history of the town but many fallen logs and stumps remained, and 
these were filled with pitch. At the time mentioned a mill and 
still were erected just below the woolen mill site to extract the pitch 
and distill turpentine. This spirit was deep red in color and sold 
under the name of red oil. The raw material from which this mer- 
chandise was extracted was soon exhausted, and, of course, the 
enterprise had to be abandoned. 

Manufacturing caused the growth of Welchville, and such other 
life and activity as came to the community was incidental to the 
industry on the river banks. 

Mr. Welch built and established a store, which was carried on 
by Captain King when he bought out that gentleman's interest in 
Welchville. Later his son Captain Frank King kept the store. 
It was sold by him to Captain J. S. Crosby, and by him discon- 
tinued. William King Staples opened a store in the early days of 
Welchville. He moved to Portland in 1866. The store was re- 
opened by Silas E. King, a nephew of Captain George W. King. 
who carried it on until his death. He was succeeded by Roseve 
F. Staples, a prominent man, clerk and treasurer of the town of 
Oxford. 

The Staples family has always been prominent in Welchville. 
Three brothers, Andrew, Simon and David, settled neighbors to 
Samuel Brown. Following are genealogical notes : 

The children of Andrew Staples are as follows: 

King, (died early) Eliza; Sally; Andrew; Almena ; Harriet; 
Alvin T., and William King. 



WELCH VILLE AND SOME EARLY FAMILIES 153 



The children of Simon Staples were: 

George W., (who married Flora L., daughter of Loved Andrews, 
and had these children : Louisa, George D., Dennis, Arthur, Caro- 
line, Annie and Elizabeth) ; Cyrus E.. and Sarah (who married 
Cyrus Crowell and had Thomas. Ada and Fannie.) 

David Staples married Abigail Gardiner and had Olive, John 
G. (he married Sophia A. Wood sum and had seven children, live 
of whom died of diphtheria within a few days of each other. Diph- 
theria was at one time a great scourge in the town of Oxford. 
Roscoe F. Staples was one of the children saved) Orrin, Miranda 
S., Alden C. 

Roscoe F. Staples married Mattie G. Everett. They have one 
son, Everett. 

At a town meeting held March 24. 1842, William K. Staples. 
George Robinson and Leonard Brown were appointed a committee 
to petition the postmaster general for another postoffice in town. 
It was located first at Oxford Depot then moved to Welchville. 
The following persons have served as postmasters : 

R. T. Boynton, Frank King, J. S. Crosby. Freeman Small, 
William King, Mrs. Ellen A. King (widow of William King), H. 
Blake and Roscoe F. Staples. 

In 1831, Welchville received her first school, her territory having 
been set off from districts Xo. 2 and Xo. 7. 

Outside the Union church, given by the Craigie heirs, Welch- 
ville had no church until 1870. The new church edifice was built 
by the- Methodist denomination, and has always hired its pastor in 
connection with the church at Oxford. 

Of course a village like Welchville must have a blacksmith and 
one settled very early in its history. Tradition says Andrew Pratt, 
a nephew of Benajah Pratt. Jr., set up his forge there early, but 
did not stay long. Thomas Abbott, however, came from Andover 
about 1830. In connection with this man, Samuel B. Waterman, 
who lived in the village at this time, has left a word-picture of the 
place. It consisted of one long street with a scant dozen houses 
upon it, surrounded by small clearings. The road crossed the river 
at right angles. About a quarter of a mile above the bridge the 
outlet of Lakes Hogan and Whitney joined the river. The banks 
of these streams were lined with drooping river maples and elms, 
interspersed with natural meadows About the trunks of these 
trees and in the branches climbed woodbine and wild grape vines, 
Welchville being one of the few places in Maine where the latter 
4 



154 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

vines grow. Fish, muskrats, mink, otter and big water snakes 
swam the waters, making it an attractive place of venture ior a 
boy of the age of Mr. Waterman. 

Mr. Abbott, on his settlement, cut the natural grass on these 
intervales with which to feed his cow during the winter. This 
hay he cut with a sickle, bound into sheaves, and floated down to 
the village on a raft. In this work he was assisted by Mr. Water- 
man. 

Mr. Abbott passed all his life in Welchville dying there March 
26, 1877. He was the son of Enos Abbott of Andover. He mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of William and Abigail Sampson of Rum- 
ford, and they had these children : 

James Munroe. Levi Bartlett, John Oilman, and Hiram Emery. 

James Munroe Abbott lived most of his life in Welchville. He 
was born January 13. 1823, and married Sarah Jane, daughter of 
William W., and Sally (Lovejoy) Berry. They had these chil- 
dren : 

Sarah Elizabeth, Laura Ella. Charles Otis, Harriet N.. Maria 
Elizabeth and Levi Edgar. 



THE OXEX 



By Thomas Hardy. 
Christmas eve, and twelve of the clock, 

"Now they are all on their knees," 
An elder said as we sat in a flock 
By the embers in hearthside ease. 

We pictured the meek mild creatures where 
They dwelt in their strawy pen. 

Nor did it occur to one of us there 
To doubt they were kneeling then. 

So fair a fancy few believe 

In these years ! Yet. I feel. 
If some one said on Christmas eve, 
"Come ; see the oxen kneel. 

"In the lonely barton by yonder coomb 
Our childhood used to know,'' 
1 should go with him in the gloom, 
Hoping it might be so. 



ruMBsru-vt lAbCKiFiio-Nis. . 155 

Tombstone Inscriptions 

Some Curious, Some Notable, Some Commoxplace. 

Collected and Annotated by Edgar Crosby Smith. 

(Continued from page 37.) 

E. LINCOLN, 

of Portland. 

Gov. of Maine, 

Died 

Oct. 8, 1829, 

aged 40. 

In the state bouse park opposite the state house at Augusta, at 

the extreme eastern end and barely visible from the street, is a plain 

granite shaft erected by the state over the tomb containing the 

remains of one of her early governors. 

Enoch Lincoln, the third governor of Maine, was of a family of 
governors. His father. Levi was lieutenant, and for a short time 
acting governor of Massachusetts, and his brother, Levi, was gov- 
ernor of that commonwealth from May. 1825, to March. 1834. 

Enoch was born in Worcester, Mass., December 28, 1788. He 
was educated at Harvard and Bowdoin colleges, studied law with 
his brother. Levi, and was admitted to practice in 181 1; practiced 
a short time at Salem and Worcester and settled in Fryeburg, 
Maine, in 1812. Removed to Paris, Maine, in 1818; was elected to 
Congress in 1818 and served continuously until 1826, when he re- 
signed to become governor of Maine, January, 1827. He was 
twice re-elected and died in office October 8, 1829, and was buried 
in the state park facing the capitol. 

In 1842 the Legislature, bv a resolve, appropriated three hundred 
dollars to erect "suitable and durable monuments" over the graves 
of persons interred on the public grounds and authorized the selec- 
tion of a portion of the grounds facing the capitol for the interment 
of "public officers dying at the seat of government." A tomb was 
constructed over the door of which is engraved on a marble slab : 

ERECTED 

BY THE STATE 

1842 

A granite monument, enclosed by an iron fence, was raised over 

the tomb, on the west face of which is chiseled the inscription to 

the memory of Governor Lincoln. 



156 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



A double row of stately elms extending from the street to the 
sepulcher line a walk to the door of the tomb. The little plot is 
sadly neglected and overrun with tangled grass, weeds and bram- 
bles, and sorely shows the ravages of time. 

* * * 

W. DELESDERNIER 

of Baileyvilie 

Died Jan. 16, 1842 

aged 49. 

William Delesdernier was the son of Lieut. Lewis Frederick 
Delesdernier, a Cumberland county, Nova Scotia, refugee, who 
came to Machias in 1776. In May, 1777, he was commissioned 
first lieutenant in the Continental Army by Col. John Allen, and 
acted as his secretary while Col. Allan commanded the Eastern 
Indians. Soon after the close of the Revolution he removed to 
Passamaquoddy and was the first collector of customs and the first 
postmaster of Eastport. 

William was born at Eastport in 1792 or 1793 and in his young 
manhood was a merchant in his native town. He removed to Calais 
about 1830. He was active in politics and in 1831 was a repre- 
sentative in the state legislature from the latter town. He was 
sheriff of Washington county in 1833, '34 an d '35- He removed 
to Baileyvilie and in 1838, '39, '40 and '41 represented the Bailey- 
vilie class in the state legislature. In 1841 he was elected one of 
the Washington County senators and took his seat January 5, 1842. 
He was stricken with a fatal illness and died at the seat of govern- 
ment, January 16, 1842 and was buried in the state grounds. 

It was undoubtedly the interment of Mr. Delesdernier in the 
state grounds that hastened the action of the legislature in dedi- 
cating a spot for the burial of officers of the state and erecting a 
suitable memorial. A resolve was introduced in the Senate in 184 1 
to erect a memorial to Governor Lincoln, but it seems that the 
House took no action thereon. In 1842 the House took the initi- 
ative, the Senate concurred, and the State Burial Ground was laid 
out and a tomb and monument erected. 

* * * 

J. CUSHMAN, 

of Winslow, 

Died Jan. 2-j, 1834. 

Aged 70. 

Sometimes the memorial erected over the mortal remains of the 

departed serves as something of an index to the principal events of 



TOMBSTONE INSCRIPTIONS. 157 

a life. Not so, however, in this case. He who scans this simple 
inscription obtains no hint of any of the events in which this man 
participated. 

Joshua Cushman, son of Abner and Mary (Tillson) Cushman, 
born in Halifax. Massachusetts, in 1758 or '59; soldier of the Revo- 
lution for three years ; suffered at Valley Forge and witnessed 
Burgoyne's surrender. He was a graduate of Harvard in the class 
of 1788, and on June 10. 1795. was ordained as the first town min- 
ister of Winslow, which then included Waterville. He served the 
people of that town in this capacity for nineteen years, when, in 
1814, by mutual consent and with feelings of mutual regret the 
relations between them were severed. 

In 1810 he served Kennebec County as a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Senate; in 181 1 and 1812 the town of Winslow as a rep- 
resentative in the Massachusetts Legislature. In 1819 he was 
elected a member of Congress for the Kennebec District, and 
served three full terms. He was a man of influence in the national 
house, his broad views and gift of oratory making him a powerful 
advocate or a strong opponent. 

He was a member of the Maine Senate in 1828 and in 1833 was 
elected to represent the town of Winslow in the Maine House of 
Representatives. He presided at the organization of the House, 
January 1, 1834, but was in feeble health and twenty-six days later, 
January 27, he died. His body was interred in the state grounds. 

In 1843 a resolve was passed by the Legislature directing the 
superintendent of public buildings to deposit his remains in the state 
tomb and to inscribe his name on the monument surmounting the 
same. 

* * * 

C. WATERHOUSE, 

of China, 

Clerk, 

Died March 1. 1839, 

Aged 38. 

Of Charles Waterhouse I am unable to find much data. He was 

first elected clerk of the House of Representatives in 1837, when 

the record gives his residence as Augusta. He was not clerk in 

1838, but in 1839 he was again elected and his residence is then 

given as China. He died March r, during the session, was buried 

in the state grounds, and in 1843 his remains were deposited in the 

state tomb and his name placed upon the monument. 



158 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

No more interments have been made in the state grounds since 
1842. For three- fourths of a century the tomb and monument have 
stood as a memorial to these four men who died at the seat of gov- 
ernment while in the service of the state, and today very few resi- 
dents of Maine know that such a memorial exists. 
(To be Continued.) 



LETTER FROM WM. SHIRREFF 

Mr Epharim Perkins Sr. 

You will emediately proceed with the Sloop Molly under yr Com- 
mand to Windsor in the Bay of Funda & Receeve Such orders As 
Mr. Jones will give You Respecting your Cargo. Making every 
dispatch thats Possible, taking Care to touch at Xo Other Harbour 

unless it be absolutely Necessary 

Jos: Goldthwait 

for William SherrirT 
DQrMGl 
Boston May 30, 1775 
(Documentary History of Maine (Baxter Manuscripts), Vol. 14, 

page 264) 



To the Honorable the Council & House of Representatives of the 

State of Massachusetts Bay in General Court Assembled. 

The Petition of Joseph Chadwick Survey r, Humbly Sheweth That 
in pursuance to Orders from a Committee of this Court in the month 
of Jany last he has protracted a Plan of the Inland ports of the 
Country, which lies from Penobscot to Quebec. His Labor time & 
Expence in Accomplishing the said Plan he Values at the Sum of 
fourty pounds which sum the said Joseph Humbly prays may be 
Allowed him by an Order of this honorable Court. 

& your petitioner as in Duty bound shall Ever pray &c 

Joseph Chadwick 

Cambridge March 10th 1778 
(Documentary History of Maine (Baxter Manuscripts) Vol. 15, 

page 383) 



J: ran vjw v ili\_\v_/i\ ivi.nu nutoii 



*5^ 





■ rps r 



L j [ 



il ■ 




The Governor King House, Bath, Maine, now known as the King Tavern. 

Upon this building is a bronze tablet bearing the following inscription : 

The Governor King House 

The House Built and Occupied by William King 

First Governor of Maine 

Originally Stood on the Site of the Present Custom House and Post Office. 

Merchant, Mill Owner and Shipbuilder, He Established The First Cotton 

Mill in Maine. 

Founded The Town of Kingfield. 

Was President of The Convention That Framed The Constitution of Maine. 

Author of The Betterment Act. 
Commissioner of Public Buildings When The Present State House At 

Augusta was Built. 

Colonel In War of 1812. 

Governor of Maine 1 820-1821. 

Commissioner to France 1821. 

Trustee of Colby College 1821-1848. 

Trustee of Bowdoin College 1826-1852. 

Born At Scarboro Feb. 9, 1768 

Died At Bath June 17, 1852. 

Marked By The Maine State Council Daughters of The American Revolution 

1915 



160 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Uncle Tom's Cabin 

Written in Brunswick, Maine 

John Clair Minot of Boston, a well known writer and former 
Maine man, contributes the following to the Boston Herald : 

"In the always interesting rotogravure section of the Sunday 
Herald, I noted last Sunday a picture of a fine old house at 
Andover, Mass., 'where Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's 
Cabin.' That is an error which I am sure you will desire to cor- 
rect. Presumably. Mrs. Stowe lived in the house shown in the 
picture, but it was after 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' was written and pub- 
lished. Mrs. Stowe wrote the great work that immortalized her 
name while a resident of Brunswick, Maine, where her husband 
was a professor in Bowdoin College. Prof, and Mrs. Stowe moved 
to Brunswick in 1850. T-he story appeared in serial form in the 
National Era between June. 1851 and April, 1852, and was pub- 
lished in book form in Boston in 1852. In that same year, but 
after all this had happened, Prof. Stowe moved to Andover to take 
the chair of sacred literature at the theological seminary there. 

"There is no need of confusion of the place and time of writing 
the book, for Mrs. Stowe made it all plain in her diary and cor- 
respondence, from which her son has quoted liberally in his biog- 
raphy of her. She tells how the inspiration for the story came to 
her while she was sitting at worship in Brunswick's historic old 
church on the Hill, and how she wrote the book in the time that 
she could snatch from the care of her home and children. The 
house that Prof. Stowe and family occupied during those two years 
still stands under the elms of Federal street, Brunswick, and is 
yearly the shrine of many visitors. The Stowes lived in Andover 
for a dozen years, and it may be that later editions of the book were 
revised there. Certainly many editions were published in that time. 
But it is beyond dispute that 'Uncle Tom's Cabin,' from the first 
thought of writing it to its appearance in book form, was the work 
of Mrs. Stowe in Brunswick, and in the old colonial house on 
Federal street. Her residence in that town also resulted in another 
of her best known books, 'The Pearl of Orr's Island,' a story of the 
Harpswell shore near by." 



162 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

A Bit of Maine Mining History 

Hon. Arthur I. Brown, of Belfast in a recent issue of the Repub- 
lican Journal says : 

Preparations are being made to reopen and operate the old Douglass copper 
mine in Bluehill. It will be remembered by many, that a little less than forty 
years ago a mining craze swept over the state. The excitement was centered 
in Bluehill where copper ore was found and in Sullivan where the metal 
sought was silver. The Douglass was one of the pioneer mines. At least 
eleven so-called mines were opened within half a mile of the Douglass, the 
most noted of which were the Bluehill and the Twin Lead. v. 

The region where these operations were carried on is broken by an irregu- 
lar chain of ledge hills, not very high, the foot-hills of Bluehill mountain. 
A road winds along between these hills, which seemed to me never to have 
been built but to have evolved from an old logging road. The hills are 
mostly covered wirh a scanty and half starved growth of trees. The only 
farm within the mining area was the Douglass farm. Here lived Uncle 
Veenie Douglass, as we all called that good old man. His wife was a sister 
of Capt. Robert and Mr. Thomas Limeburner, who were so long residents 
of Belfast. A fine old couple they were, growing old together in their snug, 
little white house which was upon the sunny side of a few green acres of 
stony fields. Adjoining the fields on the westerly side was a pasture where 
was a little earth in places and much bald ledge. This pasture was of some 
15 or 20 acres in extent and when the Douglass mine was organized the incor- 
porators paid Uncle Veenie $10,000 in good American money for the pasture 
and here was then, and now is, the Douglass mine. 



Wells March 7th 1777 

To the Hon. Counsell and House of Representatives now setting 
at Boston your Petitioner Prays that you will grant him Liberty to 
send a vessell that he has loaded in Wells to any French Ports in 
the Westingies that your Honors shall think proper, westingies 
goods is very much wanting with us for we Cant get any to the 
Westward were we always got our supplies So your Petitioner prays 
your Honors to give him a permite and your Petitioner will ever 
Pray. 

Joshua Bragdon 

(Documentary History of Maine (Baxter Manuscripts), Vol. 15, 

page 59) 



DANIEL SULLIVAN 163 

Daniel Sullivan 

From Frederick A. Gerrish's "History of Sullivan," in the Sulli- 
van High School commencement proceedings. 

Daniel Sullivan, for whom the town of Sullivan was named, was 
born in Berwick, Maine, about 1738. His parents, John and Mar- 
jory (Brown) Sullivan, were the founders of the celebrated family 
of that name in this country. John Sullivan was born in Limerick. 
Ireland, in 1690. He came to America in 1723 and landed at York, 
Maine. He settled in Berwick afterwards, remaining there until 
his death, June 20, 1795. Marjory Brown, his wife, was born in 
Ireland in 1714. She married John Sullivan about 1735 and died 
in Berwick in 1801. Six children were born to them, Benjamin, an 
officer in the British navy, who was lost before the Revolutionary 
war; Daniel; John, who was a Major General in the Continental 
Army and afterwards governor of New Hampshire; James, gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts ; Eben, an officer in the Revolution and a 
lawyer ; and Mary, who married Theophilus Hardy. 

Daniel, second son of John and Marjory (Brown) Sullivan, was 
married to Anne Paul at York. Maine, March 24, 1758, by whom 
he had one daughter, Anne Paul Sullivan, born December 10, 1760. 
Mother and child died soon after, but no record is left of the 
death of either. Between this and 1762 Daniel removed to New 
Bristol, now Sullivan, Maine. He was married at Fort Pownal 
(now the town of Prospect) in Waldo county, to Abigail, daughter 
of John and Hannah Bean, June 14, 1765, by James Crawford, 
Esq. At that time there were no roads or conveyances by land, and 
he and Miss Bean went from Sullivan to Fort Pownal in a long 
canoe, the nearest place where a magistrate could be obtained to 
perform the ceremony. Abigail Bean was born in 1747 and died in 
April, 1828, aged 81 years. 



The demand for bound volumes of the Journal is constantly in- 
creasing. Unfortunately, when it began, the foresight of the pub- 
lisher was not clear enough to see this and too small an edition of 
the first volume was published. We want to purchase any of the 
numbers of Volume I, except number 3. We will pay $1.00 each 
for numbers 1 and 5 on renewal or for new subscribers. 



164 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

An Appeal to Maine Writers 

By Charles A. Flagg, Librarian Bangor Public Library. 

As far as we are able to ascertain, the only extensive and impor- 
tant Maine historical works now in preparation are the monograph 
on the Northeast boundary upon which the State Historian, Dr. 
Henry S. Burrage, has been engaged for sometime past, and Dr. 
Louis C. Hatch's three volume history of Maine during statehood, 
(a virtual continuation of W. 'D. Williamson's "History of the 
State of Maine''). 

This takes no account of our valuable periodical "Sprague's 
Journal of Maine History.'' the publication of the Baxter manu- 
scripts in Maine Historical Society's Documentary series, addresses 
before our historical societies, the projected "Federation book," 
articles in the local press, etc. 

We are just now interested to examine lists of Doctors' theses 
in preparation at our various universities. These have been gath- 
ered for the past twenty years by one of the leading American his- 
torians J. Franklin Jameson, director of the Department of His- 
torical Research of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. For 
the past five years these theses have been arranged by subjects, 
and during that period there seem to have been theses on New 
England in preparation by 2j different students. Out of this num- 
ber 4 deal with New England at large, none with New Hampshire 
or Vermont, 14 with Massachusetts, 1 with Rhode Island, 7 with 
Connecticut, while Maine seems to be represented by just one entry : 
"The Waldo colony in New England" reported in preparation in 
1912 by a student at the L'niversity of Pennsylvania. 

While we have no universities in Maine providing approved 
courses leading to the higher academic degrees, no inconsiderable 
number of our younger people of both sexes do obtain them else- 
where. Should not they be encouraged to exploit our eventful 
history? Indeed, as we recognize the great revival of interest in 
southern history in our own day, it is to be wondered if any of the 
older settled parts of the Union is so neglected by modern historians 
as Maine; home of some of the most warlike and most interesting 
of the American aborigines ; with a more ancient colonial history 
than any state north of Virginia; the earliest frontier of French 
and English colonial interests. 



APPEAL TO MAINE WRITERS - 165 



Not only should such studies be made, but (as we bear in mind 
that scarcely half the doctorial dissertations are even printed) 
some provision should be made for publication. If the State His- 
torian or the State Library are unable to bear the burden, perhaps 
some of our Maine patriotic societies or women's organizations 
might be interested. (From Maine Library Bulletin.) 



RESOLVE. 1775. 
In provincial Congress June 23d 1775 

Resolved that there be paid out of the publick Treasury of this 
Colony to Mr. John Lane or order the sum of nineteen pounds ten 
shillings & eight pence to pay the expenses of himself four Indian 
Chiefs & an interpreter from YYatertown to Penobscott. And the 
Receiver General is hereby directed to pay the same sum accord- 
ingly, 

Accepted 
(Documentary History of Maine (Baxter Manuscripts), Vol 14, 

page 286.) 

* * * * 

TRADE WITH INDIANS. 1770. 
In the House of Representatives Nov. 16, 1770. 

Resolved that the Commissary General be & hereby is directed to 
hire a suitable house at Passamiquaddy for the purpose of Carrying 
on A Trade with the Indians there. 

Sent up for Concurrence T Cushing Speaker 

In Council Novr 17th 1770 — Read & Nonconcurd 

Jno Cotton D. Secry 
(Documentary History of Maine (Baxter Manuscripts), Vol. 14. 

page 117) 

* * * * 

Machias December 23, 1777. 

This may certifie that Colo Benjamin Foster, Mr. Jonas Farns- 
worth, Capt. Joseph Sevey, Capt. Joseph Libbee &-Xapt Stepn 
Smith and Leut Joel Whitney and the Militia Companies under 
their command except 8 men days, which were on duty at Machias 
the last summer, did not receive any Rations from the Committee of 
this place or from the Commissary 

pr James Flinn Cler to the Committee 

Stephen Smith Commissary 

(Documentary History of Maine (Baxter Manuscripts), Vol. 15, 

page 321) 



166 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Documentary 



NAMES IN A PARISH TAX 

Committed to Joseph Wheelwright, Junior, One of the 
Collectors in the First Parish in Wells, Maine, January 
12, 1795, for 1794. 

(Contributed by Honorable John A. Morrill, Auburn, Maine.) 

(Continued from page 41.) 



Names. 



Polls. 



Francis Butland 1 

George Butland 1 

Jonathan Butland 1 

Nathan Butland 1 

Simeon Hatch 1 

Wo. Margaret Emery 

Samuel Emery 1 

John Staples 1 

John Staples Jun 1 

William Littlefield 2 

Wo. Tabitha Littlefield 

Capt. Jonathan Littled 4 

Capt. Amos Eldredge 1 

B. Gen. Noah M. Littled 1 

Pelletiah Littlefield Jr 1 

Gedron Littlefield 1 

Capt. Aaron Wheelwright 2 

Capt. James Treadwell 1 

Jeremiah Stevens & Son 1 

Samuel Treadwell Jr 

Samuel Winn 1 

Samuel Morgan 

James Davis 

Moses Davis 1 

Nathaniel Winn 1 

Isa ac Winn 1 

Col. Joseph Hubbard 1 

Capt. Horace Patten 1 

Isaac Bourn 2 

Enoch Cusons 1 



R 


Est 


. P 


Est 




F. 




Sum tot 


al. 


d 


s 


d 


s 


d 






s 


d 


5 


1 


3 




7 






3 


3 


5 














1 


5 


5 


2 


4 




4 






3 


9 


5 














1 


5 


5 


4 


11 


1 


2 






7 


6 




1 


10 




7 






2 


5 


5 




4 




7 






2 


4 


5 


6 


4 


1 


11 


1 


11 


11 


7 


5 














1 


5 


10 


4 

1 


1 


1 


4 

4 






S 

1 


3 
4 


3 


12 


2 


1 


11 






IS 


4 


5 


5 


7 


2 


2 


1 


3 


10 


5 


5 


12 


11 




8 






15 




5 






1 


3 






2 


8 


5 














1 


5 


10 


4 


10 


1 


4 






9 


8 


5 


7 


8 


1 


7 






10 


1 


5 


5 


11 
9 


1 


7 






8 


1 
9 


5 


3 


6 

8 




9 






5 


8 
8 
















£6 8 


2 




2 


2 




11 






3 


1 


5 














1 


5 


5 


1 


11 




2 




7 


4 


4 


5 














1 


1 





11 


7 


3 


5 


1 


11 


18 


5 


5 


6 


7 


1 


3 






S 


3 


10 


7 


4 


1 


6 


1 


11 


13 


7 


5 


11 


3 


1 


7 






14 


3 



DOCUMENTARY 167 



Names. Polls. R. Est. P. Est. F. Sum total, 

sdsds'd sd 



Wo. Irena Goodale 1 

Benjamin Kimball 

David Kimball 1 

Jonathan Kimball 1 

Josiah Kimball 1 

Joseph Bourn & Son 4 

Joseph Morse 1 

John Tibbits 4 

John Mitchell 1 

Joseph Dunnell 1 

James Dunnell I 

Joseph Dunnell Jun 1 

Joseph Winn & Son 1 

Daniel \\ inn 1 



Jotham Littlefield 1 

Timothy Littlefield 1 

Alexander Maxell 1 

Barak Maxell 2 

Shapeigh Maxell 1 

Joseph Maxell 1 

James Maxell 1 

Jonathan Maxell 1 

David Maxell & Son 1 

Jacob Pirkens 2 

Elias Jacobs 4 

George Jacobs 1 

Jonathan Jacob? 1 

Johnson Littlefield 1 

Benjamin Littlefield 3d 1 

Levi Littlefield 2 

Josiah Littlefield 4 

David Littlefield 3d 1 

Abraham Littlefield Jr 1 

Joseph Littlefield Jr 1 

Eliab Littlefield & Son 2 



Stimson Littlefield 1 

Jeremiah Littlefield & Son... 2 

Daniel Littlefield 4 

Joshua Gray 2 

Joshua Grav Jun 1 



5 




7 




3 




2 


3 




7 


7 




6 


- 


8 


1 


5 




8 




7 




2 


8 


5 








2 




1 


7 


5 












1 


5 


3 


15 


s 


12 


1 


11 1 


13 


10 


5 


8 


9 


1 


11 




12 


1 


3 


4 


1 




10 1 


3 


10 


5 


5 




9 




2 




2 


4 


5 


S 


5 


1 


11 




11 


9 


5 








6 




1 


11 


5 












1 


5 


5 


7 


9 


2 


3 




11 


5 


5 






1 


4 




2 


9 




8 


8 


4 


5 




8 




7 




2 


8 


5 


1 








S 




3 


4 


5 


8 


2 


1 


3 1 


11 


12 


9 


10 


7 


8 


1 


9 1 


11 


14 


2 


5 












1 


5 


5 


2 


6 




9 




4 


8 


5 


1 


4 




8 




3 


5 


5 












1 


5 


5 


3 


8 


1 


3 




6 


4 


10 


4 


8 


1 


10 




9 


4 


3 


5 


5 


1 


3 ' 




1 


11 


5 




3 




1 




1 


9 


5 


1 


7 




7 - 




3 


7 


5 


3 


11 




11 




6 


3 


5 












1 


5 


10 


5 


9 


2 


1 




10 


8 


3 


8 




1 


5 




13 


8 


5 


3 


1 




10 




5 


4 


5 


1 






3 




2 


8 


5 


3 


4 




5 




5 


2 


10 


6 


1 


1 


6 




10 


5 




6 


11 


4 


5 


2 


9 








4 


2 


10 


8 


5 


2 


4 


% 


13 


7 


3 


2 




2 


6 1 


3 


10 




10 


4 


5 


1 


1 




8 


4 


5 












I 


5 



168 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Names. 



Polls. R.Est. P. Est. 



Sum total. 



Samuel Stuart \ . 

Benjamin Stuart 

Elijah Stuart 

John Merrifield 

Elijah Stuart 3d 

Daniel Stuart 

David Stuart 

Hatch Stuart 

Shebual Boston 

Elijah Boston Jun 

Abraham Boston 

Gershom Boston 

Joseph Wheelwright. . . . 
Joseph Wheelwright Jun 

Noah Hubbard 

Wo. Katherina Furbush . 



Samuel Curtis 

Rubin Chaney 

Rubin Chaney .lun . . . 
Joseph Chaney Jun . 

Joseph Chaney 

Charles Curtis 

Wo. Eunice Low 

Asa Low 

Edmond Wcbbor 

John Webbor 

Edmond Webbor Jun 
Abraham Littlefield . 
Elijah Allen & Son . . . 

James Allen 3d 

Elisha Allen 

Nathaniel Littlefield. . 

James Boston 

James Allen 

James Alien Jun 

John Brock 

William Brock 

James Hasties 

Elijah Boston 



1 5 


5 


7 


1 


2 




8 


2 


1 5 












1 


5 


1 5 


3 


8 


1 






6 


2 


2 10 


7 


S 


1 


4 




11 


10 


1 5 












1 


5 


1 5 




9 




6 




2 


S 


1 5 








2 




1 


7 


1 5 












1 


5 


1 5 


7 


4 




10 




9 


7 


1 5 








6 


- 


1 


11 


1 5 


2 


3 




3 




3 


11 


1 5 


1 


4 




2 




2 


11 




9 


9 


2 




- 


11 


9 


1 5 


5 


2 


1 


6 




8 


6 


1 5 


2 







7 




4 


6 


1 5 


6 


1 


1 


5 




8 


11 




6 4 


2 


2 10 


1 


6 


1 


10 


1 11 1 


L 7 


1 


1 5 


5 


10 


1 


7 




8 


10 


1 5 




I 




8 




2 


2 


1 5 




5 




5 




2 


3 


1 5 


4 


8 




10 




6 


11 


2 10 


3 


4 


1 


2 




7 


4 




5 


4 




9 




6 


1 


1 5 


4 


9 


1 


1 




7 


6 


2 10 


7 


9 


1 


4 


7 


12 


3 


2 10 


7 


s 


1 


6 




12 




1 5 


1 


11 




4 




3 


8 


4 3 


10 


11 


1 


7 




16 


9 


1 5 


fi 




1 


4 




8 


9 


1 5 








4 




1 


9 


2 10 


9 




1 


10 




13 


8 


1 5 


3 


4 




9 




5 


6 


1 5 


6 




1 


2 




8 


7 


1 5 


5 


3 




10 




7 


6 


1 5 








o 




1 


7 


1 5 


4 


7 




7 


1 3 


7 


10 


1 5 












1 


5 


1 5 


4 






9 




G 


2 


1 5 


5 


5 


1 


3 




8 


1 



DOCUMENTARY 



169 



Names. 



Jacob Littlefield 

Rubin Stuart 

Lazerous Jones 

Zachariah Gatchell. . . . 

Joseph Hilton 

Ebene/er Hilton. 

Benjamin Hilton 

William Hilton 

Edward Hilton 

William Hilton Jun . . . 

Simeon Allen 

Wo. Meriam Littlefield 

Peter Littlefield 

Solomon Stevens 

Samuel Davis 

Josiah W inn 

Zacharah Goodale ... 

Samuel Furbush 

John Goodale 

Zachariah Goodale Jun 
Benjamin Kimball Jun . 
Joseph Ehvell 

Jonathan Welch 

Robert Brown 

Aaron Jacobs 

Samuel Allen 

James Chaney 

Wo. Hannah Webbor. . 

Elijah Stuart Jun 

Samuel Goodale 

William Boston Jun. . . 
Jacob Perkins Jun .... 
Nathaniel Goodale .... 
John Chaney 



Polls. 


R. 


Est. 


P. 


Est. 


F. Sum total. 


s d 


s 


d 


s 


d 


s d 


2 10 


7 


4 


1 


11 


12 1 


1 5 




1 




1 


1 7 


1 5 


4 







9 


6 4 


1 5 


1 


11 




3 


3 7 


1 5 


1 


7 




7 


3 7 


1 5 


1 


8 




9 


3 10 


1 5 


4 


6 




11 


6 10 


1 5 


9 


9 


1 


3 


12 5 


1 5 










1 5 


1 5 








7 


2 


1 5 








1 


1 6 




5 


2 


1 


1 


6 3 


1 5 


2 







3 


3 10 


1 5 


4 


6 


1 


3 


7 2 


1 5 


2 


11 




7 


4 11 


1 5 


1 


11 




3 


3 7 


1 5 


2 


6 




6 


4 5 


2 10 


5 


11 




7 


9 4 


1 5 


6 


10 


1 


4 


9 7 


1 5 




9 




6 


2 8 


1 5 


1 


9 




7 


3 9 


1 5 


2 


7 




4 


4 4 



11 

7 



5 15 



Coppy of a Tax committed to Joseph Wheelwright Jun. one of the Collectors 
of the first Parish of Wells for 1794, given under our hands this 10 day of Jan. 
1795. 



170 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

A NEW HAMPSHIRE REVOLUTIONARY MUSTER ROLL* 

Contributed by Merton H. French, a Descendant of Capt. Abel 

French. 



State of New Hampshire 

Account of Expenditures of the Town of South Hampton, at the Alarm 
at Lexington in April, 1775. 



Men's Names. 



No. da vs. No. miles Travel. No. Horses. 



Capt. Abel French 8 48 

Lieut. James French 3 48 1 

Ens. Enoch Page 

William Cooper 6 48 

Benj. Clough 6 48 

William Graves 4 48 

Josiah Rogers 4 48 

Reuben Currier 4 48 1 

Parker Cooper 6 48 

Henry French 6 48 

Richard Sawyer 4 48 

Theophilus Colby 6 48 

Ezekiel Flanders 4 48 

Jasob Flanders 6 48 

Ric'd Currier Flanders 4 48 

Onesiphesus Page 4 4 

Moses Flanders 3 48 1 

Thomas Shephard 6 48 

Michel Worthen : 3 48 

Nat'lRowe 4 48 

Eiip't MerriU 4 48 1 

*(The original of this document was at one time placed in my hands by 
Merton H. French for the purpose of research in tracing his ancestry. From 
the appearance of the paper it is evidently contemporary with its date, and 
has every appearance of being an original document. I have examined the 
Revolutionary Rolls as published in the New Hampshire State Papers and 
fail to find it there. Capt. Abel French was for a time one of the selectmen 
of South Hampton, N. H., during the period of the Revolutionary War and 
this document has been in the possession of the family from that time and 
now is held by Merton H. French of Bangor, Maine. I believe it a safe 
conclusion, in view of the fact that Abel French was one of the municipal 
officers of South Hampton, that this is an original document; that for some 
reason unknown the roll was never returned to the state department ; and 
that those whose names are inscribed thereon served their country as minute 
men at the battle of Lexington. Many of the names I find credited with other 
services at later dates, but some, including that of Capt. French, I do not find 
credited as soldiers of the Revolution on the published roils. 

Edgar C. Smith.) 



KH V UL U 1 lUx\ AK 1 



Men's Names. 

Nat'l Merrill 

Thomas Tuxbury 

Theophilus Currier 

Nathan Currier 

James Hadlock 

Jacob Barnard 

Philip Osgood 

Benj . Barnard 

Nicholas Currier 

Joseph Jones 

Ezekiel French 

Nathan Brown 

Isaiah Dole 

Benj. Brown 

Rich'd Currier 

John Currier 

Rich'd Oreele 

Joseph Merrill 

Moses True 

Israel Sawyer 

175 1920 9 

The foregoing persons were supported at the expense of said town of South 
Hampton while in service. 

Joseph Merrill in behalf of s'd Town. 



MU31M KULL 


l/l 






No. miles 




No. 


days. 


travel. No. 


horses. 


4 




48 




4 




48 


1 


4 




48 




4 




48 




4 




48 




4 




4S 


1 


4 




48 . 




6 




48 


1 


4 




48 




4 




48 




4 




48 




4 




48 




4 




48 




4 




48 




4 




48 




3 




48 


1 


4 




48 




4 




48 




4 




48 


_ 


3 




48 


1 



BRUNSWICK PETITION 1 

Province of the Massa. Bay. 

To the Honble. Spencer Phips Esqr. Ltt. Governour & Commander in Cheif. 
The Honble. His Majestys Councill and House of Representatives in Gen- 
eral Court Assembled May 26, 1756. 
The Petition of the Select Men of the Town of Brunswick Humbly Sheweth. 
That the said Town for many years past has been exposed to the Incursions 
of the Indian Enemy and many of said Indians killed and captivated: and 
that very lately they Surprised three of the Inhabitants in their return from 
the place of Publick Worship one of whom was taken and carried away 
the other very narrowly escaped ; At the same time near the Borders of said 
Town Another Family was surprized, One Man Killed & his child at the 
Breast of its Mother who was dangerously wounded this necessarily Alarmed 

C) Documentary History of Maine (Baxter Manuscripts), Vol. 13, pp. 
29, 30. 



172 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

the Inhabitants, obliged them to Xeglect their Husbandry and to retire into 
Garrisons where they are at present confined by reason of the Enemy. There- 
fore your Petitioners humbly represent their distressed Circumstances at 
this day and earnestly pray the Compassionate Regard of this Honble. Court 
so far as to Allow a few Men to be posted at a Garrison situate in the centre 
of said Town near the Meeting house, on the Main Road from Maquoit to 
Fort George so necessary and convenient for Travellers & others, which 
has hitherto been Maintained at the Expence of the Owner Mr. Robert 
Spear, but he is new greaty Advanced in Years, Lame and without any help 
except one Son ar.d he must necessarily quitt the Place unless some Releif be 
afforded — 

Your Petitioners humbly hope that your Honours would be pleased to take 
this into your Consideration and afford them this necessary Releif at this so 
Critical Juncture And Your Petitoners as in duty bound will ever pray &c. 

Thos. Skolfield ) 

Samll. Standwood r Selectmen of Brunsziick. 

Isaac Snow i 

In the House of Representatives May 28, 1756 

Read and Voted That his Honr. the Lieut. Governor be desired to give 
Orders that fourteen Men belonging to the Scouting Company under the 
Command of Capt. Samuel Gooding Continually Scout on the back of the 
Inhabitts. from Fort George to Macquoit, untill the further Order of this 
Court. 

Sent up for Concurrence T. Hubbard Spkr. 

In Council May 29, 1756 Read and ConcurM 

Thos. Clarke Dpty. Secry 

Consented to S. Phips 

In the House of Represents. June 4, 1756 — 

Whereas it appears to this House That it would be of great Service to 
have a suitable Number of Boats in Sebago Pond for transporting Men thro 
the Same to Amascoggin River in Order to Cut off the Indian Enemy in 
their descent upon or retreat from the Inhabitants on the Eastern Frontiers ; 

Voted That the Commissary General be directed to provide as soon as may 
be two Good Cedar Whakboats for the Use of the Scouting Companies on 
the said Frontiers as Occasion shall offer the said Boats to be delivered to 
the Order of the Commander in Chief. 

Sent up for Concurrence T. Hubbard, Spkr. 

In Council June 5, 1756 Read and Concur'd 

Thos. Clarke Dpty. Secry 

Consented to S Phips 



HAS MAINE A HISTORY 173 

SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 



Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover, Maine, by John 
Francis Sprague, Editor and Publisher. 

Terms : For all numbers issued during the year, including an index and 
all special issues, $1.00. Single copies, 25 cents. Bound volumes 2 and 3, 
$2.00 each. Volume 4, $1.75. 

Postage prepaid on all items. 

Commencing with Vol. 3, the terms will be $1.00 only to subscribers who 
pay in advance, otherwise $1.50. 



/ shall be content if those shall pronounce my History useful 
who desire to give a view of events as they did really happen, 
and as they arc very likely, in accordance with human nature, to 
repeat themselves at some future time — if not exactly the same, 
yet very similar. 

THUCYDIDES. Historia. i. 2 



Has Maine a History? If so, is it 
of Consequence? 

Two false ideas relative to the importance of a knowledge of 
Maine history, we believe, are more or less prevalent among Maine 
people: (a) That because the ancient Province of Maine became 
a District, that for a time was under the political jurisdiction of 
Massachusetts, we have no distinct place in early American history, 
(b) That even if we have a history it is not of consequence, inter- 
est or value to any but lovers of anything that is antique and vener- 
able ; its usefulness in the work of today being, at most, only neg- 
ligible. 

A plain statement of the first proposition refutes itself. From the 
times of Waymouth and the Pophams to these days of Oakley 
Curtis and Carl Milliken, Maine has had a continuous record of 
events that are potential parts of the history of democracy in the 
world. 

From the early years of the seventeenth century when the ex- 
plorers, colonists and missionaries first began the making of Ameri- 
can history, until 1775, people of the old world were coming to the 
new world, and coming here to Maine, for a shelter from tyranny 



174 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



' and oppression. They subdued a wilderness and replaced it with 
homes, fortresses and fertile fields. Thus they came here to Maine, 
as to other parts of the north Atlantic coast, with bare hands but 
with hearts full of longings for freedom that was then only a 
dream, and for liberty that they knew not how to use. 

The development of representative government was a slow pro- 
cess. It was, at best, only an experiment. It was a political ideal 
that startled and amazed the greatest statemanship and most pro- 
found philosophy of the entire world. Our plan was unlike any 
other that had before been known. It was a governmental system 
outside of all known precedents, "without an example, ancient or 
modern." 

The question of its success or failure centered around one single 
problem; whether or not man was capable of self-government. 

In this way did the roots of democracy commence to sprout in 
this strange soil : a thirst for individual liberty. For many former 
centuries man had had a sovereign to direct him in his religious 
duties, and blood and treasure had flowed continuously to force 
him to pursue what his rulers conceived to be the right course. 
This new undertaking allowed him to choose his own religion and 
his own prayer book, or none at all, as his own conscience might 
dictate, and he was to be his own sovereign. 

In 1782 the highest intellect and shrewdest judgment of the 
world sincerely believed that this scheme was doomed to collapse. 
Its success could only be demonstrated by actualities ; the day of 
theories was done; the hour of facts had struck. The leaders in 
this majestic adventure constituted the most glorious band of 
patriots that humanity has e^/er known. But Washington, and 
Hamilton, and Jefferson, and Adams and all their great compeers 
were themselves alone powerless to solve the problem of self-gov- 
ernment. The men who built log houses and cleared up farms, 
who run stores, taverns, saw-mills, stages and cooper shops, were 
the only ones who could prove to the world that man could govern 
himself without a king. 

And so. in all parts of the American colonies, from the Carolinas 
to the Penobscot, it was in the homes of these grim old pioneers 
that we find the roots of democracy. It was these first settlers and 
their descendants, here in Maine, whose sacrifices and toil laid the 
foundations for a great state, and for its prosperous towns and 
cities, who helped work out this problem for all mankind. 



JUDGE HENRY SEWALL WEBSTER. 175 



The story of their lives is a part of the glorious record of man's 
supreme achievement in finally making himself capable of self- 
government. Their history is a part of the history of the world's 
struggle between despotism and freedom ; it is the tale of the pro- 
gress of humanitv. And vet, there are manv in Maine todav 
who do not appear to perceive that such a history is of worth and 
inspiration to the present generation. It is full of fascination, but 
they see it not. It inspires patriotism and a love for their own 
state, but they know it not. Neither do they seem to realize that 
the educational system of Maine in not making town, county and 
state history a part of its regular course of study in every school, is 
doing a flagrant injustice to the youth of our state. 



Judge Henry Sewall Webster 

Judge Webster died at his home in Dresden Avenue, in the city 
of Gardiner, Maine, February 16, 1917. 

He was deeply interested in all Maine historical subjects and 
had been a subscriber to the Journal from its first number, and an 
occasional contributor. 

Judge Webster was born in Augusta, September 26, 1845, the 
son of John Milton and Sarah Hayes (Hussey) Webster. He was 
graduated from Bowdoin College in 1867 and after his graduation 
taught four years. In 1871 he was admitted to the bar and came 
to Gardiner in the same year. He entered the banking business in 
1881 and in 1888 was elected treasurer of the Gardiner Savings 
Institution of which bank he was treasurer and trustee at the time 
of his decease. From 1885 to 1893 he served as Judge of Probate 
and Insolvency for Kennebec County. He was a member of the 
Maine and Massachusetts Historical Societies, New Hampshire 
Genealogical Society, the Sons of the American Revolution and 
the Society of Mayflower Descendants, a 32 degree Mason (Past 
Grand) High Priest of the Grand R. A. Chapter of Maine and a 
member of the Portland Consistory. 

He had published various genealogical pamphlets, also histories 
of Hermon Lodge and of the Maine Consistory., For several years 
he was engaged in compiling the vital records of Gardiner and 
other Maine towns. 

In 1876 he was married to Mary Chase Johnson of Augusta, 
who, with one daughter. Martha Tappan. survive him. 



176 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Honorable Nahum Morrill 

Judge ^Morrill, whose death occurred at Auburn, Maine, March 3. 
1917, was one of the last of one or two generations of able and 
notable lawyers in Maine, of whom Honorable David D. Stewart 
of St. Albans, now living, is also a representative. 

Within its circle were such well known jurists and lawyers as 
Jonas Cutting, Edward Kent, John Appleton, John A. Peters, 
Josiah Crosby and Albert W. Paine of Penobscot; Augustus G. 
Lebroke, Charles A. Everett and Alexander M. Robinson of 
Piscataquis: Jewett and Gould of Knox; Joseph Baker and 
Artemas Libbey of Kennebec. Former Chief Justices Lucilius A. 
Emery of Ellsworth and William P. Whitehouse of Augusta, were 
among their immediate successors ; products of what was, per- 
haps, a twilight zone between the strict common law days of the 
former group and the intensified case-law studying of the present 
time. 

Judge Morrill was born at Limerick, Maine, October 3, 1819, 
the son of Colonel John A. Morrill, who was a pioneer and person 
of distinction in that part of Maine. He was educated at Limerick 
academy, Kimball Lnion academy, Meriden Village, N. H., and 
one year in Dartmouth college. He studied law with his uncle, 
Honorable Moses MacDonald of Bangor and Charles P. Chandler 
of Foxcroft. 

Judge Morrill was admitted to the bar in Piscataquis county at 
the District Court for the eastern district held in Dover on the 
fourth day of March, 1842, and a few months later commenced 
the practice of law in Wells, where he remained about two years 
and moved to Durham. 

Durham was then looked upon as the prospective business center 
of this section, and a large amount of general business was tran- 
sacted there. Here he remained until the summer of 1846, when 
he removed to Lewiston Falls, establishing his office there on 
August 26, of that year. Lewiston Falls was, at that time, on the 
west side of the river — what is now known as Auburn, so that 
since 1846, up to the time of his death, Judge Morrill resided con- 
tinuously in Danville and Auburn. 

Judge Morrill very early took a prominent place in the practice 
of law because he was a man of eminent attainments, of broad, 
general culture. In 1854 he was appointed Judge of Probate by 



HONORABLE NAHUM MORRILL 177 

Governor William G. Crosby and this office he held until by process 
of law it became an elective office and he declined to be a candi- 
date. 

In 1864, without solicitation on his part, he was appointed 
provost marshal of the second district of Maine and held the office 
until the close of the War of the Rebellion, receiving his discharge 
October 31, 1865. He was admitted to practice in the Circuit 
Court of the United States, July 1, 1868. He has been appointed 
many times by the Supreme Judicial Court as special master in 
chancery, auditor, referee, etc., to determine actions of large im- 
portance. While residing in Durham he was a member of the 
superintending school committee, was president of the board of 
trustees of Edward Little Institute and for years was president of 
the Androscoggin Bar Association. 

He was a member of the firm of N. and J. A. Morrill, the latter 
his son, John A. Morrill, judge of the Androscoggin County Pro- 
bate Court, an overseer of Bowdoin college and distinguished as an 
eminent attorney, of service to the state in the two latest revisions 
of the statutes of Maine. 

Judge Morrill was married April 20, 1850, to Anna I. Littlefield, 
daughter of Walter Littlefield, Esquire, of Wells. 



Calculation for Sundrys Necessary for the Troops to be sent to 
Machias, — for 6 months 

Rations for 300 Men for 6 months 81,000 lb of Beef, 54,000 lb 
Flour & Bread 365 Bushels Peas 3,900 lb Rice 618 lb Soap 50 lb 
Candles 18,000 Muskett Cartridges 2,000 Flints, 

Resolve on the Petition of the Committee of Machias & several 
Letters of Colo Allan respecting wanting one hundred Men for the 
Department of Sd Machias & giving an Estimate of Supplies for 
the Commissary and Truck Master — March 11, 1778 
(Documentary History of Maine (Baxter Manuscripts), Vol. 15, 

page 384) 



178 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Baron St. Castin 

Mr. George E. Googins, a well known member of the legal fra- 
ternity of Maine, is writing for the Bar Harbor Times a valuable 
and exceedingly interesting sketch of the Colonial history of 
Maine. We hope it may eventually be published as a school text 
book, as it is an accurate outline of this subject and is written in 
a style that is simple and yet fascinating, and it will appeal to 
everyone, whether a close and well-informed student of Maine 
history, or otherwise. 

It is gratifying to us that he occasionally uses and makes ref- 
erence to some of the work of the Journal. In his last chapter, 
devoted to Ancient Pentagoet and Baron de St. Castin he quotes 
(see Journal, Vol. 4. pages 296-310) as follows : 

"Much has been written concerning the character and career of 
Baron Castin by historical writers, but in all the literature devoted 
to this man, no better tribute has ever been paid him than that 
which has recently come from the versatile pen of Hon. John 
Francis Sprague of Dover, Maine. 'No ancient record, manu- 
script or letter,' says Mr. Sprague, 'has yet been brought to light 
that reflects upon his integrity as a man. He was not robber, mur- 
derer or pirate. Not a line hints that he ever cheated, wronged or 
defrauded his fellow man. Only a big, kind heart could have 
throbbed in the breast of the man who won the love and devotion 
of a nation of wild savages and held it fast for thirty years.' " 



War Office June 25th 1777 
Mr Timy Parsons 

Sir We rec'd your Letter pr post of the 17th Inst. We have 
ordered the Ship Gruel Capt. Proctor to leave Falmouth & proceed 
for Wiscasset as soon as a favorable Opportunity presents such 
things as we can procure that you have wrote for shall be sent 
you — in the mean time as soon as the Ship arrives you will get her 
loaded as quick as possible. We are Yrs &c By order of the Board 

Saml Phips Savage Prest 
(Documentary History of Maine (Baxter Manuscripts), Vol. 15, 

page 136) 



WHAT OTHERS SAY 179 

What Others Say About Us 

Judge Justin H. Shaw of Kittery, Maine, in the Portsmouth 
(N. H.) Times, under the head "Doing Good Service," writes as 
follows : 

"The July (quarterly) number of Sprague's Journal of Maine 
History is another issue of splendid interest and value. It has a 
wide range of subjects, a good variety of them, and some very 
high grade articles. Among the contributors are Prof. Garrett W. 
Thompson of the University of Maine ; Hon. Lucilius A. Emery, 
formerly chief justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Maine ; 
Judge John A. Morrill of Auburn, and others to whom we are 
indebted for some very fine sketches. The Journal is in the best 
sense a state publication. and appeals to every lover of Maine and 
her history. Its contributors have the right spirit, and it is prob- 
ably doing more to cement the varied historical interests of the 
state than any one publication of which we have any knowledge. 

"Editor Sprague regrets that the Maine Legislature has not been 
able to continue its aid to state history, but does not scold. He 
very properly says, 'We can only hope that this was not done with 
malicious design, but that it simply happened almost unconsciously 
«nd thoughtlessly ; and that future legislatures will treat these 
matters with more mercy and consideration.' 

"The editor graciously acknowledges a notice of the Journal 
printed in the Portsmouth Times on May 10, and thinks enough 
of it to reprint a useful paragraph. A review of some of the 
articles of local interest will undoubtedly find their way to the 
Portsmouth Times office before very long." 



Nathanael Mahew of lawful age testifieth & saith that he received 
Two Bushels of Indian Corn of the State stores of Colo Josiah 
Brewer viz. One Bushell for himself, & another for the Widow 
Rose, and dividing said Corn between them at home, it fell short 
One peck of corn of ye measure, & ye Deponant saith none of ye 
said Corn was taken out of ye bag, or otherwise wasted, for which 
he paid ye money, & ye Deponant solemnly avoweth ye truth of ye 
above, as witness my hand at Penobscot November ye 12, 1777. 
Test John Herbert Nathaniel Mayhew. 

(Documentary History of Maine (Baxter Manuscripts), Vol. 15, 

page 281) 



180 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

The Telos Canal 

Mr. Howard Wood in an interesting communication to "Maine 
Woods" describing Eagle Lake says : 

In the far away reaches of the Upper AHagash, just below the site of the 
famous Lock Darn, that guarded structure which prevents the waters of the 
AHagash, Chamberlain and Telos lakes from entering their rightful channel 
into Eagle Lake, is situated the Island of Pillsbury, a gem in the setting of 
Eagle, to my mind the most beautiful lake in the whole of the State of 
Maine. This island conains some 400 acres, covered with a beautiful growth 
of pine, birch and balsam. In shape it is nearly round with an elevation. 
above high water mark, of perhaps 75 feet at the highest point, and de 
scending on all sides gradually to the water's edge. There are several fine 
springs of purest water en the island and it has always been a favorite 
camping ground, for all the travel down the AHagash from the time the 
Indian in his birch-bark canoe explored this region to the present day of the 
modern Maine guide and his party of New York sportsmen. One and all 
linger to camp on Pillsbury Island and fill up on Pillsbury water and the 
pure ozone of the North woods. 

Mr. Wood has hit the trail to an episode in the history of Maine 
that is unique and important. 

Soon after the North Eastern Boundary Controversy was settled 
by the Webster-Ashburton treaty (1842), certain far seeing and 
energetic Bangor gentlemen representing the great lumber interests 
of eastern Maine obtained a charter from the Legislature of Maine 
granting them certain rights among which they were empowered to 
build and maintain the "Telos Canal" between Telos and Webster 
lakes which together with the lock dam referred to by Mr. Wood 
diverted a large volume of water from the St. John river to the Pen- 
obscot. First and last this occasioned much trouble between Maine 
and Canadian lumber interests. It became a disturbing international 
problem, which, with other serious disputes regarding navigable 
rights on the St. John, resulted in the appointment of the St. John 
River International Commission, which was composed of men ap- 
pointed by American and Canadian governments jointly. 

The government at Washington, appointed in 1910, the late Ho- 
orable George A. Murchie of Calais, Maine, and the Honorable 
Peter Charles Keegan of Van Buren, Maine. In 1914 Mr. Murchie 
having died, Honorable John B. Madigan of Houlton, now a mem- 
ber of the Supreme Judicial Court was appointed to fill the vacancy. 
The Honorable Oscar F. Fellows of Bangor was United States 
Counsel for the Commission. 



GOOD WORK BY SULLIVAN HIGH SCHOOL 181 

Good Work by the Sullivan High 

School 

We have received a copy of the Harbor Beacon, for June, 191 7, 
published by the Sullivan High School, of which Honorable 
Andrew P. Havey is the Principal. 

It is one of the brightest school journals of Maine, but this num- 
ber contains in addition to its interesting school items some valuable 
local history, being papers prepared and read by scholars as a 
part of their regular commencement. week exercises. 

These are: ''History of Sullivan" by Frederick A. Gerrish, '19; 
"History of the Town of Gouldsboro'' by P. S. K., '17, and "His- 
tory of Hancock" by Raymond Hodgkins, '17; also "Sullivan' High 
Schools," also by Mr. Gerrish, and the following editorial, which 
is not only to be commended for its literary merit, but also a sound 
and conclusive argument in behalf of advancement in local history 
in our Maine schools and should be read by everyone : 

One of the leading topics discussed by the school boards and educational 
leaders of this state is that of teaching Maine history in the common schools. 

In the public schools of our state at the present time we find American 
history taught to pupils of both the intermediate and grammar ages. They 
learn much of the history of our nation at large, and of other nations, but 
little do they know of the state in which they live, or even the town or city. 

This is not as it should be. Maine has played a part in the stirring history 
of our country. Her sons have been among the honor men of our nation, 
and her children should know more of their deeds. 

Some course should be arranged which would give pupils from the first 
grade to the senior year of the High School leading facts about Maine, not 
"nly her past, but present and future as well. They should know what right 
she has to her motto, "Dirigo." 

Principal Havey is greatly interested in this movement and has arranged 
a course in civics which not only gives detailed information concerning the 
government of our nation, but pays special attention to our state. The 
students feel very grateful to Mr. Havey for this course; for nothing of this 
sort has before been introduced. 



Mr. Daniel Whittredge of Foxcroft, Maine, recently brought to 
us some old Piscataquis County newspapers, etc., of consequence 
to those who are interested in the early history of that county. 

Among them were copies of the "Piscataquis Herald," published 
by George V. Edes, at Dover in 1840 and the "Democratic Repub- 
lican," published at Dover, the same year, by Samuel H. Davee 
2nd edited by George W. McFarland. 



182 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



From the advertising and legal notices we learn that Robert 
Low, of Guilford, was County Treasurer; E. W. Snow, of Atkin- 
son, Judge of Probate; Benjamin Dow, Collector of Taxes for 
Dover for the year 1839. C. M. Cobb, deputy sheriff, advertises to 
sell at "the Inn of E. R. Favor in Dover," all of the interest in a 
lot of land in Elliottsville that James True had by virtue of a 
written contract with Elliott G. Vaughan. Charles A. Everett was 
then a practicing attorney in Dover. Among the merchants were 
Charles E. Kimball in that town, and Isaac N. Meder in Foxcroft. 

With the papers left was the first time table and announcement 
by the Maine Central Railroad Company of the opening of the new 
railroad between Dexter and Dover and Foxcroft, which occurred 
December 30, 1889. 



Sayings of Subscribers 

Mr. Newell White, Thorndike. Maine : 

"I find much to interest me in every issue of Sprague's Journa 
and don't want to miss any of the numbers." 



Miss Lillian A. Cole, Union, Maine : 

"I did not know until recently af>out your valuable publication 
and what it is doing for the State of Maine. I feel it my duty to 
help your good work along." 



Honorable Augustus W. Gilman, Foxcroft Maine; one of Maine's 
staunchest men and formerly Commissioner of Agriculture: 
"When you started the Journal I thought it would not last very 

long, because historic material might soon become exhausted; yet 

I find every issue increases in interest and value. I read every 

word of every number, advertisements and all." 



Honorable Willis E. Parsons, Foxcroft, Maine, a well known Maine 
lawyer, orator and politician; Grand Master of the I. O. O. F., 
and recently appointed a member of the Board of Trustees of the 
Maine State Hospitals : 



SAYINGS OF SUBSCRIBERS 183 



"In my travels over our State I am constantly hearing favorable 
and flattering remarks from all classes of people regarding 
'Sprague's Journal.' You are doing much for the cause of pre- 
serving Maine history which is being more and more appreciated. 
Your work will endure long after we all shall have passed away 
and been forgotten." 



Honorable Stanley Plummer, of Dexter: 

"On this rainy Sunday, following ten days of almost unbroken 
wet weather, I have read No. 5, Vol. 4, of your Journal, every word 
of it, from cover to cover, and what might have been a rather dull 
and irksome day has been thus rendered both pleasant and profit- 
able, so you see how unconsciously to yourself you have served me. 

"I wish to express the renewed obligation I feel to you for your 
publication, which you have not only maintained for four years. 
but steadily improved. Indeed this last number is, in my opinion, 
the very best." 



Mr. Selden H. Kilgore, Commercial Freight Agent, Missouri Pacific 
Railway, 1226 North Market St., Wichita. Kansas: 
"Through the medium of the 'Chase Chronicle' I have learned of 
the good work being done by Sprague's Journal of Maine History, 
and am enclosing a check that I may become a subscriber. 

"I was born and educated in Somerset County, Maine, and there- 
fore take a deep interest in the early history of the good old State 
of Maine." 



Mr. Merritt Stinson, Merrill, Wisconsin: 

"I enclose my check for one dollar to renew my subscription to 
Sprague's Journal, which is of great interest to me. 

"I was born in Clinton, Maine, in 1843 and enlisted in the 20th 
Maine Regiment in 1862 and served in the Civil War and have lived 
in Wisconsin since its close. Please give my kindest regards to 
my old comrade. Osgood P. Martin of Foxcroft." 



Judge Justin H. Shaw, Kittery, Maine : 

The copy of an ancient tax list for Wells, Maine, in the current 
number of the Journal (Vol. 5, No. 1) was of particular interest, 
because when the number arrived I happened to be going over some 



i&+ SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Kittery lists of that period. Three of these old Kittery lists ex- 
amined (for 1 793- 1 794- 1 795) are the property of Hon. Horace 
Mitchell of Kittery Point, who has loaned them for copying. They 
are bound into a pocket book with a leather cover, with a brass 
bottom and a leather strap fastener having a buttonhole. The pages 
are 4 by 6 inches. The lists are in splendid shape. 

"The Kittery lists do not have the abbreviation *F,' on which 
matter the Editor appends a note. But they do contain a term that 
remained a puzzle until it could be investigated. This was the word 
'doom'd' which was applied to every tax assessed, a separate 
column being devoted to this particular entry, abbreviated to 4 Do* 
as entered opposite the names. 

- "Every tax assessed was 'doomed,' except the parish taxes of 
1793. The Cyclopccdic Lazv Dictionary (Shumaker and Longsdorf) 
has no explanation of the word, but the New International Dic- 
tionary does. It appears that the term was a local one, a word 
confined to New England only and in brief meant (to doom) to 
assess a tax by estimate, where an inventory had not been filed ; an 
assessment based on descretion. The authority for its use in this 
respect is given as the works of John Pickering, American photo- 
logist, 1 777- 1 846. 

"I was wondering, also, in going over the Wells lists, if it were 
not possible that the abbreviation 'F' may not have indicated the 
old common law feoffee, or more fully a feoffee to uses, or 'one 
holding the same position with reference to a use that a trustee 
does to a trust." This is a property term which may have been in 
the mind of the old time law student. This interpretation is en- 
tirely conjectural, and without any evidence of mine of its use in 
this way whatsoever. But it might explain the use of the letter 
in the lists, and it will likely be looked into further." 



Mr. George H. Kimball, Consulting Engineer, Pontiac, Mich. : 

"The arrival of the current number of your valuable and inter- 
esting 'Journal' reminds me to renew my subscription which I 
enclose herewith. 

"There is an item of Maine history about which I should be very 
glad to know more, and I question whether these few facts are gen- 
erally known. 



SAYINGS OF SUBSCRIBERS i3; 



"A very early settlement was made in Maine, and I have been 
informed, so early no known record exists. At Kitten-, Maine, on 
Spruce Creek, a tide water arm of the Piscataqua river, there is 
evidence of a very early settlement. It is just back of — that is 
North of — Kittery Village. There was a small tide mill and the 
old mill stones remain where they fell, now submerged at high tide. 
The settlement contained quite a number of permanent houses, and 
a place where bricks were made, beside the tide mill. My cousin, 
Harrison Philbrick, who owned the property and with whom I have 
gone over the ground, found in the ruins of one of the houses that 
is what was left of, a chimney or fireplace, a brass-lined iron kettle/' 



Mr. Charles M. Starbird, Danville, Maine : 

r T have been a subscriber to your Journal for two years and wish 
to congratulate you on the excellence of the publication. It sccins 
to me that it increases in interest and value with time. I read each 
number very carefully and get much pleasure out of them. 

"Volume four has been especially commendable. The number 
containing the account of the Guilford Centennial was worth the 
subscription price of the entire volume. 

"I have been much interested in the sketches of Maine's promi- 
nent sons of the present and past which have appeared from time 
to time in Journal. I am deeply impressed by the fact that so little 
has been written concerning the rives of Maine's state officials, 
Congressmen and Senators. I have had the good fortune to look 
up some on Maine's Representatives and Senators in Washington 
and find their lives and public services very interesting. In my 
opinion more should be done to give the public information con- 
cerning them. 

"I take pleasure in renewing my subscription and am doing what 
I can to get some of the people of my community to subscribe. 
Keep up the good work, Mr. Sprague. Every good citizen of 
Maine knows that your Journal fills one of Maine's greatest needs." 



Edward P. Blanchard, former County Commissioner, Blanchard, 

Maine : 

"A story has been given me in the old days by some of the inhab- 
itants of Blanchard, in regard to how the mountain in Blanchard 
received its name. 



i86 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



"As it was told to me. two men, one of them by the name of 
Russell, came to the foot of the mountain, on the south side, late 
in the afternoon in the early fall, and proceeded to camp. Russell 
decided to climb the mountain that night and started alone ; he did 
not return that night and his companion went after him early in 
the morning. 

"Hunting over the mountain was slow work, but towards noon 
Mr. Russell was found at the foot of a granite ledge, dead. It was 
reported by Russell's companion that there were fresh moose 
tracks near, and it might be that a moose had attacked him. or he 
had accidently fallen over the ledge and been killed. This accident 
on the mountain gave it the name of 'Russell Mountain.' 

"I do not know if the body was carried out of the woods or was 
buried on the mountain ; I do not know where the two men were 
from, what they were there for, or the name of the companion of 
Russell. It was reported to me as a part of the story that perhaps 
Russell was murdered by his companion and the fresh moose tracks 
were invented to cover up the crime." 



CONTENTS 18: 



O. R. Emerson, M. D. J. J. McVety, M. D. 





■ iHr m 1 1 Vm'im ffiiij-ym - ,.,-,ai" , , n ] r „ .mw V,r i ^jjf.Vi niiar^ifF^i 



The E. & M. Hospital 

Newport, Maine 
Admits all medical and surgical cases except conta- 
gious and mental diseases 
For infonnation, rates, etc., address: 

OLGA J. HANSON, Supt., Newport, Me. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Alphabetical Index of Revolutionary Soldiers in Maine 189 

Dorothea Lynde Dix 199 

The Pine, poem 210 

Tombstone Inscriptions 211 

York County 216 

Documentary 219 

Morrill Newman Drew 225 

Sarah Martin 227 

Notes and Fragments 229 

Sayings of Subscribers 235 



52 



YEARS the Insurance Man of Somerset Co, 

Never a Failure— Newer a Law Suit— What more do you want? 
CHARLES FOLSOM-JONES, Skowhegan Maine 



We have positive evidence of the reliability of the advertisers on these pages 



188 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 




Sprague's Journal of Maine History 



VoLV NOVEMBER DECEMBER JANUARY 1917-18 No. 4 



An Alphabetical Index of Revolu- 
tionary Pensioners Living 
in Maine 

Compiled by Charles A. Flagg, Librarian, Bangor (Maine) 

Public Library. 

INTRODUCTION 

For a quarter century pa.-t the popularity, growth and activi- 
ties of our patriotic-hereditary societies have been features of 
American life. It is now considered the proper thing to cherish 
and prize the names and mementoes of the men of '/6; perhaps 
even to idealize them and their services. And many who have 
never applied for admission to any of the various societies of 
Revolutionary descendants, take a just pride in knowing that they 
are eligible, and of the blood of the heroes who established our 
independence. 

Maine, of course, was a part of Massachusetts at the time of the 
Revolution. 

Very little ha> been done even yet in the publication of regi- 
mental histories and personal narratives of Revolutionary service — 
lines that have been so enormously expanded in the case of the 
Civil war. The histories of two or three Maine regiments which 
the late Xathan Goold prepared, and Dr. Frank A. Gardner's nota- 
ble series of Massachusetts regimental histories, now running in the 
"Massachusetts magazine" of Salem, being practically all there is 
available in that field. 

But when it comes to individual service, Massachusetts people 
are particularly fortunate because that state has, at enormous ex- 
pense, printed all her Revolutionery muster, pay and other rolls, 

2 



iqo SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

as "Massachusetts soldiers and sailors of the Revolutionary war" 
in 17 large quarto volumes. No other state has done nearly as 
much in this direction. 

But even the^e records, full as they are, leave much to be de- 
sired. Families were usually large and in the old home towns 
it was more the rule than the exception to find several contempora- 
ries of the same name (middle names being very rare). In using 
the above work it is not uncommon to find two or more soldier- 
bearing the name of the ancestor one is in search of. from the 
town we know he lived in ; and still others of the same name whose 
residence is indeterminate. % 

Unless it can be conclusively established that no other of the 
name could have served from that town at the time, or our family 
tradition is more definite than is usually the case, we really have 
found no evidence at all. Here is where the value of the pension 
lists comes in. While we may not know in whose company or 
regiment, or in what capacity the Revolutionary ancestor served, 
we can usually find out where he lived in later life, and if he sur- 
vived to old age and drew a pension, the necessary link to the 
chain of evidence is often secured so one can identify the actual 
military service of the ancestor in "Massachusetts soldiers and 
sailors." 

The U. S. Pension Office at Washington is a veritable mine of 
information, and once an ancestor is located on the pension roll. 
it is worth while to secure direct from the Office and at some ex- 
pense, a copy of all papers relating to the claim. 

It may be added that the Pension Office authorities give no very 
cordial endorsement of the printed pension rolls, having found 
them to contain numerous errors. It must also be added, however, 
that some of the lists preserve records whose originals have been 
lost in the destruction of the Capitol by the British in 1814 or in 
other ways. The important things to realize are that the printed 
lists are so useful and so largely used that a consolidated list like 
the following will be valuable ; and that once the name desired is 
found it will almost certainly be worth while to write to the Pen- 
sion Office for full details of service. 

The difficulty in u-ing the various printed pension lists springs 
from the fact that not one is strictly alphabetical, and they are so 
rare now that only the large libraries have them all. 



REVOLUTIONARY PENSIONERS IN MAINE 191 

Before we take up the various pension lists in print, it may be 
well to devote a little time to consideration of Revolutionary pen- 
sions in general, and fortunately Columbia University studies in 
history, economics and public law, volume XII, No. 3 (History of 
military pension legislature in the United States by W. H. Glasson) 
gives us an exhaustive sketch. 

Classes of Pensioners 

Revolutionary pensioners really fall into four classes. 

I. Invalid pensioners. 

The first national U. S. pension law passed Aug. 26, 1776 
promised half pay for life or during disability to every officer, sol- 
dier or sailor, losing a limb or being so disabled in the service 
of the U. S. as to be incapable of earning a livelihood. Pro- 
portionate relief was promised to such as were partially disabled. 
Apr. 23, 1782, it was enacted that Continental soldiers who were 
sick or wounded and unfit for duty were to be discharged and be 
pensioned at the rate of five dollars per month. An act passed 
June 7, 1785, further provided that when so disabled as to be un- 
able to earn a livelihood, commissioned officers should be allowed 
a half pay pension and non-commissioned officers and privates five 
dollars a month, proportionate rates being allowed for partial dis- 
ability. 

This act was afterwards amended to include later disability re- 
sulting from wounds, to include state troops and militia as well as 
Continentals, and the rates were somewhat increased. 

Invalid pensioners surviving at the dates of the service pension 
acts of 1818 and 1832 usually found it advantageous to secure entry 
under them. 

II. Half pay or commutation pensioners. 

As a result of Washington's appeal at a time when the deprecia- 
tion of the continental currency and the gloomy outlook in the field 
were preventing the re-enlistment of many officers and men at the 
termination of their periods of service. Congress on May 15, 1778, 
voted to all American commissioned officers who should continue in 
service to the close of the war half pay for seven years after its 
conclusion ; to all common soldiers who served to the end of the war 
a gratuity of eighty dollars. As these measures failed to secure the 
full results expected, Washington again appealed to Congre-s. which 
on Oct. 21, 1780, voted that all officers who should continue in 



192 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

service to the end of the war, should receive halt pay for life. These 
measures are believed to have been of the utmost importance in 
keeping the army together till the end of the struggle, but they were 
immensely unpopular, especially in New England, while opposition 
to Congress was very strong. 

To the irritation aroused in the officers' minds at the suspicion 
that Congress intended to repudiate these obligations were attribut- 
able their "Memorial to Congress" of Dec. 1782 and the more cele- 
brated "Newburgh addresses'' of March, 1783. 

Washington once more prepared an urgent appeal for recognition 
of the army's claims, and on March 22, 1783, Congress adopted a 
compromise known as the "Commutation act," substituting for the 
half pay for life, five years full pay in money or interest bearing 
securities. 

As the Confederation had no funds, the officers received not 
money but "commutation certificates," but with no provision for 
paying principal or interest, these depreciated like the continental 
currency and soon came into the hands of speculators who profited 
when the first Congress under the Constitution provided for the 
refunding of these certificates. 

The survivors of this group and their friends felt that justice had 
not been done and petitions were introduced into Congress from 
time to time until in May 15, 1828, just 50 years after the original 
act, a measure was passed giving full pay for life, beginning Mar. 3, 
1826, to the surviving officers of the Continental line who had been 
entitled to half pay under the act of 1780, and the .-ame allowance 
was made to the non-commissioned officers and privates entitled to 
receive the gratuity of eighty dollars promised in 1780. This act was 
executed by the Secretary of the Treasury rather than by the Secre- 
tary of War, who administered the other pension laws until in 1835 
it was transferred from the former to the latter office. 
111. Service pensioners. 

March 18, 18 18, was passed the first service pension act, which 
provided that every resident of the U. S. who had served in the 
Revolutionary war until its close or for the term of 9 months or 
longer, at any period of the war, on the Continental establishment 
or navy, and who was by reason of his reduced circumstances in 
need of assistance, should receive a pension; if an officer, twenty 
dollars a month, if a private eight dollars. Claimants were required 
to give up invalid and all other pensions. So many frauds were 



' ■ 



REVOLUTIONARY PENSIONERS IN MAINE 193 

perpetrated under this act that in 1820 Congress required of all 
pensioners under the act, sworn schedules of their property and 
income, and under this ruling thousands of names were stricken 
from the rolls. 

In June, 1832, a still more sweeping service pension measure 
became law. It granted to all who had completed a total service of 
two years in Continental line, state troops or militia, or the navy, 
and who were not entitled to pensions under the Commutation law 
of 1824, full pay according to rank, to commence May 15, 1828, and 
not to exceed a captain's pay. All who had completed a service of 
not less than six months were to receive the same proportion of their 
full pay that their service bore to two years. Here again enormous 
frauds were unearthed. 
IV. Widows and Orphans. 

Aug. 24, 1780, Congress extended the half pay for 7 years to the 
widows or orphan children of officers who had died or should die 
in the service. This act was renewed under the Constitution in 1792 
but nothing further was done till 1836 when provision was made 
that if any soldier who would be entitled to a pension under the 
service act of 1832 (see preceding paragraph) died leaving a widow 
whose marriage took place before the expiration of his service, she 
might receive his pension as long as she might remain unmarried. 
Varied later acts were passed supplementing and extending the 
above. 

The report of the Commissioner of pensions for 1874 gives some 
interesting figures : 

Soldiers in the Revolutionary army (estimate) 289,715 

Revolutionary pensioners 57,623 

Under act of 1818 20,485 

" " 1828 1,200 

" " 1835 33425 



55,im 
Leaving a balance 2,513, pensioned under early invalid acts or by 
specific measures. The Commissioner also stated that there were 
39» 2 95 widows who received Revolutionary pensions. 

Pension Lists 

Including the principal lists published by the U. S. government, as 
far as we have noted them. There seems to be no index available 
to special pensions granted after 1840. It is well known that Revo- 



194 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

lutionary pensioners were on the rolls over a quarter century later. 
The venerable William Hutchings of Penobscot was present as an 
honored guest at the Bangor 4th of July celebration in 1865. 

1792. Invalid pension claims. Communicated to the House of 
Representatives, Dec. 14, 1792. (American state papers. Class IX. 
Claims, p. 56-68.) 

Tabular. Arranged by states (including District of Maine). Alphabetic 
by initial letter only. 7 columns: Names; Rank; Regiment; Disability: 
Date from which annual pension commenced; Monthly allowance; Arrears 
due. 

1794. Invalid pension claims. Communicated to the House of Rep- 
resentatives April 25, 1 794- [1795]. (American state papers. 
Claims. Washington, 1834. p. 83-122, 125-128, 135-145, 150-172). 
Tabular. Arranged by states (including the District of Maine). Not alpha- 
betic. Usually in 7 columns: — Names; Rank; Regiment or company or 
ship; Disability; When and where disabled; Residence [town]; To what 
pension entitled [or Monthly allowance and Arrearages] ; Remarks. 

'20. Letter from the Secretary of war, transmitting a report of the 
names, rank and line of every person placed on the pension list, in 

pursuance of the act of 18th of March, 181 8. &c Washington, 

Printed by Gales & Seaton, 1820. 672 pages. 

(16th Congress, 1st session. House. Doc. No. 55) 

Tabular. Arranged by states of residence in 1820. Alphabetic by initial 
letter only: 3 columns: — Names; Rank; Line. 

Pra'ctically all the names in this list are reprinted in the 1835 list, but 
occasionally there is variation in spelling name or added detail of service. 

9 28. Officers on the pension list. Letter from the Secretary of war, 
transmitting a list of officers on the pension roll of the U. S. desig- 
nating the states to which the officers severally belong. January 30, 

1828 Washington : printed by Gales & Seaton, 1828. 29 pages. 

(20th Congress, 1st session. House. Doc. No. 124.) 
Tabular. Arranged by states; two classes under each: Invalid pension 
list, and Revolutionary pension list. Alphabetic by initial letter only. 
Gives name and rank only; no particulars of service or present residence. 
These "Revolutionary pensioners" are those officers pensioned under the 
"service" act of 1818 who were living in 1828. 

'20. Officers, &c. pensioned under act of 1828. Letter from the 
Secretary of the treasury, transmitting a list of the names of pen- 
sioners under the law of May 15, 1828. January 13, 1829. [From 
Treasury dept.] 16 pages. 

(20th Congress, 2d session. House. Doc. No. 68.) 



REVOLUTIONARY PENSIONERS IN MAINE 195 



Tabular. Alphabetic by initial letter only. 5 columns : — Names ; Line ; 
Rank; Sum annually; State or Territory of residence at time of application. 

'31. Rejected applications for pensions, &c. Letter from the Sec- 
retary of war, transmitting a report respecting rejected applications 
for pensions. January 6, 183 1. 84 pages. 

(21st Congress, 2d session. House. Doc. No. 31) 

In two parts, each subdivided by state : a. Persons whose claims to 
pension on account of Revolutionary service have been rejected (3 columns: 
Name, Rank and Reasons for rejection) ; b. Revolutionary* pensioners 
placed on the rolls under the act of March 18, 1818, and who have been 
stricken from the pension list under act of May 1, 1820, not being con- 
sidered in indigent circumstances (2 columns: Name and Rank). 

The veterans in the second part would regularly be found in the '20 and 
'35 l^ts also. 

'S3- Report from the Secretary of war, in obedience to resolutions 
of the Senate of the 5th and 30th of June, 1834, and the 3d of March, 
1835, m relation to the pension establishment of the United States. 
Washington: Printed by Duff Green, 1835. 3 volumes. 

(23d Congress, 1st session. Senate. Doc. No. 514). 

Tabular. Arranged (1st) by state, (2d) by class of pensioners: a 
Invalid pensioners; b. Heirs of non-commissioned officers, privates, &c. 
who died in the U. S. service who obtained five years' half pay in lieu of 
bounty land, under the second section of the act of April 16. 1816; c. Pen- 
sioners under the act of March 18. 1818; d Pensioners under the act of 
June 7, 1832, (3d) by county. Alphabetic by initial letter only. Section 
[a] contains very few Revolutionary pensioners and [b] gives heirs of 
soldiers killed in the War of 1812. Sections [c] and id] are confined to 
Revolutionary pensioners ; names are alphabetic under county- by initial 
letter of family name only. 9 columns : — Names ; Rank ; Annual allowance : 
Sums received; Description of service; When placed on the pension rolls; 
Commencement of pension; Age; Remarks. Sections [<:] and \d] include 
all veterans who had been pensioned under these two acts ; many had died 
before 1835 but full entry is made, with date of death. 

'40. A census of pensioners for Revolutionary or military services : 
with their names, ages, and places of residence, as returned by the 
marshals of the several judicial districts, under the act for taking 
the sixth census. Washington: printed by Blair and Rives, 1841. 
J 95 pages. 

Tabular. Arranged by states, sub-arrangement by counties and then by 
towns. Names not alphabetic. 3 columns: Names of pensioners; Ages; 
Names of heads of families with whom pensioners resided 1840. 

There is no mark of distinction between the Revolutionary and the 
other military pensioners. The latter are evidently very few. 

This list includes a considerable number of widows. 



196 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Claims 

While the foregoing lists include the veterans who were pensioned 
under the general laws and many others, they do not by any means 
give all Revolutionary pensioners ; many of course died before the 
date of our earliest lists ; and many must have been pensioned by 
special act between the date of the last list (1840) and the death of 
the last Revolutionary veteran in the late "sixties." 

Fortunately each Hou~e of Congress publishes from time to time 
indexes of private claims brought before them and these claims in- 
clude special pension bills. Furthermore these indexes are strictly 
alphabetical and therefore easy to consult (as the pension lists are 
not). 

Such House lists are 

ist-3ist Congress. 1789-1851 (326. Cong. 1st session. House misc. doc. 

[unnumbered] serial no. 653-655). 

32d-4ist 1851-1871 (426 Cong. 3d session. House misc. doc. 

no. 109. Serial no. 1574). 

Senate list 

I4th-46th Congress. 1817-1881 (46th Cong. 3d session. Senate misc. doc. 

no. 14. Serial no. 1945-1946.) 

Notes 

In connection with the use of following list and the various pension 
lists to which it serves as an index, there are several things to bear in 
mind. In the first place this index is intended to cover all the most 
important facts recorded, and at the same time, definitely locate the original 
entry in case completer history is desired. 

As to "service", first there were the Continental regiments raised by 
Congress, such as Harrison's artillery, the Commander-in-Chief's guard, etc.. 
and the various continental regiments raised by the individual states and 
turned over to Congress, such as the 16th Mass. etc. (indicated by "Mass. 
line", etc.) There was also the Continental navy. Then came the state 
line and state navv. raised and supported by the states for home defence 
when the Continental army and navy was engaged elsewhere (indicated 
by "Mass, state", "R. I. navy", etc.) Finally came the militia of the 
states — citizens called out for temporary or special service (X. H. mil. etc.) 

The "residence" ("County" having a column for .itself, and town being 
given in "Remarks" column if reported) in each case is the place of 
domicile at date of list; most of the lists giving no intimation at all 
where soldier resided or enlisted 1775-81. The 1835 list which does contain 
particulars of service has no more than the state pensioner served from. 
Maine men of course being accredited to Massachusetts. Indeed there is 
no list in print as far as known giving Revolutionary soldiers who enlisted 
from Maine, save as one might dig some information out of "Records of 
Mass. soldiers and sailors", already alluded to. 

The "age" is of course age reported at time list was made; date of 
birth being approximated by subtracting age given from date of list; 



REVOLUTIONARY PENSIONERS IN MAINE 19; 



e. g. Obadiah Abbee, the first pensioner on our list was born about 1765 
(1835—70=1765.) 

As to Maine counties, at the time of the first list giving county of 
residence (that of 1835) the state was divided into the following: York. 
Cumberland, Lincoln, Hancock. Washington, Kennebec, Oxford, Somerset, 
Penobscot and Waldo. Before the 1840 list appeared there were three new 
counties: Franklin and Piscataquis (1838) and Aroostook (1839) and since 
that date Androscoggin, Knox and Sagadahoc have been formed. So it 
follows that a man might live in the same place, and still be recorded in 
one county in 1835, in another in 1840 and still another at time of death. 

No special effort has been made to identify different holders of the same 
name. If they lived in same county by the record and ages would approxi- 
mately correspond the has been used for entries after the first. In 

cases where there could be the lea^t doubt, separate entries have been made. 

Names from the 1820 and '31b lists are not given separate entry save 
in cases where name is not found in 1835 list; ('20) or (31b) in remarks 
column for names in '35 list signifying" that name occurs in former list, 
any variations in form of name or additional information being noted. 

The county abbreviations will be obvious. Other abbreviations are : 
d. for died, res. for residence, and Pri.. Corp., Lieut., Capt., Surg., for 
private, corporal, etc. 

Widow's names are italicized. 

Aside from the works already referred to one should consult Saffell's 
'Records of the Revolutionary war", 1858, pages 401-467, which contains a 
full treatment of the Half-pay or commutation pensioners, and an extensive 
list of officers killed in the war or possessed of right to half pay at the end. 

Maine also, since statehood, has made liberal provision for her Revolu- 
tionary veterans, as attested by "Names of soldiers of the American revolu- 
tion who applied for state bounty uiyler resolves of March 17, 1838. 
March 24, 1836 and March 20. 1836 as appear by record in the Land Office 

Compiled by Charles J. House". Augusta. Burleigh & Flynt, 1893. 

The introduction gives text of the resolves, and as the names are alpha- 
betical, thev are rot entered in this index. 



List. 



Name. 



Service. 



Rank. 



Age.j County 



Remarks. 



'35d 

'35d 

•40, 

•40 I 



Abbee, Obadiah.. 
Abbree, William. 
Abbot, Betsey 



Abbot, Henry 
Abbot, Isaac . 



I 1 

;Mass. mil. . . Private.. . . 

Cont. navy.. Lieutenant 



70 'Kennebec.. . 
S7 Washington. 
73i Waldo 



85 Lincoln. 



'35d 

•40 I I 

'35c!Abbot, John, 2d. . . :R. I. line 



Mass. line . . . Private. . . . i 



Private. . . 



72 Oxford . 
78;Oxford. 
74! Lincoln. 



'35c 
•35d, 



Abbot, Jonathan.. 
Abbot, Joseph.. . . 



Abbot, Nathaniel. 
Abbot, Philip 



'35 I 

•35di 

"40 I 

'35c Abbott, Ab 

'35d 



; Mass. line ... Private. ... 
Mass. state . . Private and 
j Corporal.; 
Mass. line. . . Private.. . . 
,N. H. mil Private 



75 [Cumberland 

80 Oxford 



N. H. 



Private. . 



'35c 



Abbott, Daniel .... iMass. line . . . Private. 
Abbott, Henry R. I. line. . . . Private. 



86Cumberland 

77jOxford 

83; Oxford 

73 Oxford 

86 York 



77 Lincoln. 

1 



Res. with Joel Abbot, 

Montville. 
'Same as Abbott, 

Henry. Residence 

Boothbay. 

fe» r— • v* 
Res. Fryeburg. 
('20 as Abbott) died 

April 18, 1824. 

Died Nov. 30, 1832. 

('20) d. April 8, 1830. 

Res. Rumford. , 
('20) d. Sept.. 1823. 
('20 and '31b, as 

Abbot.) 
('20) same as Abbot, 

Henry. 



198 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



List. 



Name. 



Service. 



Rank. Age. 



County. 



'35 [Abbott, John Mass. line. . . i Private.. 

'35 (Abbott, Silas Mass. line. . . 'Sergeant. 

'35c Acorn, Geo. Michael Mass. line. . . Private.. 

'35d: Adams, Amos Mass. line. . . Private.. 

'40 'Adams, Amos 

'35d! Adams, James Mass. state. . Private.. 

'35c Adams, .Jedediah. . Mass. line. . . Private.. 

'40 j Adams, Jemima. ... . . 

'35c, Adams, Joel Mass. line. . . Private.. 

'35ciAdams, Joseph, 1st Mass. line... Private.. 
'35c|Adams, Joseph, 2d. Mass. line. . . Private.. 

'40 ! Adams, Joseph i 

'35c' Adams, Samuel. . . . Mass. line. . . Sergeant. 



Remarks. 



'31b 



76 1 York j('20 and 

Abbot). 

83] York 'Died June 30, 1820. 

77i Lincoln U'20) d. Feb. 27, 1823 

87 1 Kennebec. . . j 
94 Somerset. . . . Res. Madison. 
90 Somerset 
83 Lincoln.. 
S3; Lincoln.. 
. . . ; Lincoln.. 
71 Lincoln.. 
68 Oxford 



'35d 
'40 
'40 
'35d 
'40 
'40 
'35d 
35c 
'40f 
1794 

'35c 



5d|Adams, Samuel .... Mass. line. . . Private. 



Mass. line . . . 1 Private. . 



Adams, Susan . . . . 
Adams, Solomon. . 
Adams, Susannah. 
Addison, John .... 
Additon, Thomas. 

Adley, Peter 

Adley. Peter | j I 

Airs, George Crane's art. 

| regt Matross 

Akley, Samuel Mass. line. . . Private.. . . 



Mass. mil. 
N. Y. line 



Private. . 
Private. . 



'40 j Akley, Samuel 

'35c Albee, Jonathan. . . Mass. line. 
'31a Albee, William 



Private. 



C20) d. July 17, 1S32. 

Res. Union. 

('20). 

('20) d. June 25, 1818. 
,('20). 

74 1 Franklin jRes. Jay. 

89iLincoln !('20, as surgeon) d. 

I March 6, 1819. 

76ILincoln ('20, 31b). 

83] Lincoln |Res. Bowdoin. 

99Penobscot . . . jRes. Corinna. 
75 'Kennebec. . . jDied Nov, 4, 183:>. 
72' Kennebec. . . jRes. Greene. 
89:Cumberland . ,Res. Freeport. 
71 Kennebec. . . 

78 Somerset . . . . | 

79 Franklin Res. Berlin. 

. . | Res. Arundel. Wound- 
ed at Brandywiae. 

76tOxford Tr'sfrred from Wiud- 

I ham Co., Vt., 1827. 
76 Oxford iRes. Rumford. 



90 Somerset 



'35d Alden, Silas. . . 
'40 lAldrich, Mary. . 

'35c'Aldrick, Henry Mass. line 

'35d Aldricks, Nathaniel Mass. Hne 

'40 'Allbee. Jonathan 

'35d Allen, Amos Mass. line 



N. H. line . . Private.. .. 



Private. 
Private.. . . 



Private. 



35d Allen, Barsham. 
'40 I 



N. H. state. . Private. 



(*20). 

Rejected as not serv- 
ing in Cont. regi- 
ments. 

69'Oxford 

79 Cumberland 

72 Oxford 

82 Cumberland 

97 Somerset . . 

74 i Lincoln 

72 York , 

76 York 'Res. South Berwick. 



!Res. Freeport. 
IDied 1S22. 
JDied March 5, 1834. 
I Res. Lexington. 
IC20. '3lb>. 



(To be continued.) 
INLAND MAINE SCENERY 



'V 



** ' ^t>- 












i Courtcsx. II. & 



Poling Down 
/. R K.) 



a Shallow Stream 



Dorothea Lynde Dix 

By John Francis Sprague. 

On the fourth day of April in the Year 1802, there was born in 
the State of Maine, one of the most remarkable women of the nine- 
teenth century, or in fact of any other century since the beginning 01" 
the world's civilization. 

Her authorized biographer, the Reverend Francis Tiffany, in the 
preface to his work published in 1890, says of her: 

Here is a woman who, as the founder o>f vast and enduring institutions 
of mercy in America and in Europe has simply no peer in the annals of 
Protestantism. 

To find her parallel in this respect, it is necessary to go back to the lives of 
such memorable Roman Catholic women as St. Theresa of Spain or Santa 
Chiara of Assisi, and to the amazing work they did in founding throughout 
European Christendom great conventional establishments. 

The birthplace of Dorothea (christened Dorothy) Lynde Dix was 
in the town of Hampden, on a charming spot whose sunny slope 
reaches the waters of the beautiful River Penobscot, since made into 
a park known as the Dorothea Dix Park. 

Her father's name was Joseph Dix, who was the son of Dr. Elijah 
Dix and was born in Worcester, Massachusetts. But little is known 
of the father except that he was in some way a failure in the battle 
of life. 

Alfred S. Roe, in his paper 1 on Dorothea Dix avers as does Tif- 
fany that she was surprisingly reticent regarding her childhood days. 
Tiffany makes no mention of her mother. 

In speaking of her evident desire to conceal all facts regarding 
her parents and her life for twelve years with them, Roe speaks of 
the mother but once, as follows : 

Mary Bigelow, Miss Dix's mother was christened May 4th, 1760, in 
Sudbury and doubtless born that year. 

Joseph Dix. whom she! eventuallv married was not born till March 26, 
1778. 

Though the mother's name was Bigelow, possibly a relative of the 

distinguished Col. Timothy Bigelow, of Worcester, yet it seems probable 
that all the remarkable traits of our heroine (Miss Dix) date back at least 
a generation. Her father was an invalid and died early, though he rated 
as a merchant in Boston ; and of the mother unpleasant stories were told 



(') Dorothea Lynde Dix: A Paper Read Before the Worcester Society 
of Antiquity by Alfred S. Roe, Nov. 20, 1888— (Published in 1889) p. 4- 



2oo SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



of excesses which would be inexcusable in the eyes of her more than 
puritanic daughter. To me, these statements seem to suggest family 
complications that to so proud a woman as Miss Dix. would have been 
intolerable if publicly discussed or even referred to. 

In this connection Tiffany 2 says : 

Her birth occurred during a temporary stay off her parents in the 

town of Hampden one in fact of the very many places in which 

her father, who was of an unstable and wandering turn of mind, appears 
for a time to have lived. 

Glimpses of this childhood are lighted on at various spots in Maine, 

New Hampshire and Vermont, as well as Worcester and Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. So painful, however, to the subsequent woman, always remained 
the memory of its bitterness that in no hour of the most confidential 
intimacy could she be induced to unlock the silence which to the very end 
of her life she maintained as to all the incidents of her early days. 

She "ran away" from her parents in Worcester 3 and put herself 
under the protection of her paternal grandmother, then a resident 
of Boston. She was then twelve years of age 4 . Her immediate par- 
ents being apparently below the average in energetic fibre, it becomes 
interesting to discover from what ancestral source had descended 
to the child the intellectual and spiritual powers and marked charac- 
teristics of greatness which she displayed in a half century of won- 
derful activities. 

Dr. Elijah Dix, the grandfather of Dorothea, was a man of dis- 
tinction in his day and a strong and forceful character. He was 
born in Watertown, Massachusetts, August 24. 1747. He was self 
educated and yet became a practitioner of medicine and surgery, 
settling in Worcester in 1770, where he remained until 1795, when 
he removed to Boston. He acquired eminence in his profession and 
amassed considerable wealth. Tiffany 3 says he was 

Strong in body, courageous and self-asserting in temperament, ambitious 
of power and position. 

He was evidently aggressive in his ways and methods and so in- 
different to public opinion that he was often unpopular with the 
public. 

He was a public spirited citizen and one of the active promoters of 
the Worcester and Boston turnpike. 



(*) Life of Dorothea Lynde Dix by Francis Tiffany (Houghton Mifflin 
Company, 1891 ) p. 1. 
(') Tiffany p 2. 
(*) lb. p. 8. 
( s ) lb. p. 4. 



DOROTHEA LYNDE DIX 201 



What few writers have studied his life and made reference to 
him have agreed that he was a man of some eccentricities and idio- 
syncrasies. 

As strange as it may seem at this time, the fact that he was the 
first citizen of Worcester to advocate the planting of shade trees for 
the adornment of the town, — Tiffany asserting it was then consid- 
ered "a remarkable idiosyncrasy of taste/' — made enemies of many 
of his townsmen : for the Puritans hated trees the same as they did 
the Indians and the wolves. 

Roe 8 states that a street in a residential part of the city of Worces- 
ter is known as Dix street thus named in his honor. 

He was a large owner of real estate in Worcester and Mr. Roe 7 es- 
timates that his estate 

Extended westward from Main Street, beyond Harvard ; and possibly 
Dix Street may mark pretty nearly its southerly line. 

While its authenticity may be questioned, a story has been handed 
down which is referred to by both Roe and Tiffany, to the effect 
that once some of the Worcester people having become enraged at 
the Doctor's dictatorial and arrogant manners concluded to drive 
him out of the town ; Roe says to "ride him on a rail." The plot was 
planned for a man to call at his house to summon him to the sick- 
bed of a pretended patient who lived out of town. Then the outlaws 
concealed in some bushes by the side of the highway were to make 
the attack upon a signal to be given by the messenger. The shrewd 
Doctor suspected that something was on foot but promptly agreed 
to make the professional visit. Before starting, however, he opened 
a window and in a loud voice said to his man-servant "bring around 
my horse at once, see that the pistols in my holsters are double 
shotted; then give the bull dog a piece of raw meat and turn him 
loose to go along." This scheme never matured. 

In Boston he was successful not only as a physician but in business 
enterprises as well. He established a large drug store on the south 
side of Faneuil Hall, and founded in South Boston chemical work-, 
for refining sulphur and purifying camphor. 

It is evident that at one time Dr. Silvester Gardiner was a busi- 
ness partner with him. Dr. Gardiner was a large owner of Maine 
lands and being a loyalist when the American Revolution broke out, 



(*) Roe's Paper (supra) p. 1. 
O lb. p. 7. 



202 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



was obliged to flee that country and go to England where he re- 
mained for several years. 

When Gardiner fled. Tiffany says. Dix was owing him money. 
Dr. Dix was himself a staunch patriot and as all of Dr. Gardiner's 
property was confiscated by the Colonial government, it is quite 
probable that had he taken advantage of this situation he might have 
avoided payment of his debt. But his sturdy honesty forbade him 
doing this and he crossed the ocean for the purpose of meeting Dr. 
Gardiner, making a settlement of their affairs and paying him what 
was his due. Probably the most carefully prepared sketch of Sil- 
vester Gardiner that has ever been written is that by the late Henry 
Sewall Webster'. In this work he makes no mention of the fact 
that these men were once partners, but in a letter which he publishes 
from Dr. Gardiner to his attorney, Oliver Whipple, dated "London. 
July 30, 1784" appears these words : 

I think it proper to acquaint you that I have wrote you fully by 
Doct. Dix, a passenger with Capt. Calahan, that soon after I had closed 
and delivered that packet, etc. 

This proves that Dr. Dix visited him and thus corroborates Tif- 
fany's .-tatement. 

Dr. Dix also purchased and dealt in quite extensive tracts of lands 
in the District of Maine. Two Maine towns, nearly one hundred 
miles distant from each other, Dixmont in Penobscot County and 
Dixfield in Oxford County, have each honored his memory as he was 
the proprietor who sold lands to the first settlers in both towns. He 
often visited his holdings in Maine and was in Dixmont when his 
death occurred, June 7, 1809, and his body was interred in the burial 
ground near Dixmont Center. 

Dr. Dix married Dorothy Lynde, Oct. 1, 1771. She was the 
daughter of Joseph Lynde and was born May 23, 1746. She is 
described as a typical example of the New England Puritan gentle- 
woman, austere, dignified and precise, with a conscience that was 
inflexible and a nature devoid of anything emotional or sentimental. 

When Dorothea sought her protection she was a widow living in 
quite a grand residence in Boston that was known as the Dix Man- 
sion. While it might have been a grim and joyless home, she was 
trained in habits of # diligence and the change secured her several 
years of education. 



•(*) Gardiner, Maine, Historical Series No. 2 by Henry Sewall Webster 
(Gardiner, Me., 1913.) 



DOROTHEA LYNDE DIX 20* 



She spent some years as a school teacher and governess, and all of 
these early experiences and duties were fitting her tor the great life 
work which destiny ordained for her. 

When quite a young girl she became interested in the then new 
religious teachings and philosophy of New England's great Unita- 
rian divine. Dr. William E. Channing. By this means she emerged 
from the gloom of Puritanism and beheld the world and looked upon 
human life from an entirely new and more tolerant angle. It was 
not until 1841 that she first began to realize what suffering and 
degradation many of the human race were enduring through the 
ignorance of their so called superiors. Her first knowledge of the 
inhuman condition of the inmates of the almshouses and jails in 
Massachusetts started her on her great career. Soon the crying 
needs of the insane demanded her attention and it was her unprece- 
dented accomplishments in their behalf which gave her world-wide 
fame. 

To comprehend the magnitude of her labors and to fully under- 
stand why iron cages, chains, clubs and starvation constituted the 
system of caring for the insane three-quarters of a century ago, one 
would have to engage in tiring research and profound study of the 
causes — theological, political and social which produced this situa- 
tion. The old theories of insanity were responsible for it. The hu- 
man mind had not then entirely recovered from the superstitions of 
the middle ages when the insane were supposed to be no more nor 
less than children of Satan ; and delusions and ravings the natural 
outbursts of. a fallen soul. This conception of these unfortunate 
ones was, that they were outside the category of human beings and 
not entitled to be treated as such. 

It was not until about the beginning of the nineteenth century that 
the more enlightened, progressive and thoughtful began to doubt the 
soundness of their beliefs. 

Like every other reform movement for the betterment of the 
human race in every age of the world, the discarding of chains, 
bleedings and duckings in the care of the insane was a slow process, 
for, like everything else of its kind it had to grope its way through 
the devious and moss-grown paths of conservatism. They first be- 
gan to unchain maniacs in this world in France in 1792. The radi- 
cal who made this startling proposal to the world was one Dr. 
Phillippe Pinel. He had charge of an asylum for incurable insane 
and asked the government to allow him to try his experiment on one- 



204 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 






fourth of his patients. This was promptly refused and it was only 
after a year's persistent effort that he succeeded in doing even this. 

But a real new idea is seldom fully established among human be- 
ings in less than a century's time. This one at least had not become 
firmly rooted in 1841. 

Space will not permit anything like a semblance of a detailed ac- 
count of the magnificent and almost marvelous achievements of 
Miss Dix in breaking down the old barriers of barbarism which 
surrounded the insane and establishing asylums of mercy for them 
in every state in the Union and in European countries. 

Prison reform was also a part of her work, which was the first 
step taken in a more rational treatment of criminals. 

Someone in writing of her has well said that her "life work was 
a romance in philanthropy.'' 

Her first work commenced with the East Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts jail. Here she found the guilty and the innocent, degen- 
erate and criminals, herded together with the insane of both sexes 
overcrowded at all times and without means of warmth in the 
severest weather. The task which she had allotted to herself was 
herculean in every sense of the word. Her part was to up-root and 
tear down the old and reconstruct on new and untried lines, to 
overwhelm ignorance with enlightenment and prejudice and bigotry 
with logic. She must enlist statesmen, politicians and publicists in 
her cause and revolutionize the public sentiment of her own coun- 
try and of other countries beyond the seas. She was to face the 
undertaking of meeting and convincing members of state and 
national legislatures, of Governors, Popes, Kings and Presidents, 
that they were at the parting of the ways and should turn and 
travel a new way, that, lighted by heavenly love, led to human 
justice and mercy. Such a project would have appalled any but 
a genius called and fitted by fate to do and to act at this juncture 
of the world's progress. 

Her first memorial to a state legislature was addressed to th^ 
General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The awful 
disclosures contained in this document and its impassioned elo- 
quence soon attracted the attention of Charles Sumner, Horace 
Mann, William E. Channing and many progressive men and ad- 
vanced thinkers who rallied to her support. She was bold and 
fearless in her message to the people through their legislature. She 
told them that their system 



DOROTHEA LYNDE DIX - 205 



Confined insane persons in cages, closets, cellars, stalls, pens; chained, 
naked, beaten with rods, and lashed into obedience. 

The success of her memorial in her own state encouraged her to 
press forward into all the other states. Her campaign in Massa- 
chusetts ended, (1841-43), she visited Rhode Island. New Jersey, 
Delaware and Pennsylvania. Later she crusaded the southern 
states. She induced state after state to build hospitals for the- 
insane. One of these, the Dixmont Hospital in Pennsylvania, was 
thus named by her in kind remembrance of and to honor the name 
of her grandfather. Dr. Dix. The year 1853 found her in Nova 
Scotia, and other parts of Canada. In 1852 -he succeeded in getting 
Congress to make an appropriation for a hospital for the insane 
in the army and navy at Washington, D. C. 

As early as 1848 it had become a settled policy of the govern- 
ment at Washington to grant tracts of lands to new states for edu- 
cation and internal improvements. In 1845 tne amount thus granted 
for these purposes had reached an aggregate of 134,704,982 acres. 
Miss Dix conceived the idea of petitioning Congress to make 
similar grants to states to be used for the insane. Her first memo- 
rial asking for 5,000,000 acres to be thus used failed of passage. 
In 1850 she, for the second time, memorialized Congress for this 
cause and then asked for 12,225,000 acres. This bill passed both 
houses of Congress but was vetoed by President Pierce. He 
drew a line between government appropriations outside the District 
of Columbia for internal improvements and purposes of an elee- 
mosynary character like the Dix bill. He contended that for this 
reason its constitutionality was in doubt and even if it were within 
the power of the government to do this it was inexpedient, because 
if this precedent should be established the states might sometime 
force all of their poor on to the nation. 

Miss Dix had at this time wrought such a change in public senti- 
ment throughout the country that this veto was bitterly criticised by 
many. 

In 1854, having become greatly exhausted by her labors, she 
decided to visit England for rest and recreation. She engaged pas- 
sage on the steamer "Arctic." When she went to pay her passage 
the clerk handed her a receipt for it but declined the money saying 
that he had been instructed by the owners of the ship to do this. 

Mr. E. K. Collins, the chief owner of the line, was on board 
the ship and when Miss Dix approached him to tender her thanks 
he said: 



206 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



The nation, Madam, owes you a debt of graditude which it can never 
repay, and of which I, as an individual, am only too happy to be thus 
privileged to mark my sense. 

Dr. Daniel Hack Tuke, a famous English alienist, and author 
of "History of the Insane in the British Isles," published in 1882, 
gives due credit to the work of Miss Dix throughout the British 
Empire and says that "she revolutionized the lunacy laws of the 
land." She extended her work to the Channel Islands and on the 
Continent. In some of the Italian cities she found the insane in a 
deplorable situation. Even in Rome the conditions were not much 
better and worse than in Naples. She decided that in order to in- 
stitute a movement for reform that would produce results an audi- 
ence with Pope Pius IX was necessary. Being only a woman, a 
foreigner and a protestant she had fears and misgivings as to the 
outcome. But whatever doubts may have troubled her were of 
short duration. Regarding this episode in her life which occurred 
in February 1856, her biographer says: 9 

Unfortunately, no letter or paper of any kind remains that might serve 
to recall the particulars of the interview Miss Dix ultimately obtained 
with Pope Plus IX. That it was one which, from the circumstances of 
the case, — the supreme spiritual authority of the Pontiff, the beautiful 
benignity of the man. and the far-reaching consequences it might entail, — 
must have called out her full resources, there can be no question. All that 
can be gathered today to illustrate the scene must come from the memories 
of certain of Miss Dix's still surviving friends, to whom, in those rare 
hours of intimacy in which she suffered her habitual reticence about 
herself to be broken through, she told the story. 

She found Pius IX benignity itself. Happily at home in English, nothing 
of the power of the plea was lost by having to pass through the medium 
of an interpreter. He listened with fixed attention to her recital, and was 
painfully shocked at its details, promising her immediately to make a 
personal examination and appointing a second audience at a later date. 
A day or two after, he drove unannounced to the insane asylum, and taking 
its officials unawares inspected the wards himself. Then, at the second 
audience granted Miss Dix, he freely acknowledged his distress at .the 
condition of things he had found, and warmly thanked her, a woman and 
a Protestant, for crossing the seas to call to his attention as Chief Shepherd 
of the Sheep these cruelly-treated members of his flock. 

When the Civil War broke out in 1861 the world wide reputa- 
tion which Miss Dix had attained made her the one person in the 
country that President Lincoln and his administration at Washing- 
ton turned to for assistance in the matter of organizing nurses for 
the armies of the north. They had then no Red Cross organiza- 



C) Tiffany (supra) p. 28X. 



DOROTHEA LYiNTDE DIX 207 

tion or anything similar to it but the exigencies of the war brought 
forth what was known as the Sanitary Commission and later on 
the Christian Commission, organizations with immense sums of 
money contributed by generous people of the northern states. 
Thousands of women nurses volunteered for the service but the 
majority of them were entirely untrained and inexperienced. Miss 
Dix was called by the government to take charge and have general 
supervision of this department. She was appointed 

Superintendent of Women Nurses, to select and assign women nurses to 
general or permanent military hospitals, they not tk> be employed in such 
hospitals without her sanction and approval, except in cases of urgent 
need. 

She continued to perform this arduous work until peace was 
declared. She won great fame in these activities and her name was 
well known in all the ranks of the Union soldiers and a household 
word throughout the north. Had she never done anything else of 
a public nature except this, history would have recorded her as 
one of the great women of the age. But even this work, as great 
and as noble as it was did not compare in magnitude with that of 
the years previous and it necessarily has a subordinate place in her 
career. 

After the close of the Civil War she again took up her labors 
for the insane and unfortunate ones of life and continued them 
until within a short time of her death. 

She was talented as a writer and during her busy life found time 
to write several books. She was the author of "Science of Common 
Things," a book that for one or two generations, had a place in 
almost every home in the country and was a standard reference. 
This little book passed through sixty editions. Other later books 
were, "Garland of Flora," "Private Hours." "Alice & Ruth." "Pris- 
ons and Prison Discipline." 

She died July 17, 1887, and the burial took place in Mt. Auburn 
Cemetery near Boston, Massachusetts. 

About a quarter of a century ago, after the fact that Miss Dix 
was born in Hampden had been fully established, certain patriotic 
men and women of Hampden, Bangor and other parts of Maine 
begun a movement for a public park in her memory. This resulted 
in the formation of a corporation known as the Dorothea Dix 
Memorial Association. A tract of land which embraced her birth- 
place was purchased and on July 4, 1899, lt was properly dedicated 
with impressive ceremonies and an oration delivered by the late 



2o8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Colonel Augustus C. Hamlin of Bangor. The following account 
of the proceedings appeared in the Bangor Daily News in its issue 
of July 5, 1899: 

Dorothea Lynde Dix, a woman who was brave, self-sacrificing and 
patriotic was honored by the Dorothea Dix Memorial Association in 
Hampden yesterday in a grand manner. It was the occasion of the dedica- 
tion of the park and erection of the liberty pole in honor of this great 
woman who gave her life for die saving of humanity. 
_ Arrangements for the celebration have been going on for several weeks 
and when the hour for the exercises to begin arrived, there were hundreds 
of people gathered at the park to participate in and listen to the interesting 
program. The procession formed in the public square at Hampden Corner 
at 10 o'clock. It was made up as follows : 

Platoon of Bangor Police. 
Newburgh Band, 20 pieces. 
Co. A, of Hampden. 45 men. 

Captain F. C. Turner, commanding. 

. 
Hon. Joseph S. Smith, chief marshal, of Bangor and staff. 
Col. F. U. Whiting, chief of staff, Hampden. 
Col. John F. Foster, adjutant general, Bangor. 
Col. \V. W. Emerson, quartermaster general. Hampden. 
Col. Walter H. Xason. surgeon general, Hampden. 
Col. Henry W. Mayo, judge advocate general. Hampden. 
Lieut. Col. Frank A. Garnsey, aide-de-camp. Bangor. 
Lieut. Col. Fred H. Small, aide-de-camp, Bangor. 
Lieut. Col. George E. Emery, aide-de-camp. Hampden. 
Hannibal Hamlin Post, No. 165. Bangor 50 men. Junior Vice Commander 

John T. Gilman. in command. 
B. H. Beale Post, Xo. 12, G. A. R., Bangor, 75 men, Commander Fred E. 

Sprague, commanding. 
Frank G. Flagg Post, G. A. K., Hampden. 30 men, Senior Vice Commander 

F. R. Packard, commanding. 
State Relief Corps of Hampden, 35 members. Mrs. J. D. Stanwood, State 

President, commanding. 
National Relief Corps of Hampden, 40 members. 

The procession marched to the park, which is situated about a mile 
below the town, followed by hundreds of people in carriages. 

Upon arriving at the park a hollow square was formed about the liberty- 
pole and at the command of Gen. Smith the stars and stripes were raised 
by Capt. Henry Snow of Brewer. As the red, white and blue banner broke 
to the breeze three rousing chcer-> were given by the assemblage. Prayer 
was offered by Prof. John S. Sewall of Bangor, chaplain of Hannibal Hamlin 
post, and Co!. A. C. Hamlin of Bangor, the orator of the day. then delivered 
his address. Col. Hamlin was personally acquainted with Miss Dix and 
his address was listened to with a great deal of interest. A poem wa^ 
read written for the occasion by Julia H. May. An address was also made 
by Mrs. H. C Beedy of Farmington. Maine, the President of the Associa- 



DOROTHEA LYNDE DIX 209 



tion. Letters were read from General Nelson A. Miles, Mrs. Mary A. 
Livermore, and others. Colonel Jerre Fenno of Bangor read the following 
invocation which had been written by Mrs. Henrietta G. Rowe of Bangor : 

Father of Mercies, Sovereign Lord, 
We take thee at thy gracious word; 
Tho' thine the power to loose and bind 
The merciful shall mercy find. 
To thee we raise our song of praise. 
In thee we live and move ; our ways 
By thee are guided; and thy love 
Fills earth below and Heaven above ; 
The heart that bleeds for other's woe. 
The generous hand, the words that glow 
With pitying love, the gifts that shine, 
Are but a pale reflex of thine. 

In connection with this story the News also published the fol- 
lowing "Notes of the Day :" 

The local military company presented a fine appearance under the com- 
mand of Capt. F. C. Turner. The men were dressed in new uniforms 
such as the regular army and the volunteer soldiers wore during the Cuban 
campaign. The company colors were carried by Michael McAulifle, who 
has seen service at many state musters in this capacity and who is a 
veteran of the Civil War. 

Congressman Boutelle and Hon. A. R. Day. collector of the port of Bangor, 
were interested spectators at the celebration. 

Many of the residences at Hampden were decorated in honor of the 
occasion. 

The flag which was raised on the liberty pole was presented by Col. Charles 
A. Jones, proprietor of the American House, Boston, and a native of 
Hampden. The flagstaff which is about 50 feet high was made by Daniel 
A. Smith of Hampden, who is 76 years of age. The pole was given by 
Melville Atwood and the topmost by George Swett. 

A party of young people came from Newburg to attend the celebration 
in a fine looking trap owned by John P. Dearborn and which was drawn 
by a handsome pair of horses. 

Many Boston and New York people are passing the summer at Hampden 
and they all attended the celebration. Mr. Fletcher and family of Wash- 
ington were interested spectators at the exercises. 

The steamer City of Bangor passed up the river when the exercises were 
in progress and saluted the assemblage. 

Patrolmen Baker, Pierce, Perkins and Harry Baker of the Bangor police 
force acted as escort to the parade. 

Mrs. J. Sewall Reed of Boston, who is visiting Mrs. D. M. Reed in 
Hampden was one of the earnest workers for the success of the occasion. 



210 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

THE PINE „ 

Let others have the maple trees, 

With all their garnered sweets. 
Let others choose the mysteries 

Of leafy oak retreats. 
I'll give to other men the fruit 

Of cherry and the vine. 
Their claims to all I'll not dispute 

If I can have the pine. 

I love it for its tapering grace, 

Its uplift strong and true. 
I love it for its fairy lace 

It throws against the blue. 
I love it for its quiet strength, 

Its hints of dreamy rest 
As, stretching forth my weary length, 

I lie here as its guest. 

No Persian rug for priceless fee 

Was e'er so richly made 
As that the pine has spread for me 

To woo me to its shade. 
No kindly friend hath ever kept 

More faithful vigil by 
A tired comrade as he slept 

Beneath his watchful eye. 

But best of all I love it for 

Its soft, eternal green ; 
Through all the winter winds that roar 

It ever blooms serene, 
And strengthens souls oppressed by fears, 

By troubles multiform, 
To turn, amid the stress of tears, 

A smiling face to storm. 

— John Kendrick Bangs. 



TOMBSTONE INSCRIPTIONS 



211 



Tombstone Inscriptions 

Some Curious, Some Notable, Some Commonplace. 

Collected and Annotated by Edgar Crosby Smith. 

(Continued from page 158) 



(right face) 
dent in Gorham : 
where, after a useful 
life, marked with pro- 
bity, he died, in the 
firm hope of a joyful 
resurrection, Dec'r 
10, 1807, aged 70; 
greatly 

(left face) 
"He that believeth in Me, 
though he were dead 
yet shall he live." 



(front) 
In memory of 
William Tyng Esq., 
formerly Sheriff of 
Cumberland, afterward 
intrusted with impor- 
tant offices in the 
Province of New 
Brunswick, & late resi- 
dent 

(back) 
greatly lamented by 
an affectionate wid- 
ow, who pays this 
tribute of conjugal 
love, & by a family 
of adopted children, 
to whom he showed 
more than parental 
kindness. 

This quaint and interesting epitaph is engraved on a freestone 
monument in the Eastern Cemetery, Portland, which marks the 
grave of a noted Loyalist, William Tyng. 

The inscription, commencing on the front face of the monument. 
reads to the right around the four sides and no attempt was made 
by the graver to complete a sentence, or a word even, before 
carrying forward the inscription to the next face. The catch-word 
such as was used at the bottom of the printed page of a cenury ago 
is here used. 

William Tyng was a son of Commodore Edward Tyng and his 
wife, Ann Waldo, and was born in Boston, August 17, 1737. The 
father, although a resident of Boston, had large business interests 
at Falmouth. The Commodore died when William was eighteen 
years old. After becoming of age William opened a bookstore in 



212 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



- Cornhill, Boston, but his large holdings of real estate in Falmouth 
caused frequent and extended visits there. 

In 1767, at the death of Moses Pearson the first sheriff of Cum- 
berland county, William Tyng was appointed his successor. In 
1769 he married Elizabeth, only child of Capt. Alexander Ross, 
and it was at about this time that he took up his permanent resi- 
dence in Portland in the Madam Ross house on the corner of the 
present Middle and Franklin streets. He resided there until 1775, 
when his loyalist sentiments rendered his environment so unpleas- 
ant that he removed to Boston. 

In 1774 he was commissioned a colonel by Governor Gage. The 
Crown had recently taken from the people the right to elect their 
civil officers, and the breach was fast widening between the Colo- 
nists and the home government. On account of his holding a 
military commission under the King and at the same time being 
sheriff of the county. Col. Tyng was looked upon with suspicion by 
some. On September 21, 1774, a meeting of delegates from Cum- 
berland county towns was held and a resolution passed requesting 
Sheriff Tyng's presence and a statement from him as to what 
position he should take regarding enforcing recent acts of Parlia- 
ment. He made a statement that he "would not as sheriff, or 
otherwise, act in conformity to or by virtue of said acts, unless by 
general consent of the County." Having abundant confidence in 
his integrity and holding the sheriff in high esteem, this statement 
was voted satisfactory. 

After leaving Portland in 1775 he remained in Boston until 
March, 1776, when that city was evacuated by the British. He 
went, with many other Loyalists, to New York and remained there 
until Lord Howe's forces evacuated the latter city in November, 
1783. The last hope of the Loyalists having perished many left 
their native soil and took up homes in New Brunswick; Col. Tyng 
was of the number, taking a tract of land at White's Cove on the St. 
John river. 

He was there held in high repute and was appointed to various 
provincial offices and was at one time chief justice. But he never 
lost his yearning for his old home at Portland. In 1793 he resigned 
his positions in the province and returned. Madam Ross in the 
meantime had removed to the neighboring town of Gorham and 
there erected a beautiful home. Col. Tyng and his wife made it 
their's. 



TOMBSTONE INSCRIPTIONS 21 



He was received most cordially by his old friends and neighbors 
and was at once restored to his former social standing. His estate, 
which had been confiscated, was restored to him for a nominal sum 
and he passed his declining years in happiness among his former 
associates. He died, suddenly, December 11, 1807. 

* * * 

SOLOMON YOSE, ESQ. 
who died Aug. 11. A. D. 1809 
Aged 41. 
Reader, if love of worth thy bosom warm. 
If virttfe please thee, or, if friendship charm. 
Upon this marble drop a tender tear, 
Worth, virtue, friendship, all are buried here. 

Solomon Yose was one of Augusta's early lawyers. Although 
he lived but four years after locating in the town, in that short 
period he acquired a large clientage and was looked upon as one of 
the leading lawyers of the section. 

He was a son of Col. Joseph Yose of Milton, Massachusetts, 
and was born there February 22, 1768. His father was an officer 
in the Revolutionary Army, entering as a captain, served seven 
years and discharged with the rank of colonel. 

Solomon Yose received his education at Harvard and was grad- 
uated from the University with the class of 1787. He decided upon 
the practice of law as a profession and studied with Levi Lincoln, 
the elder, at Worce.-ter, was admitted to the bar and commenced 
practice at Northfield, Massachusetts. In 1805 he came to Augusta. 
He was cut down suddenly in the strength of his manhood ; on 
August 11, 1809, while walking up ''Jail Hill" as it was then called, 
on his way to dinner, in apparent perfect health, he was stricken 
with appoplexy and fell, expiring immediately. 

He married, September 11, 1796, Eliza P. Chandler of Worces- 
ter. Mrs. Vose and four young sons survived him. She lived a 
widow fifty-three years and died in Augusta in June, 1862. One 
of the sons, George H., died while in college; another, Edward J., 
died at the age of 25, soon after his admission to the bar and mar- 
riage. The other sons, Gen. Rufus C. Yose and Hon. Richard H. 
Vose, became prominent residents of Augusta. 

Mr. Vose was of commanding appearance, quite a large man. 
with a military bearing. He was 41 years of age at the time of his 
death. His grave is in Mount Pleasant cemetery, Augusta. 



214 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

THOMAS DAVEE 

died 

Dec. 9, 1841, 

Aged 44 years. 

The life of Thomas Davee is a marked example of how a man of 
force and character may rise from humble and obscure environment 
to state and national repute. He was born in Plymouth, Massa- 
chusetts, December 9, 1797, and at about the time he attained his 
majority came to Maine and connected himself with Charles Blanch- 
ard, a large merchant of Portland. 

Mr. Blanchard furnished the merchandise and Mr. Davee opened 
a store in Hebron under an equal profit-sharing partnership; he 
traded there a few years and, coming to the conclusion that the 
Piscataquis settlement offered better prospects, in 1821, he removed 
to Dover and erected a potash and a small building for a store. 
He got his stock early in 1822 and became the first trader in Dover. 

From his advent in the town he took a prominent part in munici- 
pal affairs and during his whole residence here held some town 
office. As his business increased and proved successful he became 
a large real estate owner. In 1825 he was elected a representative 
to the legislature and served in the legislature of 1826 and was re- 
turned in 1827. In 1830, '31 and '32 he was a member of the Maine 
senate. All this time he had kept up his business relations with Mr/ 
Blanchard although he had personally acquired much land. 

In 183 1 he and Mr. Blanchard bought a large interest in Town- 
ship 3, Range 3, Bingham's Kennebec Purchase, East of Kennebec 
River, and that year the town was incorporated by the name of 
Blanchard in honor of the senior proprietor. In the spring of 1833. 
Mr. Davee, having disposed of the larger part of his holdings in 
Dover, removed to Blanchard. The town was then in Somerset 
county. In 1835 he was a member of the Maine House of Repre- 
sentatives from this county, his previous service being as a repre- 
sentative and senator from Penobscot. He was elected speaker of 
the house and served about two-thirds of the session when he re- 
signed to accept the honorable office of high sheriff of Somerset 
county. 

In 1836 he was elected a representative to Congress and served 
as a member of that body from March 4, 1837, to March 3, 1841. 
On his return to his home in Blanchard. in the election of 1841, he 
was elected to the Maine senate, but died on the 44th anniversary 



TOMBSTONE INSCRIPTIONS 215 

of his birth, December 9, 1841, before taking his seat. Had he 
lived but a few years longer he undoubtedly would have become 
governor of his state. He had acquired, through his years of 
membership in the state and national legislatures, his service as 
speaker of the Maine House and as sheriff of Somerset county, a 
large political following, and he was an avowed candidate for 
governor and strongly backed for the office. 

He came to this locality a poor young man only 24 years of age 
and in 20 years was one of the leading citizens of the state. He 
lies buried in the little churchyard cemetery in Monson village, the 
spot marked by a plain marble monument with the simple inscrip- 
tion graven thereon as above given. 



With this issue of the Journal we have commenced the publica- 
tion of "An Alphabetical Index of Revolutionary Pensioners, Liv- 
ing in Maine," compiled by Charles A. Flagg, Librarian of the 
Bangor Public Library, whose ability for such work is well known. 
This is by far one of the most valuable historical items ever pub- 
lished in Maine. It will prove of immeasurable importance not only 
to students of Maine history but to members of the G. A. R., and 
D. A, R., and all who are aspirants to membership in these patri- 
otic societies. We hope to be able to continue it in future numbers 
of the Journal until the entire list is complete. 



WILLIAM DeWITT HYDE 



(Read at the memorial exercises at Bowdoin College, Oct. 24th, 1917) 
Laurels to those that win them : therefore bring 

Laurels for him, not tears, although his face 

We see no more forever in this place, 
Nor hear again the voice that used to ring 
With many a noble utterance. Let us cling 

To one high purpose still thru time and space, 

Remembering with what dignity and grace 
He walked life's ways among us like a king. 
With other work in other worlds afar 

This God-commissioned man dared not delay, 
After his task was ended, where we are. 

Crown then his memory, and rejoice today 
That in his journeying from star to star, 

He, scattering only blessings, passed this way. 

— Samuel Valentine Cole. 



216 SPRAGL'E'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



York County 

(F. A. Goodall in Industrial Journal 1890.) 
The flourishing village of Cornish, the most northerly town in 
York County, is located about 30 miles from Portland, on the White 
Mountain Division of the Maine Central Railroad and is recog- 
nized as the trade center of the Ossipee Valley. The lands of Cor- 
nish, together with all that portion of York County lying between 
the Great and Little Ossipee Rivers, were bought of Captain Sun- 
day, a celebrated Indian sagamore of Xewichawnnock, by Francis 
Small, an Indian trader of Kittery. 

The deed which was made at Kittery, Nov. 28, 1668, mentions as 
the consideration, two large English blankets, two gallons of rum, 
two pounds of powder, four pounds of musket-balls and twenty 
strings of Indian beads. This title, with all similar ones, was con- 
firmed by the commission appointed by the General Court of Massa- 
chusetts. Mr. Small sold an undivided interest to Major Nicholas 
Shapleigh, of Kittery, and April 30, 171 1, transferred his remaining 
interest to his son, Samuel Small. The title appears to have been 
lost for a number of years subsequent, as there is no record of any 
transfer or occupation of this tract, which was known as the Ossi- 
pee lands, until the discovery of the original deed to Francis Small, 
in 1770, when the descendants of Small and Shapleigh took formal 
possession. A partition was effected Aug. 5, 1771, and Nov. 19, 
1779, Joshua Small, of Ossipee, — now Limington, — sold that part 
of his estate included in the present town to Joseph Dow, of New 
Market, N. H., and Benjamin Connor, of Newburyport, Mass. 

When white men first visited this part of the country it was 
found to be occupied by the Sokokis, a tribe of Indians whose chief 
dwelt on Indian, now Factory Island, Saco. A large village was 
located at the bend of the Saco River, in Fryeburg. In Hiram, just 
across the river, at the mouth of the Ossipee, a high bluff, the 
summit of which comprised about two acres of nearly level land, 
was occupied by another village. Years after, the circular spots 
of grass growing upon the sites of their wigwams gave proof of its 
long occupancy. Their chief stronghold was on the south side of 
the river, in what is now Cornish. After these Indians had seen the 
stout stockades and block houses of the white men', they employed 
carpenters from Biddeford to construct one for them, where they 
might defend themselves against the assaults of their enemies, the 
Mohawks, upon their favorite hunting grounds. The exact loca- 



v yVi>- 



YORK COUNTY 21; 



tion of this fort which was built somewhere between the present 
village and the mouth of the Ossipee, is unknown. It was strongly 
built of timbers, with bastions, or flankers, and was fourteen feet 
nigh. ." . _: ' . 



EARLY COURT RECORDS 

At the first court holden at Saco in June. A. D. 1640. the Grand Jury 
proceeded as follows : — "We that are of the greate enquest do present unto 
tilts Courte the grieveances of ourselves and the people in generall of this 
Province, or the major part thereof, the common crimes and injurious 
dealing of some inhabiting within this Province, who have and now practice 
contrary- to the peace of our Soveraigne Lord the King and contraric 
to the well fare of this Commonwealth, as exacious, extorcious, regrating. 
forestalling and other unjust practices as follows. 

INDICTMENT FOR EXTORTION.— Imprimis— "We doe present Mr. 
John Winter of Richmonds Island, for that Thomas Wise of Casco, hath 
declared upon his oath that he paid unto Mr. John Winter a noble for a 
gallon of aquavita, about two months since, and further he declareth that 
he hath credibely heard it reported, that the said Mr. Winter bought of 
Mr. George Lugton, when he was last in Casco Bay a hogshead of 
aquavita for 7 lb. starling about nine months since." 

At the same Court the following Order was made : 

It is ordered by this Court that the Worshipfull Tho. Gorges and Edward 
Godfrey, Counsellors of this Province, shall order all the inhabitants from 
Pascattaque to Kennibonke. which have any children unbaptised, that as sone 
as a minister is settled in any of their plantations, they shall bring their 
said children to baptisme and if any shall refuse to said order, that then 
the persons so refusing shall be summoned to answer this contempt 
at the next Generall Court to be holden in this Province. 



The old York gaol in York, Maine is said to be the oldest public 
building of the English Colonists in America that is now standing. 
It was built in 1653. It has been preserved with its massive stone 
dungeon and doubly barred windows of ancient days by the York 
Historical and Improvement Society. It is now used as a museum 
of local antiquities. An illustration of it may be found in the Jour- 
nal, Vol. 1. p. .42. 



Some years ago a writer in a Maine newspaper under the title : 
"Little Journeys in the Old Jail," said that "in it may be seen an 
old book by the Reverend Samuel Moody," and adds : 

The fly leaf is covered with the handwriting of the Rev. Mr. Moody, and 
can be seen by any who desire to look through the glass at the faded ink. 
The title oif the book is as queer as the man who composed it, and we repro- 
duce it, minus the old style characters used in the printing, and the italic 
and text letters used. 



218 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



The Gospel Way 

of escaping 

The doleful State of the Dammed 

With a Representation 

Of their More Aggravated Misery 

who go to Hell 

from under the Gospel 

Being the substance of several sermons 

preached at 

York in the Province of Main 

By Samuel Moody, A. M. 

Pastor of a church of Christ there 

Second Edition 

The Rev. Samuel Moody was born in Newbury, Mass., Jan. 4, 1675, and 

was a graduate of Harvard, in 1697, and a year later came to York. One 

of his peculiarities was early evinced, When he refused to have any stipulated 

salary, but relied on what people were willing to contribute for his support 

For 47 years the Rev. Samuel Moody continued in the ministry, and was at 

the memorable siege of Louisburg, in 1745, as chaplain in Pepperrell's 

regiment. He died at the ripe old age of seventy-two. 



The Maine Writers Research Club held a meeting at the Hal- 
lowell House, November 10, 1917. This Club was a factor in the 
production of the two charming and valuable Club Women's books 
already published, "Maine in History and Romance" (1915) and 
"The Trail of the Maine Pioneer" (1916). 

At this meeting the members discussed the matter of publishing 
another book the coming year along similar lines. The opinion 
seemed to prevail that the next publication should be of a character 
which would appeal to and inform boys and girls of grammar 
school age something about the history of their own State. 

Dr. Augustus O. Thomas, State Superintendent of Schools for 
Maine, was present as their guest of honor. 

Dr. Thomas in a brief talk to the club explained how such a 
volume fitted admirably with plans he had in mind for a course of 
study in the public schools and gave the project his heartiest en- 
dorsement. 

Within a month the members of the club will submit to a com- 
mittee consisting of Miss Anna L. Dingley of Auburn, Miss Jessica 
J. Haskell of Hallowell and Mrs. Boyd Bartlett of Castine, a list 
of subjects from which the material for the book will be selected 
It is expected the volume will be ready next September. 



JJULUMtiN 1AKJ 219 



Documentary 

Oxford County 
1803 

(From Massachusetts Records) 

To the Honourable Senate and Honourable House of Representatives of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts in General Court assembled at Boston. 
Jan., 1803 — 

We the subscribers your humble Petitioners, knowing that the Legislature 
are at times willing to remove the Inconviences and redress grievances 
when known to exist in any part of the Commonwealth and are not insen- 
sible of the advantages and disadvantages of an incorporate and unincor- 
porate State — We therefore pray the honourable Legislature that the Plan- 
tation called Oxford in the county of York may be Incorporated into a Town 
by the name of Oxford according to the courses and distances following, 
Viz begining at a pond at the Northeasterly corner of Waterford — thence 
North twenty Degs West six miles and one hundred and thirty rods to the 
south line of Bethel thence West 20 Deg South bounded by Bethel five 
and one haif miles thence South twenty Degs East, seven miles or there- 
abouts to Waterford line — thence by the Northwardly line of Waterford to the 
first mentioned bound and your petitioners as in duty bound will ever pray. 
(Signed) 

Asa Cum mings 
Bant. Haskell 
Jonathan Holt 

Committee chosen in behalf of the Plantation of Oxford. 



The Honourable the Senate and House of Representatives of the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts holden in Boston, May — 1804; 
We the subscribers having previously petitioned for the Plantation of 
Oxford in the county of York to be Incorporated into a Town by the name 
of Oxford — Having since been informed that we could not be Incorporated 
by that name, have at a meeting of the Inhabitants Voted to have it Incor- 
porated by the name of Albany if your Honours think fit. 
(Signed) 

Asa Cum mings 
Bant. Haskell 
Jonathan Holt 

Committee 



22o SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



x 754 

The Province of Massachusetts Bay 

To Gershom Flago Dr. 

For Work done by himself and the following hands employed by him by 

virtue of his Excellency's ( William Shirley's Warrant for building Fort 

Halifax. &c. &c. 



Men's Name*. 



Quality 



Time of 
entrance. 



Gerehom Flagg Commander July 

Thomas Cocks Carpenter 'July 

Thomas Clemens Carpenter 'July 

Rignall Odell Carpenter July 

Nathaniel Gulliver Carpenter July 

Stephen Gulliver Carpenter \ July 

Phineus Steward 'Carpenter July 

Benjamin Estey Carpenter July- 
Ralph Homenway Carpenter July 

Uriah Tucker Carpenter July 

Henry Hascali Carpenter July 

'Abraham Wyman Teamster July 

lEdmund Savage Carpenter Aug. 

Jonathan Gibb* Carpenter 'July- 
Jonathan Howland Cook July- 
Robert Williams Mason Jan. 

John Edwards .Mason |Jan. 

William Parks Mason Man. 



12 
12 
12 
12 
20 
20 
22 
22 
•>2 
23 
13 
13 
12 

22 

It 

17 
20 



N. B. — Robert Williams and John Edwards, from the time of entrance 
until discharged, worked 14 days each for the Plymouth Company which I 
have deducted ; William Parks worked 21 days for said company, also 
deducted — while waiting for the Pasuage. which are all paid by said Com- 
pany. 

Boston, November 29, 1754. 
Errors Excepted, 

(Signed) GERSHOM FLAGG. 



PETITION OF THE SELECTMEN OF THE TOWN OF 

BANGOR 

(Contributed by Raymond Fellows of Bangor, Maine) 

To the Honourable Justice of the Courts of Common Pleas to be holden 

at Castine on the First Tuesday of May, next 

The Petition of the Selectmen of the Town of Bangor in Behalf of 
said town humbly prays that your honours would take into consideration 
the want and necefsity of having a Bridge built acrofs Condeskeag stream 
in said town. Want thereof renders it difficult to the inhabitants but more 
particularly to strangers as there is some months in the year there is neither 
crofsing by water, nor Ice. The rapid settlement of the river above make 
it become publick utility to the county — Therefore we pray your Honour- 



DOCUMENTARY 221 



to take it into consideraion and grant us such afsistance as you 

in your wisdom may think fit as we in duty bound-will forever pray — 
Bangor th 9 April 1800 

Nathl Harlow 
Robert Hichborx Juxr 
Bulkeley Emerson 
NB 

From the above information the cost of building the bridge is estimated 
at 2000 dollars the distance acrofs said stream where said bridge must be 
erected is twenty five Rods. 

(On Back) 
To 
The Honourable Justice 
of the Court of Sefsions 

at Castine Petition of Selectmen 

leave to lie on the of the Town of Bangor, 

table 

Petition of the Town of 
Bangor to buil to bridge 
acrofs Condeskeg stream # 



FRAS' WALDO TO THE SURVEYOR GENERAL 

Falmouth nth August 1766 — 
Sir 

On the 7th Currant about 11 Qo. AM. in consequence of an Informa- 
tion, we the Collector and Comptroller of this Pont went went to the house 
of Enoch Ilsley Shopkeeper, & after Searching it, demanded the key of 
a Store belonging to him, but that not being granted we proceeded to 
spring the Lock of said Store, in presence of Alexr Ross Esqr a magis- 
trate who attended in obedience to a Writ of Assistance shewn him by 
the said Collector, thereupon seven hogsheads, & one small Tierce of sugar, 
& part of a hogshead, & part of a Tierce ditto, three hogshead of Rum 
& 2 Ullages of ditto, were Seized and marked (with the T) by us the 
Collector & Comptr and a lock then put on the said Store. Hereupon it became 
our endeavor to procure a proper place to remove the Goods into, as 
likewise Trucks and Horses for hailing them, but every person to whom 
we applied either refused, or were so backward that we could not obtain 
either. 

The same Evening about 6, Go. upon hearing that a rescue of the Goods 
was intended, we acquainted the aforementioned Magistrate thereof in 
writing, and requested his Support & assistance (he being the only one 
then in Town) thereupon he granted us his Warrant directed to the Sheriff 
and his Deputys requiring them to assist us. After enquiring for the 
Sheriff we found he was at a considerable distance from the Town — by 
this time (7 Qo) numbers of people were assembled round the dwelling 



222 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



House of the said Ilsley in passing whom when in a quest of a Deputy 
Sheriff we Reed some small Insult from, and having found the Deputy 
Sheriff To' Noyes we committed the said Warrant to him, and enjoyned him 
to do the needful to prevent a rescue of the Goods. Night coming on the 
people assembling in great numbers we went to the Dwelling House of 
the Comptroller being in the neighbourhood of the said Ilsleys and soon 
experienced the violence of the Mob, the House being beset and pelted 
with Clubs & Stones by intermissions until 10. or h past 10 Clock when 
they dispersed it being said that in that time the aforementioned Goods 
were carried away by persons unknown and disguised — the Morning follow- 
ing about 9 Clock the Collector having visited the said Store accordingly 
found all the said Goods missing, and in presence of Benja Wait Esqr 
enquired of said Ilsley whether he know by whom they were taken 
away, but his Answer was that he did not, he being sick and confined 
to his House — the aforementioned Deputy Sheriff declares that he was 
forcibly borne away by the Mob. his pockets Rifled and the Warrant taken 
away & he pervented from doing his duty. 

Upon the best information we can git a considerable part of the Town 
were active in the said Rescue, and we conceive it becomes our duty to 
inform that we think ourselves unsafe at present, and that it is out of our 
power to carry the Laws of Trade into Execution without some other 
support than what we at present have. 

We are very respectfully Sir 

Your most obedt Humble Servants 

Fras Waldo Collect 
Ar. Savage Comptr 
Copy 

Examd p Jno Cotton D. Secry 

(From Doc. History of Maine (Baxter Manuscripts) Vol. 14 p. 8) 



JONATHAN LONGFELLOW'S MEMORIAL TO GOVR HUTCHINSON 

Provence of the Massachusetts Bay. To the Honourable Thomas Hutchin- 
son Esqre Lieut Governor and Commander in Chief in and ovet his 
Majestys Said prove nee 

Jonathan Longfellow of Machias in the County of Lincoln, humbly 
Represents to your honor, that since your Memorialist w'as appointed by your 
honor, as one of his Majestys justices of the peace for said County, a 
number of the inhabitants of Machias who are enemies to all law and 
government, have Combined together against your Memorialist, for no 
other Reason: but, for that of his being a Civil magistrate: they have 
at divers times put your memorialist in great Bodily fear by menaces 
and threatening speaches ; and on Saturday the third day of November, 
as your memorialist was in the publick highway, in the peace of God and 
the King, four of the said disaffected persons ; vis Samuel Kenney, Jeremiah 
Obrion, James Southerland, and Joshua Webster, did attack the person 



DOCUMENTARY 



223 



of your memorialist, and in a violent manner threw him down uppon the 
ground; and then Beat, and mawled your memorialist with their fists, 
in a most Earbarous manner, so that your memorialist is wholly disenabled 
from going- about his common business, and what makes his Situation still 
more unhappy is, that there is no Magistrate nigher than Goldsboro', which 
is about twenty leagues from this place ; and those that where there, are 
now gone to Boston, and the Season of the year approaching, that makes 
it difficult passeing either by land or water; So that it is impossible for 
your memorialist to Receive any present Relief, in the disabled circum- 
stances that he is now in. 

Your memorialist would allso Represent to your honor, that, except he 
can have some other persons appointed as Justicess of the peace in this 
place, he must Resign his Commision ; it being impossible for him to do his 
duty without being in continual danger of his life from the lawless party, who 
are daly giveing out threatning speaches against any Civil officer, that 
shall presume to take any one of their party; and that they are determined 
to Support themselves by Clubb law. Conscious of the deep wisdom of 
your honor, he most humbly Submits his hard case, and the agrevated treat- 
ment he has Received, in consequence of his being appointed one of his 
majestys Justiceses ; most humbly imploreing \our honor to take the premises 
into Consideration and grant such Relief, as your honor, in your known 
great wisdom and impartiality, shall deem most for the advancement of 
Justice, and the preservation of peace, order, and good government 

and as in duty bound Shall ever pray 

Jonathan Longfellow 
Machias November 8th 1770 

(From Doc. History of Maine (Baxter Manuscripts) Vol. 14, p. 112) 



THE CENSUS OF YORK COUNTY, MAINE, IN 
WAS AS FOLLOWS : 



1820 



York 

Kittery 

Eliot 

S. Berwick 

Berwick 

Saco 

Hollis 

Biddeford 

Arundel 

Kennebunk 

Wells 

Limington 



3224 


Buxton 


1886 


Lebanon 


1679 


Sanford 


1475 


Alfred 


2736 


Shapleigh 


2532 


Cornish 


1762 


Limerick 


1738 


Newfield 


2478 


Parsonsfield 


2145 


Lyman 


2660 


Waterborough 



2122 



2500 

2222, 
183 1 
I27I 
28l5 
IO88 
1877 
1 147 
2355 
1387 
1763 

46,284 



224 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



INLAND MAINE SCENERY 



A 



' 



Si 



feu 





.... .-^ 1 i ^< ..A 



A Canoe Load of Trophies 
(Courtesy, B. & A. R. R.) 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 



Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover, Maine, by John 
Francis Sprague. Editor and Publisher. 

Terms : For all numbers issued during the year, including an index and 
all special issues, $1.00. Single copies, 25 cents. Bound volumes 2 and 3, 
$2.00 each. Volume 4, $1.75. 

Postage prepaid on all items. 

Commencing with Vol. 3, the terms will be $1.00 only to subscribers who 
pay in advance, otherwise $1.50. 



/ shall be content if those shall pronounce my History useful 
who desire to give a view of events as they did really happen. 
and as they arc very likely, in accordance with human nature, to 
repeat themselves at so)ue future time — /'/ not exactly the same. 
yet very similar. 

THUCYDIDES. Historia. i. 2, 2. 



Morrill Newman Drew' 

Honorable Morrill Newman Drew of Portland, Maine, died at 
his residence in that city September 2j, 1917. He was born in 
Fort Fairfield, Maine, May 17, [862, and was the son oi the late 
Honorable Jesse and Clarissa (Wellington) Drew. His father 
was a native of Turner in this state, but removed to Aroostook 
County in 1858, settling in Fort Fairfield. 

The late Honorable Hannibal Hamlin, Vice President of the 
United States with Abraham Lincoln and one of the founders of 
the Republican party was in many ways one of the most remarkable 
political leaders that Maine or the nation ever produced. He lived 
in a period before the later days of political ''management" which 
was graphically described by Winston Churchill in his great novels, 
"Coniston" and "Air. Crew's Career.'' He was one of the highest 
type of integrity as a statesman and politician. He assembled 
about him as political lieutenants a group of some of the staunchest 
and most honorable citizens of Maine. They were men of high 
character and standing in their communities. He had them in 
every county in the state. Men in whom he placed implicit confi- 
dence, who never betrayed him and were alwavs true — such as 



226 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Sebestian S. Marble, of Waldoboro, afterwards (1887-8) acting 
governor of Maine; Hiram Ruggles of Carmel, Mason of York 
County, the late Hiram Knowlton of Portland and in those days 
a resident, of Somerset County, and Ozias Blanchard of Piscataquis 
County. Prominent among such was Jesse Drew, the father of 
Morrill Drew. Thus he inherited taste and ability for politics. 

He studied law with the late Honorable Llewellyn Powers at 
Houlton, Maine, who was himself not only an able lawyer but one 
of the keenest politicians that eastern Maine has ever produced. 
Mr. Drew was a graduate of Bates College and the Boston Univer- 
sity School of Law. He was early admitted to the bar and began 
the practice of law in his native town of Fort Fairfield and was 
soon elected County Attorney, serving two terms as such. He was 
a member of the Legislature from his class in Aroostook County. 
Also from the City of Portland in 1903-5 and was speaker of the 
house in 1905. He filled other public positions at various times and 
was once chairman of the State Tax Commission. He was a Uni- 
versalist and at one time president of the Maine Universalist Con- 
vention. 'He was also a member of the Society of Colonial Wars 
and the Sons of the American Revolution, of various city clubs and 
high in the Masonic fraternities and a member of the Portland 
Lodge of Elks. He was a Republican in politics, yet never a narrow 
partisan but broad and liberal in his views. He was chairman of 
the Maine delegation at the Republican National Convention in 
Chicago in 191 2 and helped organize the progressive movement at 
that time. He was a close friend of Theodore Roosevelt, who 
relied upon him and believed in his ability as a political leader. 
He was also one of Portland's leading business men and was 
prominently identified with the banking interests of that city. 

Before removing to Portland he had already organized the Fort 
Fairfield National Bank, serving as its president. In 1905 he 
organized the United States Trust Company of Portland and was 
its president from that time until his death. 

He was modest and unassuming, always genial and courteous and 
a most agreeable companion. One of his strongest characteristics 
was his loyalty to his friends, who in turn were ever as true as 
steel to him. He had a host of them in Maine who will long re- 
member him with feelings of affection. He was an upright man, a 
good citizen and Portland and the State of Maine have sustained 
a loss in his decease. 



SARAH MARTIN 227 



Sarah Martin 



The recent death of Sarah Angelia (Lucas) Martin removed 
from the Dover-Foxcroft community a real woman; one of superior 
qualities in many respects, one of much culture and a strong per- 
sonality which made a marked impress upon her friends and asso- 
ciates. She was born in Guilford. Maine, June 5, 1844 an d died 
in Foxcroft, July 2, 191 7. 

She was the daughter and youngest child of William and Sally 
( Latham) Lucas, who moved to Guilford from Oxford County in 
1833. Her ancestors on both sides were of those who fought for 
American independence in 1776, and on the mother's side she 
descended in the ninth degree from Mary Chilton of Mayflower 
fame. 

On January 10, 1870, she was united in marriage with Osgood 
P. Martin, a veteran of the Civil War and a prominent and well- 
known Foxcroft man. Of this union three sons were born ; Harold 

C, a promising young physician, who died in 1900; Herman S., a 
graduate of the University of Maine and now a civil engineer of 
irrigation and railway construction in L^tah ; Selden O., formerly 
assistant professor in Harvard University and now statistician of 
the American International Corporation of New York. 

Although receiving only a common school education, she was in 
her earlier days a bright and ambitious scholar and a successful 
school teacher for ^everal years prior to her marriage. She was a 
deep thinker and held positive convictions upon all subjects which 
engaged her attention. In her youthful days she read and studied 
the then engro>sing topic of human slavery and her sympathies were 
early enlisted for the cause of the slave in the south and for the 
oppressed everywhere. 

During her entire life she was a lover of books and a close and 
appreciative reader of the best in literature. She ever took a deep 
interest in early Maine history and was an active and useful mem- 
ber of the Piscataqui> Historical Society and contributed to it 
valuable papers regarding the pioneer days of Piscataquis County. 

She was also active and enthusiastic in the work of social and 
literary clubs and patriotic societies ; a charter member of the local 

D. A. R., the Ladies of the G. A. R. and was a Harvard Dame. 
She was instrumental, with others, some years ago, in securing for 
Foxcroft the beautiful soldiers' monument, which stands on Monti- 



228 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



ment Square in that village and which was presented to the town by 
the late Peleg Washburn of Parkman. 

The work of the Red Cross appealed to her and she devoted 
much attention to it. Every movement, like the Community Chau- 
tauqua, that she realized was of benefit to the social life and en- 
hanced the uplift of the community always found in her an assidu- 
ous and true friend. She was a religious woman in the best and 
broadest sense of the term ; formerly and for many years a mem- 
ber of the Baptist, and later and at the time of her decease, a mem- 
ber of the Congregational Church, she was always faithful in 
her church work. 

She occasionally wrote along literary and historical lines for 
magazines and newspapers, and her contributions were bright and 
entertaining and ought to be collected and published. Readers of 
Sprague's Journal of Maine History will readily recall her beauti- 
ful poem which she read at the Guilford Centennial, June 17, 1916. 

From her girlhood she had believed that woman ought to have 
equal suffrage with man, and to this cause she loyally adhered and 
was a worker for it in both public and private life. 

The writer was favored with her friendship for many years and. 
in brief, we believe that Sarah Martin was a splendid type of New 
England, intellectual womanhood. She had clear, logical and ana- 
lytic mental powers and was an intelligent and interesting writer, 
both of prose and poetry. She possessed a fund of optimistic phil- 
osophy and her thought was ever of that which was highest and best 
in humanity. Its weaknesses and frailties did not attract, nor did 
gossip or scandal interest or defile her. Yet she had a keen sense of 
humor, but not of the kind that repelled or offended. 

Her intellectual activities were always along progressive lines — 
whatever ^he believed would improve or elevate — and her vision 
constantly broadened in all things as her years increased. 

She was a good and true woman and the world in which she lived 
-was made better by reason of her presence therein. 



. • 



NOTES AND FRAGMENTS 220 



Notes and Fragments 

Plagiarism — What is plagiarism? I will tell you zchat it is not' 
Ii is not plagiarism zchen the second man tells the story better than 
the' first man. (Felix Shay in Royeroft.) 



But few people are now aware that Daniel Webster when a 
young man of 22, about the year 1804, visited Bangor, Maine, with 
the intention of settling there as a lawyer. He stopped for several 
days at Hatch's Inn on Main Street, where was in later years lo- 
cated the Bangor Exchange. He, however, decided not to remain 
there and returned home. 

In 1855, upon the opening of the Bangor House, he was an in- 
vited guest and had then acquired a national reputation. On that 
occasion he referred to his first visit to that citv. 



George Cleeve was the first settler of Portland, but Richard 
Tucker who came with him was Portland's first farmer, and while 
not so prominent in hi.-tory as Cleeve he was a sort of lieutenant 
for him and active in promoting his interests. 

Richard Vines was the deputy governor of the province and 
lived at Saco. Once Cleeve sent Tucker to Saco to represent him 
on some political business before Vines. Cleeve and Vines were 
at odds with each other and Vines to get even with Cleeve caused 
him to be arrested and placed in jail for several days. 



It is said that the >oldiers in the American Revolution from the 
District of Maine numbered more than ten thousand. 



A few years ago the Maine newspapers claimed that a native of 
Maine, Sumner C. Needham, was the first man to lose his life in 
the war of the rebellion. He was born in Norway, Maine, March 
2, 1828, and was killed while a member of a Massachusetts regiment 
in the Baltimore riots. 



Mathew Franklin Whittier, the only brother of the poet. John 
Greenleaf Whittier. was once one of Maine's quite famous humor- 
ous writers. His "Ethan Spike" letters generally written for the 
Portland Transcript, the Boston Carpet Bag and the New York 



230 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Vanity Fair found their way into the columns of newspapers and 
periodicals all over the country and in the forties and fifties he 
entertained thousands of readers. 



Two epitaphs in the ancient cemetery of Wiscasset, Maine — a 
burial ground wherein, by the way, one of Washington's body 
guards, Ezekiel Averill, lies buried — on stones of husband and 
wife, side by side, are as follows : 

In Memory' of 
Menasseh Smith, Esq. 
Born at Leominster, Mass. Dec. 25, 1748 
graduated Harvard College 1775; was 
Chaplain in the Revolutionary Army; Clerk of 
S. Court of Jud. of Mass., settled 
in this town in the practice of 
law 1788: & declining public offices, 
devoted himself to the duties 
of his profession, happiness 
of his family, & offices of piety 

Died May 2, 1823 

In Memory' of 
Mrs. Hanah Smith 
She was daughter of 
Revd Daniel Emerson, of Holies, 
N. H., born Oct. 11, 1745, 
married to Menasseh Smith 
Feb. 17, 1774, and died his 
widow, April 16, 1825. 
They were pious parents of 
eight filial children ; lived 
exemplars of beneficence & ch- 
arity, & died in the Christian's 
hope of a happy immortality. 



Swan Island in Kennebec River — the island township of Perkins 
— is a group of three islands, Swan Island, Little Swan Island and 
Spaulding Island. At one point between Little Swan Island and 
the Dresden shore the main channel of the Kennebec suddenly 
bends to the eastward for a short distance and is quite narrow 
with a very swift current flowing through a rocky passage, where 
it rarely freezes even in the coldest weather. This passage is 



NOTES AND FRAGMENTS 231 



known as Love joy Narrows, taking its name from Abiel Lovejoy 
who anciently lived on the farm opposite in Dresden. Lovejoy 
was quite prominent in old Pownalborough records, but towards 
the close of the eighteenth century he moved up river to Sidney. 

Charles H. Lovejoy, who for these many years has been known 
all over Maine as the diligent and faithful messenger to the Maine 
Senate, is, we believe, a descendant of Abiel. 



Who, among the Journal readers now remember the name of 
one of Maine's sweetest singers of sixty years ago, Frances 
Laughton Mace? 

One day when eighteen years of age she sent forth through the 
columns of the Waterville Mail a few verses and in a very few days 
found herself famous. The-e are the lines: 



Only waiting till the shadows 

Are a little longer grown, 
Only waiting till the glimmer 

Of the day's last beam is flown; 
Till the night of earth is faded 

From this heart once full of day, 
Till the dawn of Heaven is breaking, 

Through the twilight soft and gray 

Only waiting till the reapers 

Have the last sheaf gathered home, 
For the summer time has faded 

And the autumn winds are come. 
Quickly, reapers, gather quickly 

The last ripe hours of my heart, 
For the bloom of life is withered, 

And I hasten to depart. 

Only waiting till the angels 

Open wide the mystic gate, 
At whose feet I long have lingered 

Weary, poor and desolate. 
Even now I hear their footsteps 

And their voices far away; 
If they call me I am waiting — 

Only waiting to obey. 



232 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Only waiting till the shadows 

Are a little longer grown. 
Only waiting till the glimmer 

Of the day's last beam is flown ; 
Then from out the folded darkness 

Holy, deathless stars shall rise. 
By whose light my soul will gladly 

Wing her passage to the skies. 

She was the daughter of Dr. Sumner Laughton, a well known 
physician of Bangor, Maine. Her husband was Benjamin H. Mace, 
once a prominent lawyer and democratic politician of eastern 
Maine. 



In 1836, President Jackson discovering a surplus in the treasury 
of the United States, asked Congress to pass an act distributing the 
sum of $28,000,000 to the different states which was done and was 
known as "Jackson's Surplus." Maine's share was $956,000. This 
amount was allotted out equally to each individual and state agents 
were employed to make the distribution. 



While Washington was the first President of the United States 
to set his foot on the soil of Maine — at Kittery when he visited 
Portsmouth, N. H. — yet James Monroe was the first President to 
make a visiting tour in Maine which was during the month of 
July, 1817. 



A subscriber of the Journal has sent us a copy of the "People's 
Advocate and Independent Democrat," a newspaper published in 
Belfast, Maine, March 29, 1844. This issue is number five of 
volume one. 

From its advertising columns we learn that Josiah Stetson was 
treasurer of the town of Lincolnville and advertised quite a long list 
of delinquent real estate tax-payers. The marine list in the port 
of Belfast was much larger then than in these days. Vessels arrived 
from many points on the Atlantic coast and from foreign ports 
as well. 



The first log house built in what is now the village of Fairfield, 
Maine, was owned and occupied by Peter Pu-hard in 1776. He 
was closely followed by General William Kendall, and from this 
pioneer the hamlet took the name of Kendall's Mills, by which it 
was known for many vears. 



NOTES AND FRAGMENTS 235 



Mr. Mauley Gower Bracket! of Milo. Maine, is a descendant of 
Anthony Brackett who settled in Portsmouth, N. H., some years 
prior to 1640. 

About all of the Braeketts of New England descended from 
either Anthony or Captain Richard Brackett of Braintree. Massa- 
chusetts. The latter is supposed to have come over with YYinthrop 
in 1629. 

The mother of Thomas Brackett Reed, the famous American 
statesman who was a native of Portland, Maine, was also of the 
same family of Braeketts. Her people were among the early set- 
tlers of Peaks Island. Two of the sons (Thomas & Anthony) of 
the original Anthony of Portsmouth married granddaughters of 
George Cleeve. 



The town of Lebanon of York County, Maine, was incorporated 
under its present name June 25. 1767. On August 22, 191 7, the 
people of that town unveiled a historical tablet having upon it the 
following inscription. 

Lebanon. Maine. 

Township granted by the Great and General Court of Massachu- 
setts, April 20, 1733. 

St. Francis Indians lodged in the Gully Oven, June 2/, 1746. 

First Meeting House erected in 1753. 

Two Garrison Houses erected in 1755. 

First Parish Organized June 26, 1765. 

Rev. Isaac Hasey first settled minister, 1765-1812. 

Town Incorporated June 17, 1767. 

Erected by the Town 191 7. 

Prof. Hovey H. Cowell of Ashburnham, Massachusetts, was Pres- 
ident of the day. George Walter Chamberlain delivered the histori- 
cal address and Rev. O. M. Lord. Rev. A. W. Anthony, and others 
participated in the exercises which were of great interest. Original 
poems were read by Miss Ethel M. Wood and Daniel Hodgdon. 
Letters were read from Gov. Carl E. Milliken and other prominent 
men who were interested but could not be present. 

One of the live business organizations of Maine is known as the 
Maine Commercial Travelers' Association. This association was 
originally formed in 188 1 but had more or less of a precarious 
existence up to 1893 when it was reorganized. The records from 



234 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



1881 to 1893 are incomplete but L. H. Loring of Portland, Maine, 
of the firm of Loring, Short & Harmon, was one of its first Presi- 
dents. Charles R. Phinney was Secretary and Treasurer as were 
also Charles K. Gage and William W. Roberts. 

The names of its presidents from 1894 to 1915 are: 



1893-1894, E. A. Gray, 


1904, Arthur E. Craig, 


1895, H. I. Nelson, 


1905, A. P. Dunham, 


1896, Bion R. Lane, 


1906, William B. Adfe, 


1807, A. M. Menish, 


1907, Harry F. Smith, 


1898, E. L. Sayward. 


1908, G. S. McKenney, 


1899, J- Marshall Hobbs, 


1909, R. A. Bragg, 


1900, J. Putnam Stevens, 


1910, F. R. Jordan, 


1901, Wm. F. Campbell, 


191 1, S. VV. Humphrey 


1902, Albert Benjamin, 


1912, I. A. Avery, 


1903, Charles C Blake, 


1913, P- S. Brickett, 



Its officers for the year 1915 were: 



Clinton B. Reynolds. President. 

J. W. Harper, Vice President, 

A. M. Menish, Clerk and Treasurer. 

BOARD OF MANAGEMENT 
The President, C. B. Reynolds. 
The Vice President, J. W. Harper. 

DIRECTORS' 
W. E. Cousins, 
George H. Peterson, 
Alfred T. Erickson. 



ARBITRATION COMMITTEE 
Edwin A. Gray, 
H. I. Nelson, 
Frank W. Jewett, 
J. Putnam Stevens, 
Howard Winslow. 

TRUSTEES 
Bion R, Lane, 
Edward L. Sayward, 
George \V. Tennant. 



A recent issue of the Portland Sunday Telegram has the follow- 
ing: 

From its formation in 1822 down to the year 1888 the membership of the 
Maine Historical Society was limited to 100, which is still the case with the 
Massachusetts Historcal society of wwich the Maine society is an offshoot 
following the dividing up of the Massachusetts Commonwealth. Since the 
death of Professor Little, H. VV. Bryant, Governor Connor and Henry 
Deering, the following are the only survivors of the early years of closely 
limited membership: Hon. William W. Thomas, elected in 1870, Dr. Geo. 
A. Wheeler, 1876, General J. P. Cilley, 1877: Hon. James P. Baxter, 1878: 
Dr. H. S. Burrage, 1878: Hon. David D. Stewart, 1879: Rev. Henry O. 
Thayer, 1880: Dr. W. S. Hill, 1881 : Stephen Berry, 1882: Prentice C. 
Manning, 1882: Hon. Joseph W. Symonds, 1882: Hon. John F. Sprague, 1884. 
The present membership of the society is almost 300. The limit is 400. 



f- 



SAYINGS OF SUBSCRIBERS 235 



Sayings of Subscribers 

Mr. Herman S. Martin, Civil Engineer, Lassen, California : 

"I find many interesting items in the Journal which I enjoy read- 
ing. They are valuable sidelights on the history of Maine." 



Mr. George E. Googins, the historian of Bar Harbor, Maine : 

"Sprague's Journal is a very valuable magazine and I find it a 
leal pleasure. I always read every- word of each number, adver- 
tisements and all." 



Mr. L. \Y. Wolff, of New York City: 

"If my subscription to the Journal has expired kindly advise me 
as I should miss it very much if I did not receive it regularly." 



Rev. George W. Hinckley, Manager of the Good Will Home Asso- 
ciation and Good Will School, Hinckley, Maine: 
"If you would regret the discontinuance of the Good Will Record 

as much as I would regret the discontinuance of Sprague's Journal 

of Maine History, then I will do all in my power to keep the Record 

a going." 



Mr. J. Sherman Douglass Ellsworth, Maine : 

"Am subscribing again to your Journal. I cannot keep house 
without that and mv wife." ' . 



Hon. Leslie C. Cornish, Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court 

of Maine: 

"The Journal is always a welcome visitor and you are rendering 
the State a substantial service in its publication." 



Hon. Allan M. Philips. Shirley, Maine: 

"In the article, 'Welchville and Some of Its Early Families,' in 
the current number of the Journal, there is an error in relation to 



236 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



the maiden name of Airs. Thomas Abbott. Her name was Eliza 
Simpson, not "Elizabeth Sampson." She was the daughter of Wil- 
liam and Abigail Simpson of Andover. 

Mrs. Abbott was a cousin of the mother of Gen'l U. S. Grant 
and the sister of Daniel F. Simpson of Turner. Maine, who was my 
wife's father." 



Judge Benjamin \Y. Blanchard, Bangor, Maine : 

"The Journal is very interesting and contains much that is oi 
great importance. I look forward to each issue with pleasure and 
other members of my family enjoy it as well as myself." 



Mr. A. H. Brown, Editor Old Town Enterprise, Old Town, Maine : 
"I enjoy the Journal and appreciate the good work you are 
doing." 



Hon. J. \Y. Manson, Pittsheld, Maine : 

"There are very many articles in the Journal of a special interest, 
Any one of which is worth all the subscription price." 



Mr. George \V. Adams, Dorchester Center, Mass. : 

"About three years ago my wife and I were visiting in Maine. 
We were at Auburn where my wife was born and brought up. I 
sugge-ted that we take a trolley ride to Waterville where we had 
formerly lived. We did so. On leaving Waterville I noticed a 
man that had taken a seat in the car on the opposite side. After 
crossing the river I changed my seat to one just behind the gentle- 
man. As we drew near the old block house I noted the ruined con- 
dition it was in and I called the gentleman's attention to*it and said 
to him that it ought to be preserved for future generations, that 
they might see what our forefathers had to do to protect themselves 
and their families from the hostile Indians. He agreed with me 
and handed me a book that he was looking over. I glanced thru it 
and handed to my wife. In a few moments she spoke to me and 
said, we want tha*- book. I gave the gentleman my name and ad- 
dress and tcld him ] would send him a check on my return to my 
home, which I did. I have received the numbers since that time 
with great pleasure and growing interest. 



SAYINGS OF SUBSCRIBERS 237 



I was born in the good old State of Maine a little over 80 years 
ago in the town of Pownal, Cumberland County. My great grand- 
mother was a sister of the great Indian fighter Joe Wyer, who 
saved many families from the ruthless Indians during his life. 

I look back to our trip to Waterville with a great deal of pleasure, 
for on that trip I found Sprague's Journal of Maine History. I 
have lived out of the State for many years but my love for the dear 
old State grows with my years. God bless you, Brother Sprague ; 
may He keep you well that you may continue the grand work that 
you have begun. I read every work of each number with increas- 
ing interest, and as proof for what I say I am enclosing my check 
for two dollars for the next two years. I hope that I may have the 
pleasure of meeting you again/' 



Albert M. Card, M. D., Head Tide, Maine : 

"I herewith renew my subscription to your most valuable publi- 
cation. I am very much interested in your work. Everyone inter- 
ested in Maine history should have the Journal/' 



Prof. William Otis Sawtelle, Haverford College, Haverford, Pa. : 
"I am always interested in your Journal, but this year especially 
since Prof. Thompson's papers on YValdoboro are being published. 
I have visited Waldoboro several times and have made a few glean- 
ings of a genealogical nature since my grandfather, Otis Kaler, 
was born there, having descended from John Kaler who came with 
Jacob Ludwig's party in 1753. Your magazine and the late Colonel 
Porter's Bangor Historical Magazine are among my most treasured 
possessions in my Maine' collection and my one hope is that you and 
your Journal will be with us for many a year to come.'* 



Mr. James Lewis, Boston, Mass. : 

"Being much interested in New England history, I have been a 
constant reader of the Journal from the first. Your recent edito- 
rial, 'Has Maine a History? If so, is it of Consequence,' was an 
able and convincing argument in favor of your position. It was 
unanswerable. I congratulate the Journal upon the good work it 
is doing." 



238 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Mr." George E. Corson, Washington, D. C. : 

"I desire to express my hearty approval of the work you are 
doing 'to develop (as you say) in the public mind a deeper appre- 
ciation for the history- of the grand old State of Maine.* As a 
native of the grand old State, within whose borders in the town of 
Lebanon, county of York, I lived the first nineteen of my seventy- 
five years, the remainder having been spent in the army during the 
Civil War and here at the Capital of our Nation, I have always 
been deeply interested in everything that concerned our noble State, 
hence your Journal appeals to me, and each number is carefully 
read. By the way, Lebanon, the town of my nativity, celebrated 
on the 20th day of August last the 150th Anniversary of its incorpo- 
ration as a town, with appropriate exercises. I had hoped to see 
some mention of the very delightful and successful affair in your 
Journal. I am sending you a newspaper account of the historical 
celebration as you may not have seen it. 

"Hoping the good people of Maine are giving you adequate sup- 
port in your historical labors. I am with all good wishes." 



Hon. Carter B. Keene, Director of Postal Saving System Washing- 
ton, D. C. : 
"I will write you some time what I think of the Journal, but the 

fact that I am renewing my subscription may give you a hint of my 

views." 



Prof. G. H. Knowlton, Vassalboro, Maine: 

"I have enjoyed the reading of the copies of your Journal which 
I have received very much. I see that you are interested in hav- 
ing Maine history taught in our schools. I am with you there. I 
send you an outline of the course of study in local history which I 
used in the schools and district of which I was Superintendent a 
few years ago in the State of Massachusetts." 

(This paper referred to is very interesting but we do not have space to 
publish it in this issue but hope to do so at a future time. 

Editor.) 



CONTENTS 



239 



O. R. Emerson, M. D. 



J. J. McVety, M. D. 




The E. & M. Hospital 

Newport, Maine 
Admits all medical and surgical cases except conta- 
gious and mental diseases 
For information, rates, etc., address: 

OLGA J. HANSON, Supt., Newport, Me. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Loyalist's of the Kennebec, and John Carleton 24 : 

Alphabetical Index of Revolutionary Pensioners in Maine 263 

Tombstone Inscriptions ... 267 

Questionnaires 272 

As It Appears to the Editor 273 

Monvel's Journal 278 

Documentary 279 

Sayings of Subscribers 282 

Index 285 



f ^% YEARS the Insurance Man of Somerset Co 

^k f Never a Failure— Never a Law Suit— What more do you want? 

*■** **4 CHARLES FOLSOM-JONES, Skowhegan Maine 

We have positive evidence of the reliability of the advertisers on these pages 



240 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



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FORT POWNALL 

An ancient Maine fort built in 1759, at what was then known as 
Wasaumkeag Point, and now Fort Point, in what is now the 
town of Stockton. It was named in honor of Thomas Pownall 
then Governor of the Massachusetts Colony. He took a deep in- 
terest in developing the resources of Maine, and historians have 
generally regarded him, as Williamson says in his history of Belfast, 
"the most popular royal governor Massachusetts ever had/' 



Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

Vol. V FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL 1918 No. 5 

Loyalists of the Kennebec 
And One of them — John Carleton 

(By Reverend Henry O. Thayer of New York City.) 

No man can think to put himself into another's net of circum- 
stances and promise sure escape. No men, no leaders of men can 
now place themselves in the exigent conditions of various former 
periods of history and promise wiser judgments, or superior action. 
No statesmen of today can rightfully declare they would have 
entered upon the American Revolution with as clear vision, wiser 
counsels, as heroic purpose. 

The passing of a century has set in clearer light the great struggle 
for independence ; has also given a fairer view of the colonies in 
their relations with the mother country, and especially a juster 
appreciation of the deplored fact, — two parties in the colonies, one 
against the measures of the King and Parliament and another still 
standing for and approving : they bore the names, the whig or son 
of liberty, the loyalist, or in common speech the tory. The name tory 
once carried intense odium, a hiss and a sting of contempt ; loyalist 
declared the fact, intending no dishonor. Now the juster judg- 
ment issues upon the principle of action, — for or against the king, 
not upon the insults, outrages, harm to property and person by 
either party upon the other. If now the loyalist be not adequately 
judged, certainly the harsh censures, implacable resentments are 
softened, or dissipated; in place of passions and heat then, are now 
candor and truth with fairness whether to condemn, apologize for, 
acquit, or approve. 

By strong sympathies and attachments some did not, by fixed, 
firm opinions some consciously could not break allegiance with Eng- 
land, when resented exactions, taxes, and constraint were laid on 
the colonies. Men do not think alike, can not feel alike ; judg- 



242 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

ments will differ; it is a human trait, inherent, axiomatic, has been 
shown in every age, in every- year, in all lines of thought and ac- 
tion, and the good man intelligent and sincere cries out regarding 
his friend equally sound and worthy — how can he take that side ? 
So once with perplexity, or angry recoil, one spoke of his neighbor 
because he was a tory. Such considerations may temper harsh 
judgments while we review incidents of the war and deeds of 
whig and tory of the lower Kennebec. 

In an early stage of the uprising that sagacious and intrepid 
leader, Samuel Adams sought to diffuse information, to incite dis- 
cussion, out of which he believed would come convictions and ac- 
tion : to that end he proposed correspondence far and wide, which 
the historian Bancroft termed "organizing Revolution.'' Adams 
declared 

if each town would declare its sense, our enemies could not divide us. 
This germinant idea grew into that efficient agency thruont the 
towns — "Committees of Correspondence, Inspection and Safety" — 
by correspondence to get and give information ; inspection, care- 
ful scrutiny of persons and events in every town ; safety, such ac- 
tion as the time required. Guiding and supporting were the town 
meetings which for the discussion of affairs the tory governor 
Hutchinson declared "ridiculous," and King George at first dis- 
liked and later denied the right to hold. Still New England held 
them all the same. Agreeably to suggestion from Boston special 
town meetings were held thruout the state in December 1772 from 
which reports went back to headquarters. In all Kennebec towns 
I assume townsmen assembled, but certainly in Woolwich. I do 
not learn that a Committee of Correspondence had yet been 
chosen, but the town met, voted, and sent on its response : 
an infant people in an infant country do not think their answer perfect in 
spelling or the words well placed, 

but had hearty good-will for the cause. I have failed to obtain in 
full the reply declaring the sentiments of the men of Woolwich in 
the first stage of the Revolution as they gathered in the old meet- 
ing house at Nequasset on that December day (unless it was too 
cold). 

In the next year, 1773, the town meeting voted 
to draw an answer to a letter cf correspondence from Boston concerning" 
our liberties and privileges. 

Similar action extended from Maine to Georgia, and there did not 
fail approval and applause for bold leaders in Boston when in 
December fragrant imported tea — 342 chests, went overboard and 



LOYALISTS OF THE KENNEBEC 243 

was put to steep in the harbor. It was currently reported some 
Indians did it. 

In the next year, lines were drawn more sharply between whig and 
tory. Joseph Warren, soon to be the lamented patriot of Bunker 
Hill, proposed "The Solemn League and Covenant," not to buy nor 
to use the merchandise of Great Britain : no trade with those who 
would sell it, names to be published of those refusing to sign: — a 
veritable boycott then though the name was not known. Gen. Gage 
called it "an unlawful, hostile, and traitorous combination. " It be- 
came intensely practical to the man and the family : was a test ap- 
plied by the radical whig often despotically in order to hunt out 
the suspected, or the wavering. The Kennebec towns did not lack 
zealous men to apply the threat and force decision upon a man to 
write his name in promise not to buy British goods. In previous 
years here some who had the king's license to sell tea and coffee 
were Joshua Baily, James Blin, Samuel Gould, Israel Smith. No 
more of that trade at their peril. 

In respect to events in these times of testing and turmoil much 
of our information comes from a loyalist source, the letters and 
journals of Revd. Jacob Bailey, the Episcopal missionary and rector 
of the West Pownalboro parish, now Dresden. He was ardently 
loyal to the British crown, as nearly all Episcopal clergymen and 
churchmen were. Intense in his feeling, severely hostile to "the 
rebels" as he termed those opposing British demands, he revealed 
by choleric epithets and overheated language the excess of his 
partisan bitterness ; yet one should condone in a measure his asperity 
in view of what he suffered, as ill-treated, reviled, threatened, put 
under bonds, mobbed, property injured, ministry hindered, he 
wisely removed in the third year of the war, fled it may be said to 
Nova Scotia after nineteen years of service extended into adjacent 
towns, and to this town. 

In 1774 the first Continental Congress was created by delegates 
of twelve colonies gathered in September at Philadelphia. The last 
days of August had brought the enforcement of the League and 
Covenant. Free acceptance, declared patriotism ; denial was held to 
reveal enemies to liberty. Pushed, often fiercely, it yielded rancor, 
and turmoil for a time. 

Excitement and wild doings at the Kennebec, not more than else- 
where doubtless, are narrated by Parson Bailey with vigorous and 
rasping language. He writes : 

A furious mob at Georgetown [Bath mainly perhaps] was running about 
in search of tea and compelling people by force of arms to sign the solemn 
league. 



244 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

It is likely that some packages of proscribed tea were cast into 
the Kennebec tides. He tells of another mob up river from which 
Mr. Nathaniel Gardiner fled : how they hunted up John Jones, the 
noted surveyor, and insisted on his signing the covenant. He 
stT-ipped open his bosom and told them they might stab him to the 
heart. They threw him headlong into the river, and then dragged 
him about till they almost tore him to pieces. He writes that a mob 
led by the noted radical leader Samuel Thompson of Brunswick 
threatened to tear down Pownalboro jail and assaulted several 
persons on their route to Wiscasset. There they forced a trader to 
sign the league, and afterwards recalling an ill remark of the man 
"went back and almost demolished him." Also there they ill- 
treated Abiel Wood, a village merchant, importer, shipbuilder, 
bold in tory sympathies with whom the Provincial Congress of 
Massachusetts was forced to deal. These lawless deeds of vehe- 
ment patriotism occurred in September 1774, for on the 23rd of 
that month Rev. Mr. Bailey was mobbed at Brunswick and soon 
after was obliged to flee from his home and be concealed for sev- 
eral days. 

I assume that after the first hot outburst of unbridled radicalism 
milder forms of enforcing the League and Covenant prevailed. We 
may regret that some other pens more sober, less partisan, did not 
write full details of those tumultuous times. 

In a few years the Kennebec atmosphere became too hot for Mr. 
Bailey's comfort and he fled to Halifax. The British had just 
seized Castine and to General McLean in command, Mr. Bailey 
sent back lists of men loyal to the king in these eastern towns. One 
muse however believe that his own strong sympathy for that side 
would put- into the lists every man believed by him to favor the 
British cause even in slight degree. Hence his list will show the 
open bold tory, the half tory, the toryish by policy of keeping 
quiet, the wavering, the undecided. 

You who are here and others in town may wish to know his 
opinion of your ancestors, if he put the loyalist mark upon your 
grandfather, or great-grandfather. This list has the names in the 
ordtr as he wrote them. 

1. John Carleton, 2. David Gilmore, 3. Capt. James Fullerton, 4. Mr.— 
Stinson (Robert), 5. James Smith, 6 to 9. Philip White and 3 sons, 10. 
Mr. Chalmers (Wm.), n. William Gilmore, 12. David Gilmore, Jr., i 3 .Mr 
Blanchard (James), 14 to 17. Mr. Lancaster and three sons, 18. James Sav- 
age, 19. Mr. Brookings (Josiah). 



LOYALISTS OF THE KENNEBEC 245 

There exists I conceive not the least reason now to conceal these 
nineteen names, nor for any one to hide the head, or blush, because 
standing in the family line leading back to one of these men. We 
can now see more clearly, judge more justly concerning personal 
opinions on the desperate issues of those times. 

A few years previous Woolwich listed 127 polls. Nineteen out 
of that number shows 15 per cent, about the same ratio appears in 
Georgetown — the five present towns — 36 in 322 polls. Pownalboro. 
cast and west, has 53 listed out of 263 polls, or 20 per cent. I have no 
means to compare these Kennebec towns with other parts of Maine. 
In parts of Massachusetts and Connecticut and beyond, the propor- 
tion was greater : in localities the loyalists equalled the whigs, or 
were in excess. 

In the list of Woolwich loyalists the first name is John Carleton. 
Of him Mr. Bailey has written'* 

a man of the highest integrity, the most undaunted fortitude, and inflexible 
loyalty. 

He had been an intimate a»d staunch friend of the Dresden rector. 
His father was also John Carleton of Andover, Mass., an original 
proprietor and settler of Woolwich, a great-grandson of the im- 
migrant Edward, coming from an English family traceable to the 
5th century. The younger Carleton had early married Jane Gil- 
more, the daughter and sister of neighbors likewise placed by Par- 
son Bailey in the loyalist list. He was in 1776 thirty-six years old 
with eight children, increased later to nine. His and his father's 
farm bordered on Xequasset (Tuisset) bay (a short distance above 
the upper Hellgate of the tidal river Sasanoa) and was early 
termed Walnut Point, and is in full view with its ancient farm-house 
on the inland sail from Kennebec to the Sheepscot. 

John Carleton was a useful townsman, was entrusted with office, 
stood in the highest social class — if indeed any social line were 
then ever thought of — and seemed to be in the path to matured 
years of large distinction. Then came the upheaval of the Revolu- 
tion, when a new compelling force swayed him and drove him in the 
view of many townsmen into a path of dishonor, and to a wretched 
death. 

Woolwich by its location shared in the riotous disorders arising 
between whig and tory disturbing the peace from Brunswick to 
Bristol. Another instance of mob lawlessness associated with those 
already mentioned is recorded by Mr. Bailey and concerned his 
friend John Carleton, and is a sample of the turbulent tactics of 



246 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

fierce radicals in that campaign against the king's friends. He 
writes : 

They seized Captain Carleton of Woolwich and having prepared a coffin 
commanded him to dig his own grave, but after all permitted him to escape. 
I fear Parson Bailey's imagination embellishes a first rumor into 
a telling story, for when a mob proposes to bury obnoxious people 
they do not stop to make coffins, nor do they carry them about in 
readiness; cold earth is thought good enough. Six years later in 
Halifax, recalling Kennebec events he writes this same incident 
more fully. 

When the whole country was rising into sedition and mobs spreading their 
rioting in every region, nothing could shake his (Carleton's) firmness, or 
abate his intrepidity: and he was met in a lonely forest by near 200 men 
in arms requiring him to sign the Solemn League and Covenant, or consent 
to be buried alive : he nobly acquiesced with the latter and with great reso- 
lution assisted in digging his own grave, but finding him still unmoved by 
their menaces they allowed him to escape. There were generous spirits 
among them swearing he was a good fellow. 

Now pruning off a few excrescences^on the story and cooling the 
rhetoric a few degress — notice no coffin this time — we still have a 
fact, a band of mobbish men voicing a wicked threat. We could 
wish a simple and unbiased statement without color. As written it 
reveals strong points of character. We can conceive a rugged inde- 
pendence which threats will not move, but responsive to calm rea- 
son, or kindly solicitation. Many men rebel at being driven. What 
elsewhere is disclosed of this man makes for belief that John 
Carleton never would have then written his name at torture, or real 
peril of life. Were there in town others who would stand an equal 
test? We can not know; some I believe. It may be that leaders 
of the wild crowd knew well the man, his opinions and his spirit, 
and gleefully used the chance to test his mettle. According to Mr. 
Bailey's story he met them fully half way. 

Nor was this a single instance of insulting, terrorizing ordeal. 
In Topsham a Mr. Wilson was actually buried to the chin — they 
have nice white sand there— and was left for friends to dig out. 
In Harpswell in April, 1775 following a spirited address on Sunday 
afternoon by Rev. Samuel Eaton, an excited crowd seized upon a 
British supporter and local officer for the king and with fierce 
threats buffetings, kicks, did put him in peril of his life, and he was 
only saved by soberer townsmen. The adventure and assaulting 
test seems to have made no change in Mr. Carleton, nor in the confi- 
dence of his townsmen. He was chosen to act with two others to 



lay out an important road. In the next spring, he with two other 
responsible men, Thwing and Fuller, agreed with business men of 
Georgetown and sent a vessel to Nantucket for corn, rye, and am- 
munition, and were to take 1-12 of the venture for Woolwich. 
Corn, rye, powder were essentials in 1775, certainly after the thrill- 
ing Lexington affair had forced the issue with George Third. 

That year the town sent Capt. John Bailey as delegate to the Pro- 
vincial Congress which convened at Concord and then removed to 
Watertown in April. Nor should any forget that in September 
Arnold's ships and men sailed along the Woolwich shore thru the 
Chopps towards Quebec on that disastrous expedition ; a few weeks 
later as depressing to the whig, as joyful to the tory, was the 
return of Colonel McCobb's regiment and others of Col. Enos' 
division, containing Woolwich men — the hopeless march abandoned. 

Slowly grew the demand of people and widened sentiment for full 
separation from Great Britain even against the doubts and recoil 
of good men. Indeed Washington when he took command of the 
army rejected the idea of independence, but in '76 declared 
''nothing else will save us." In March of that year his skill forced 
the British army out of Boston. Then in dismay were hundreds of 
loyalists, who had fled from home towns to British protection : now 
defenceless, powerless, hated ; their former jeers at the sons of 
liberty cast back upon themselves, beggary threatening, no way 
was open but to flee to Nova Scotia. Eleven hundred tory refugees 
crowded the army transports to get away from the city. One 
among them was David Phipps, owner of Phipps Neck, but resid- 
ing in Cambridge. His Woolwich property was soon in the grasp 
of the Provincial Congress under the tory confiscation act. 

The confiscation policy was applied in June 1776 in Woolwich. 
Three estates were taken for the government by Nathaniel Thwing, 
chairman of the Committee of Correspondence and Safety. He 
was a judicious leader devoted to the cause of liberty. The one 
thousand acre lot at the Chopps, originally Robert Temple's grant, 
and possessed by Samuel Waterhouse, who had slipped away to 
London, was taken and leased to James Blair for one pound, ten 
shillings yearly. A farm of fifty acres at Monsweag in the pos- 
session of Philip Goldthwait was put likewise under lease but in 
the end by peculiar circumstances was restored to the owner, his 
brother. It was the Richard Hunnewell farm. The confiscated 



248 SPKAGUfc/S JOURNAL OF MAINE fcLlbTOKY 

Phipps estate, comprised five hundred acres, with a yoke of oxen 
and steers, six cows, a heifer and calf, and fourteen sheep. This 
was leased to Phipps' farmer, Jonathan Fuller for four pounds ten. 
By a legal technicality it escaped but Col. Phipps lost it all the same 
by that other omnipresent confiscation, even now, debt. 

As the conflict went on from '/6 to '78, the issue at times seeming 
desperate for the weak army, thirteen colonies against the British 
empire, harsher became the dealings with loyalists. In social and 
business life in sections of New England they were proscribed: 
millers 'would not grind their corn ; in Worcester county forty-three 
blacksmiths pledged to do no work for them ; no trading with, no 
labor for them was urged. Sometimes their guns were taken away : 
wealthy men, former office-holders were insulted, bullets shot into 
their houses. Tar and feathers was a common threat and in some 
cases applied. Also, laws were passed bearing severely upon them. 
In Massachusetts persons under suspicion for tory aid or sympathy 
might be disarmed, could hold no office, might be sent to jail, or 
into the British lines. To return would invite severe penalty. Still 
these men were only loyalists, — loyal to their accepted king and 
government, loyal to ingrown attachments, and in the main to 
conscientious convictions. Let us not fail to yield them proper 
respect, their honest due. 

. The Rev. Mr. Bailey wrote with bitterness : one must not deny 
measures of truth in his censure. He says : 

They aimed to suppress the tories, so enacted the most cruel and unrea- 
sonable laws, putting in the power of any ill-natured and malicious man 
to ruin his neighbors. 

He also charges arbitrary proceding by magistrates, and asserts that 
several conscientious people to avoid their unjust and merciless tyranny 
fled out of the country. 

Instances he gives, as do others, of that tyranny. Nathaniel Gar- 
diner of the Gardiner family fled from enforcement of the Covenant; 
again aiding the enemy he was captured, carried to New Meadows, 
there taken by several men, called rebels — Wood, Lamont, and 
others, before Dummer Sewall Esq., at Bath, who at once sent him 
to Casco jail from which he escaped after several months. John 
Jones was also in that jail a while. William Gardiner was con- 
demned to be transported. Captain Charles Callahan, one of Mr. 
Bailey's parish officers in Dresden, intending: to be neutral was still 
harassed, fined, till believing himself unjustly treated he unmasked 
into a bold tory, became a daring scourge by seizing small vessels 



in the river and outside, but was driven out by the coast guards in 
1778, and became commander of a twelve gun man-of-war. John 
Bernard of Bath was under bonds awhile and in Ca^co jail, but later 
cast off the harsh charge of disloyalty and recovered lands at Mt. 
Desert. Edward Parry, mast contractor at Harward's cove for 
Halifax shipyards, was put under bonds, guarded, then sent far in- 
land for safe keeping. I was told of two or three men of Arrowsic 
who slipped away, but returned after the war, but have learned of 
no Woolwich men except some young fellows who shared Mr. Carle- 
ton's adventures. 

After the war, in the new era of Independence a resolution was 
offered in town meeting July I/83, by Nathaniel Thwing and voted 
concerning Absentees in severely accusing language. 
It is not safe for those Tories, or Refugees, who have left their country 
and acted the unnatural part of parracides and murderers to come and 
have their lot and portion with us. 

This may not intend — or it may — particular townsmen : more 
likely it declared the proper sentiment and attitude of the whole 
country towards refugees and loyalists. 

Laws against loyalists did not lie inert in Woolwich more than 
elsewhere in New England. In July 1777 the town voted, 
To choose a person firmly attached to the American cause to procure and 
lay before the court — the county board of justices — the evidence that may 
be had; and that the selectmen lay before town the list of persons who shall 
be thought inimical enemies to this or any of the United States. 
An agent of the town was deputed to hunt out tories. The 
Committee of Inspection and Safety this year was, — Nathaniel 
Thwing, Samuel Harnden, Solomon Walker, Joseph Wade, Jona- 
than Fuller, Elijah Grant, Nathaniel Tibbetts, — the strong, lead- 
ing patriotic men. 

Mr. Samuel Stinson, afterwards the Baptist elder, was selected 
to seek evidence. Later within these very walls without doubt the 
list was presented to the assembly, Brigadier Harnden, Modera- 
tor, — a list exceedingly interesting now if we had it, showing whig 
opinions of suspected loyalists. We can only know this : — it was 
voted that four names be struck from the list, James Blanchard, 
John Carleton, William Gilmore, Robert Stinson. All were in 
Mr. Bailey's tory list ; against all, or all but one, the court took action. 
But that day the town voted them off the black list. Why? One 
will ask in vain. What evidence, lack of evidence, what under- 
current of motive, or personal feeling, entered into that vote? 
The town did erase imputations of disloyalty from its agent's re- 



port, and one man was his own brother. But who were left on 
the list? 

Did any tremble? Nay, they would regard themselves light 
weight cases when four chief suspected men were freed from the 
charge. Intensity of feeling fired by trifles into wrangles, or in- 
sult revealed itself in this quiet town. It is told that a squad of 
militiamen at their drill wore the liberty emblem, the whig cockade. 
Two men in levity, or derision, twisted a handful of grass into a 
knot for their hats. The company, demanded quick removal of 
the mocking wisps, and apology under threat to bury alive. At 
a similar gathering the testing question was passed along a line of 
spectators, What are you ? On which side ? One or two not mak- 
ing reply were pulled forth, hooted at, threatened, "Speak out, 
tell what you are, or we'll dig a grave and shoot you into it.'' 
Several men met in the mill-house here, near the falls to consult 
regarding evidence and action against tories. A hint of it reached 
Mr. David Gilmore at the mill. Violently denouncing such busi- 
ness by whatever sentiment he stopped his saw% rushed to the house 
and into the room, jumped on their table smashing it, kicked away 
the papers and wrathfully drove all out with fists and feet, and 
only by a friendly arm was hindered from delivering a hard blow 
emphasizing an angry threat, onto the jaw of Reverend Mr. Win- 
ship, a spirited whig assisting the private inquiry. Such wrangles 
and brawls, threats and assaults, pertained, I think, to the first 
years of dividing opinions and drawing lines of fealty. 

The Woolwich voters revised the list of suspects, names were 
carried to the old Dresden court house, and from other towns as 
well. On Oct. 7 a special court was held. Warrants and arrests 
followed. John Jones, then of Vassalboro, and eight others were 
haled before the magistrates, and Mr. Blanchard of Woolwich. 
John Carleton avoided arrest as Mr. Bailey tells with usual asperity : 
He was cleared by a unanimous vote of the town, but was pursued by a 
warrant from those inexorable and avaricious judges: he had the good 
fortune to conceal himself from their malicious scrutiny till the season of 
persecution was over. 

Not now intrepid and defiant, as formerly in the woods, but 
shrinking and cautious, he put himself beyond the sheriffs reach. 

Another name struck from the list was Robert Stinson Never- 
theless the court summoned him by officers with a warrant. By 
Parson Bailey's heated pen we get a glimpse of the distressing 
facts. 



LOYALISTS OF THE KENNEBEC 251 

Pursued by the same virulent combination, but arming himself to resist 
officers who attempted to break into his house, his wife was so terrified 
at the commotion that she fell into travail and expired. 
A tragedy in a few lines; truly a tragedy, threats of sheriffs, 
resistance, the terrors of death, with the infant's birth that day in 
that house on the hill. I wish I had more incidents by a calmer 
pen. We accept two facts — forcible entry in the name of the law, 
a wife's deplorable death in such a way at such an hour! Imagina- 
tion must fill in details of the calamity. Yet public records sup- 
plement the woeful recital. "Alary Paine, wife of Lieutenant 
Robert Stinson, died Oct. 9, 1777, aged 38." Jane his (then) young- 
est child was born Oct. 9, 1777. Special Court sat at Pownalboro 
Oct. 7, two days previous to the attempted arrest. I will believe 
that those officers learning the occurrences, the terror, the bereave- 
ment, the dead, the living, a husband and eight children in that 
home, and one more, an infant of an hour, those men sworn to 
duty, imperative by law, yet humane and pitying, retired to report 
at court — no arrest. 

If valid evidence against Lieutenant Stinson existed I may not 
say. His own brother had found it duty to bring in charges : the same, 
or others, went up to the court. The magistrates summoned him 
for examination. Then the tragedy, months of trial, merciless 
testing of his convictions, or wavering loyalty, and the wreck at 
home. Did his opinions need revision and did such chastening and 
the next year produce a change? I know not. Whatever had 
intervened, certainly his townsmen's confidence three years later 
made him selectman : he was selected to be one of the Commit- 
tee of Correspondence and Safety, an office requiring judicious.. 
active men of known fidelity to the cause of American liberty. 
In 1 78 1 he served in procuring men for the town's quota in the 
army. Had he changed? I can not know only that sound con- 
scientious men as that conflict grew on did not at first, not at once 
know the path of personal duty. 

There was one, Thomas Percy, ancestor of the honored family 
of the name in these Sagadahoc towns, who had a sore trial in 
conscience and intelligent inquiry in respect to the stand he must 
take, but did put himself on the right side at length. Parson 
Bailey wrote him down a loyalist, as also his two sons, who after 
a time, with no alacrity, signed the Covenant, rather by necessity 
under complaint of General Samuel McCobb. 



252 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

It was natural that some men slow in decision, unconvinced at 
the outset, in clearer light of events and drift of sentiment, should 
reconstruct their opinions, and approve and support the new 
patriotism. 

At a second session of the tory court, Mr. Bailey says, James 
Blanchard was released by lack of evidence, yet that year both 
he and John Carleton paid twelve pounds in fines for not going 
into the Continental army. 

If we would like to see those magistrates in session — Samuel 
Harnden and Nathaniel Thwing among them, in the old Dresder 
Court House, we may take Parson Bailey's eyes and pen at one 
trial :— 

Justice Bowman sat swelling in gloomy solemnity surrounded with the ac- 
cusers and other dark and determined instruments of his indignation. 
Each one of them had divested himself of every humane and tender senti- 
ment 

Mild indeed were arrest, trials, fines in Maine compared with 
horrible deeds in other states : whig upon tory and tory upon 
whig, as plundering, rapine, murder, shrieking barbarities followed 
vengeful retaliations. I must believe that subsequent to those 
trials in the autumn of 1777, there was at the Kennebec cessation 
in tory hunting, and if no active disloyalty was shown, the open. 
or suspected loyalists as other citizens, applied themselves to their 
concerns, their struggles to get a living and bear the burdens of 
the war. Clothing and food for the army made demands : as late 
as 1781 Lincoln County was called on for 528,000 lbs. of beef: 
Woolwich's share was 2,177 1 DS - Food was scarce with many at 
the Kennebec. Mr. Bailey knew families without bread for three 
months at a time : many even twenty miles inland sought the clam- 
banks. 

Such privations in part, but more, increasing hostility to his un- 
concealed tory attitude, forced Mr. Bailey to abandon his parish. 

He obtained official permission in Boston to leave the state. 
After forced delays he left the Dresden parsonage June 7, 1779: 
the family consisting of four persons. For farewell visits he went 
down directly to Squirrel Point, Arrowsic, to William But- 
ler's. I have not found names of parishioners, or friends, visited 
by him which he did not put in his tory lists, except one, for Epis- 
copal people were almost wholly on that side. Next morning un- 
able to visit Mr. Percy at Cox's Head, the family with tearful fare- 
wells at the shore, a salmon and pot of butter. from Mrs. Butler's 



LOYALISTS OF THE KENNEBEC 253 

hand, swept up on the tide to Mr. (Joseph) Preble's at the head 
of the island, — "that friendly and loyal family" he remarks. Thence 
they sailed across the bay to Mr. Carleton's at Walnut Point. He 
made farewell calls on David Gilmore, then at William Gilmore's 
where on the previous autumn he had baptized a child of Captain 
James Fullerton. At evening he says he drank coffee, not tea of 
course, in a company of twenty-two, yet Mr. Carleton was absent, 
having gone to Wiscasset to procure supplies for the voyage. 

Mr. Bailey was much alarmed at seeing a sail coming across the 
bay, and admitted grave fears in his acrid language, that it might 
be Sheriff Cushing, or some of his infernal attendants in a mis- 
chievous design to interrupt the voyage. In fact his fears had 
good reason, for he knew that he had papers highly treasonable 
which he, a citizen of Massachusetts, was carrying directly to the 
enemy. Had the sheriff searched him, what would be his fate? 
His alarm was dispelled for the boat brought only Mr. Carleton's 
brother. 

In the home of "this generous, friendly hero," as he calls John 
Carleton, he spent the last night in his mission field, disturbed at 
the thought of leaving such benevolent friends exposed to the rage 
of persecution and vengeance of rebels, which means that he knew 
that the friendly hero might be put in extreme peril. With sun- 
rise they hasted away up the hill on to the old ferry — Tibbett's — 
where Capt. James Smith's little schooner of fifteen tons was 
moored in waiting. Many times have I gone forth from that same 
farmhouse by that road and have seen in imagination the com- 
pany of pitying friends attending the minister and family into 
exile, and likewise beheld the little craft slip away by Hockomoc 
to the Sheepscot. But also now we must take a look at Skipper 
Smith at the wheel pictured by Bailey's facile pen : — 
clothed in a long- swingling coat and the ret of his habit (clothing) dis- 
played the venerable signatures of antiquity both in form and materials. His 
hat carried a long peak before exactly perpendicular to the longitude of 
his aquiline nose. 

Then in grim pleasantry he describes the raiment of himself and 
spouse, ancient, dilapadated, deep-worn, patched, and bedraggled, 
and mortifying, when he must first show himself at Halifax. But 
sadly for himself the one necessitous universal inner garment was 
more irritating than any rough robe of penance, because it was 
"a coarse tow and linen shirt manufactured in the looms of sedi- 



254 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

tion." Alas! humiliated man, forced to the looms of sedition to 
obtain a shirt. 

Here as he sails away we can not wholly bid farewell to Parson 
Bailey, whose affairs have been so closely entwined in this narra- 
tion, because his pen furnished so much by aid of which could 
be exhibited the loyalists of the Kennebec. At Halifax he met 
the wife of David Phipps, a refugee there, and wrote her request 
to Mr. Carleton to point out her property to British officers if they 
come that way, that it might escape plundering. A British force 
had just seized the Penobscot and fortified Castine, and there was 
alarm least they would sweep along the coast and take possession 
of Portland harbor. 

Rev. Mr. Bailey highly appreciated the open-handed generosity 
of Mr. Carleton to himself and family, also to other loyalists, de- 
claring that he had concealed in his house and aided to escape 
several men sought by sheriffs. However real his toryism at this time, 
how disguised or how open, he held his townsmen's confidence for 
at the next March meeting he was chosen surveyor of lumber and 
deer-reeve. 

Within a year startling events occurred. Mr. Bailey wrote a 
friend : — 

Mr. Carleton was plundered by the rebels and after a variety of adventures 
reached British lines in company with several young men of his neighbor- 
hood. 

This was written April 7, 1781. Another letter gives further de- 
tails : 

Carleton being taken by a British vessel and carried to Castine was sent 
in his own schooner by Col. Campbell as a cartel to Boston. But without 
any regard to the sanctity- of a flag, the rebels seized his vessel and plun- 
dered his effects. He was fortunate enough to escape and with two or 
three young fellows belonging to Woolwich reached Penobscot in safety 
leaving a wife and ten (9) children to the mercy of rebels. 
Spiteful whigs might say, sailed out on purpose to be taken. 
Much more is needed to complete Mr. Bailey's statement and to 
show the actual facts. High coloring, intense and bitter censure 
entered whatever he wrote concerning the so-called rebels, tho 
large freedom would be expected in private letters. 

That year anxiety and distress prevailed in Maine. In Februarv 
the Legislature petitioned for a vessel of war to cruise on the coast 
because 

armed vessels commit horrid depredations and cruelties on the inhabitants 
of the sea-coast towns of Lincoln County. 



lAJYAU.blb Vk Ltih. K£.JNi\lliBlHJ 255 

Mr. Carleton took risk in sailing whatever were his enterprises. 
He was captured. At Castine he was known: his name was first 
in the list sent from Halifax by Bailey to the commander. What- 
ever was the report he made of himself, General McLean believed 
him a suitable messenger to army officers at Boston. We need 
the other side of the story of what happened there. I cannot credit 
fully so plain a violation of the white flag of a messenger. Rash 
radicals there were, blustering officers no doubt, also politic 
leaders who would not flatly disregard the usages of war nor 
affront an enemy able to seize Portland Harbor. Was there a 
reputed tory in the state not listed in the books of inspection com- 
mittees? Mr. Carleton could not be unknown in Boston. Hence 
granting colorable truth to Mr. Bailey, a fair view will say that 
rash zealous men might arrest the master of this craft in the dock 
and rudely search his vessel, even confiscate articles thought con- 
traband, before his credentials and the purpose of his coming were 
fully determined by the governor's officers. They might do it, for a 
Kennebec skipper and schooner in the service of the enemy would 
excite doubt or anger in hangers-on at the wharves or sounder men. 
Carleton would fall under suspicion, meet insolence or threats and 
feel insults to his crew. Out of imperfect reports by whomsoever 
made Rev. Mr. Bailey could construct his story, could write 
"fortunate escape" for Mr. Carleton, when having performed his 
messenger's duty he with due clearance sailed out free. He might 
well be sore or resentful at indignities and lawless threats. 

He returned to Castine as in duty bound. The adventure and 
mishap by capture at sea seems to have forced him with no 
previous intention into undisguised and active torvism, obliging 
him to remain at Penobscot, a prisoner of war if the commander 
pleased or a voluntary refugee. Thus he was started on a path of dis- 
honor and of peril and the way closed to a return home and to former 
town relations. I must believe that whatever were the actual facts 
of this obscure affair, it marked a turning point in his career, it 
separated him from his family. The adventure I place in February 
or March 1781, — yet possibly in the previous late autumn. 

Now practically perhaps heartily identified with British in- 
terests and refugee life at Penobscot, he sailed away to the Ken- 
nebec in May under the white flag for some families. Many 
loyalists of Maine timid or resentful had fled to the British for pro- 
tection. Some were from these river towns and now sought their 
wives and children. I heard one family name of Arrowsic men- 



tioned but the matter is too uncertain to assign a name. It is only 
for conjecture also who were the young men of Woolwich in Mr. 
Carleton's schooner crew. 

The aggressive enemy established at Castine brought on a form 
of border warfare. Loyalist residents there or in home towns be- 
coming confederates and assistants made it more terrible. There- 
fore in May 1781, the General Court at Boston voted: — 
Lincoln County being far from the seat of government and near the enemy 
and execution of the laws inefficient, the Committee of Safety are em- 
powered to arrest any seeming dangerous to the Commonwealth and aiding 
the enemy, and send them if expedient to Boston with evidence. 
Active tories were put in peril by this act, and it had a sharp threat 
for men like John Carleton. 

He by luckless capture at sea, by insults and lawlessness at Bos- 
ton, and by motives undiscerned had been driven over to the 
enemy, — perhaps by him now called friends because subjects and 
friends of his acknowledged king. Nevertheless to his credit, his 
heart drew him towards his family and soon he was devising means 
to return. He obtained from leaders at Kennebec promise of pro- 
tection against radicals. In Woolwich, Thwing, Harnden, Walker 
and associates were good men and would deal fairly with him, but 
outside headstrong violent whigs might spring a trap on him. He 
had written to Mr. Bailey his intentions to return home. His 
friend dissuaded, urging: 

It would not be prudent to put yourself in their power for however honest 
Mr. McCobb's intentions, there is a power in the Governor and Council 
to apprehend any person they please and to proceed with him according 
to martial law, for it can not be denied that according to their laws you 
have been guilty of treason. 

By such advice maturing his own convictions of wise policy he 
postponed the attempt, — a decision we may believe involving his 
ruin though he could not foresee it, by opening a new path hedged 
in by fated necessity and more perilous than the desired return to 
the Kennebec and his home. 

m In those momentous times the sea and the land alike witnessed 
the ravages of war. Yankee privateers up to the year 1778, had 
swept off British commerce to the extent of nine millions of 
dollars, as was declared by an English Lord in Parliament. In the 
entire war about 800 vessels of all kinds were taken by cruisers 
and privateers, but British cruisers captured about as many. Of 
armed vessels, the Americans lost 24 with 470 guns, but the British 
loss 102 vessels and 2,600 guns. But on land British soldiers 



in some states wantonly burned villages and farmhouses some- 
times adding murders with fiendish barbarity. 

Seizure and destruction of an enemy's property was sanctioned 
by the laws of war. One instance, a sample: — Royal troops from 
New York made a raid on Martha's Vineyard, burned a score of 
vessels, many buidings, demanded large sums of money, and carried 
off at one time 300 oxen and 200 sheep. Refugee loyalists in towns 
held by the British were execrated for vengeful plundering as thev 
became agents of the soldiers to raid whig property. Similar evil 
work was done in Maine. 

Its seacoast, especially east of Casco bay, suffered incursions of 
large and small craft from the provinces and later from the post at 
Penobscot. Seamen tories piloted British craft or made raids on 
their own account. Thieving boats and sloops dodged along shore. 
They were called "shaving-mills." I do not get the point in that name, 
unless they shaved off everything wherever they could tie up in a cove 
or stream and get ashore unseen — cattle, sheep, crops, geese, pigs. 
Such shavings largely fed Penobscot refugees. An instance else- 
where reveals the doings and the excuses of loyalist plunderers. A 
party associated with the British holding New York, went to Nan- 
tucket, carried off every thing usable from the land, the warehouses, 
also vessels at the wharves. They left posted up a proclamation in 
their defence, — asserting that 

they had been compelled to abandon their dwellings and friends and to lose 
their property; therefore they believed themselves warranted by the laws 
of God and man to wage war against their persecutors * * and to ob- 
tain compensation for their sufferings. 

No delay is needed with the ethics of that plea or the value of 
the excuse. We may believe it was a frequent form of self- 
justification of tory thieving, and often sufficed self-exiled men at 
Penobscot, respecting a sheep from the pasture, corn or potatoes 
from the field, West India goods in a warehouse, or boats at a 
wharf. 

Among such foragers along the shores of Lincoln and Cumber- 
land counties, must be placed John Carleton. Testimony has not 
been lacking. People of Phipsburg knew and told it all thru the 
last century. Whether much or little, alone or with companions 
no details remain, — pilot for a marauding craft, skipper for a tory 
boat crew, or as probable taking his trips alone on the shores he 
knew so well he did gather the fruits of other men's labors. I wish 
it were not the fact. 



258 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

I urge a broadened view now, a true charity for the conscientious 
loyalist; for him a right of free opinion, however misguided. 
Less will be the charity, weaker the apology for the lawless ravager 
along the coast. Still it were easy for him to put himself on the 
same ground with the soldier foraging by the laws of war. A 
good woman, Air. Carleton's granddaughter, — admitted to me the 
well-accepted fact ; yet offering the excuse, — "to support his 
family"; evidently a concealing and palliating remark which had 
fallen into her ear in childhood. To her no reply could be made 
yet I felt a doubt to what extent a fugitive at Penobscot could 
supply his family in Woolwich. Yet a man of his resource and 
daring might slip into the Sheepscot by night and by the tortuous 
channels up to some cove by Hockomock, thence bearing a sheep's 
carcass on his shoulders thru the dark forest could seek his path a 
mile to his home and to his own. He might take such a difficult 
and dangerous step once or twice risking much for his family but 
with slight benefit to them, but it must be doubted. This friend 
told also how little she ever knew of that part of her grandfather's 
life which put the stigma of dishonor on him ; that the families. 
his sons and daughters in their homes, and to their children seldom 
referred to him and those years of trial; nothing to tell, every- 
thing to conceal that all might be forgotten. Those children there- 
fore grew up to know scarcely more of their granmother's life in 
those years, than that he took the British side and lost his life. 

In 1782, the .last year of the memorable struggle, thoughts of 
peace were in the ascendant on both sides of the Atlantic. States- 
men sought wise methods of conciliation: no campaigns, only brief 
operations in Georgia and in the South. Some dastardly deeds of 
hate and retaliation by soldiery and vengeful tories shamed hu- 
manity. The Maine coast towns still suffered by shaving mills ana 
sly thieving. 

Here an event startling and dubious comes into the Carleton 
family's history. In September a sheriff appears at the home- 
stead at Walnut Point and makes attachment of the entire prop- 
erty. Two men force the legal process. And who? David Gil- 
more, the only brother of Mrs. Carleton, and Thomas Percy, an 
intimate friend at Cox's Head. Gilmore seized 90 acres, 16 tons of 
hay, one mare and colt. What did it mean? How hard, how 
cruel to secure debts at such a time of trial; to seize on the prop- 
erty and living of a wife and her nine children, whose husband had 
apparently abandoned her and was an enemy of the state. Or were 



LOYALISTS OF THE KENNEBEC 259 



there explanations tempering the harshness and changing cruelty in- 
to real kindness? Indeed might not this affair be a scheme of 
friends under guise of the law to safeguard the family interests? 
Certainly the plan did have that effect. Other debts were threaten- 
ing. The farm had been under mortgage for a dozen years. The 
creditor had fled in that loyalist crowd from Boston to Nova 
Scotia. There is a hint that he was now seeking to exact the debt ; 
that could mean no less than taking possession. But could a tory 
do so? Yet assuredly when these friends had fastened their de- 
mands upon the property by the sheriff's hand, then one Thomas 
Brown a tory in Halifax would get slight notice in a Massachu- 
setts court. 

The claims of these friends were afterwards adjusted; the farm 
retained and passed down to son and son's son to the last descendant 
in that line, Deacon Franklin Carleton ; after his early lamented 
death in 1885 it passed in a few years from the Carleton name, so 
held for 154 years. 

One more chief event will fill out the narration. John Carleton 
while engaged in depredations along shore at last met his death. 
Just what were his operations, how much, how long, none can say. 
His doings became well known : no word of denial or of doubt can 
be raised in respect to lawless foraging. Therein his life warped 
from early honor by tory proclivities was at last by subtle forces 
given over to deeds which can not escape reprehension, and had a 
wretched ending. In that and in what had preceded was the sorest 
spot in the memory of family and friends. 

One can consider the man : becoming an alien in his native town ; 
opposed, insulted by radicals ; hardships at Penobscot ; separated 
from home, viewed needless ; sense of ill-treatment ; severe neces- 
sities ; accumulated ills of his position: in all were sources of acute 
temptation not by us to be apprehended and wrenching moral 
staunchness in a previous inflexible soul. Such stress on him bent a 
strong man into reprobated lawlessness of border warfare. Who 
knows his own strength, how he may endure the test, the aching 
trial? Therefore one may apologize for this loyalist; but one may 
not go too far. 

Associated and acting with the enemies of the new American 
nation, John Carleton necessarily was rated likewise an enemy. Did 
no acrid soul along Sagadahoc shores cry out, "Thief," and by 
deeds a despicable enemy? Can we apprehend the rancor, the 
engendered passions of those times? 
4 



260 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

By whatever disguised skill, by whatever bold dexterity in his 
foraging, his doings as of others were known, were well attested: 
he was watched for, was hunted. In order to spy out British move- 
ments but more the skulking shaving mills, all the prowling dodging 
crafts of marauders, coast guards were maintained. The Phips- 
burg militia held the shore with lookouts on Cox's Head and Morse 
mountain. Specially would men who had gone to the enemy-tories 
execrated with a hiss, — be hated and trailed when by keen spies 
sighted stealing into creeks and coves. 

Anxieties by fear of British invasion, by raids on farmhouses for 
eggs and butter, — sheep and lambs gone by stealth, — caused sharp 
tension of feeling: the militia, responsible defenders, could feel they 
were dealing with pirates and robbers : the alert determined guard 
would be pardoned if he were more ready to shoot than to 
capture. 

John Carleton did not become a prisoner of war. The bullet in- 
tercepted escape. All accounts assign his death to the vicinity of 
Small Point. One told me ''Shot off the Point," another added 
"standing straight and bold at the tiller." He may have been so 
seen and fired on. The end was not there. Statements on which 
I rely declare the deadly stroke came on an island of Casco bay: 
One said definitely, Jaquish, now Little Bailey's island, on the 
charts. Some island seems well attested, and is probable for they 
were noted sheep pastures. 

There is general agreement that he had gone ashore, doubtless 
had been discovered near or off Small Point ; had been pursued ; had 
escaped to the shore and sought concealment. The hunted man 
was alert against his hunters of the coast guard. On the watch 
he slightly raised his head above a protecting boulder or pile of 
logs for a moment, and that moment enough for a keen eye and a 
quick trigger to send the deadly missile thru his head. A devious 
path thru the years of loyalism had led to that island, to that rock, to 
the last step of a misguided life. Exact particulars, — the dis- 
covery, the trailing, the island hunt, the tragedy, were never writ- 
ten. It is known that the shot was not at once fatal : it did 
destroy his sight. Blinded, doubtless unconscious, he was taken to 
Small Point to the friendly Percy home tho another was named. 

Death delayed, one said, four days. Dr. Philip Theobald a sur- 
geon from the Hessian army who had settled in Dresden gave 
medical attendance. Of course his wife was summoned to watch 
thru days and hours of fevered agony while death waited. Not an 



LOYALISTS OF THE KENNEBEC 261 

incident, not a word came to me from the scene at the death 
bed at Cox's Head; nor of the excitement abroad as the tragic 
tale of what had happened to this well-known man went flying 
from the soldier's report as the wind up the Kennebec valley nor of 
the suspense during delaying days as each morning and evening 
salutation of a man to his neighbor said, What of John Carleton? 

I have not been able to certify definitely the fateful day in the 
loyalist's life, but evidence points to the month of September, 
1782. He was then forty-two years of age. 

This man so far portrayed belonged here; — (Woolwich, Maine,) 
here was his home; here now are his desendants; here was his 
work; yonder is his farm; in the town annals his name appears in 
duty and in office; once to it he gave the credit of his name for 
food and ammunition early in the war : yet also believing that 
George the Third was rightful sovereign here, he bowed and gave 
steadfast allegiance. When came entanglements and danger he 
held fast his loyalty ; tempted and tested in dire straits as few men 
are, he was driven astray into a course of dishonor. 

This however I must say and give him the honor due ; he was 
loyal to his convictions : he believed not as others : he followed that 
line unswerving: he was true to himself. High commendation for 
any soul is it to be loyal to self, to conscience and to God. 

It may be that John Carleton, because open and frank had right 
to higher honor than some about him, silent, truckling, hiding, pre- 
varicating, rather than be true and make avowal. 

Staunch, unbending convictions — God alone knew his heart — led 
this man into a net of circumstances, enmeshed with peril conceal- 
ing a death-trap. There the end. 

From a few facts obtained I construct the final scene. 

To the fugitive and forager becoming burial was due. Not 
there certainly, the stricken wife would say, but at home, a dozen 
miles away. At once intelligence was sent up river: his near 
friends, Fullerton and Gilmore went down to Cox's Head and re- 
turning by night ensured for the Penobscot refugee at his death 
such a home-coming as had been furthest from his thought. 

By the shore of Nequasset bay, at Walnut Point, forty years ago 
I knew a bit of pasture land, showing at least fifteen graves, be- 
yond question the burial place of the early Carletons and neighbor 
settlers. There must have been the grave of the bold loyalist of 
the Kennebec. 



262 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



In the dim autumn morning, the woe- freighted boat reached the 
shore. Soon privately, with a few friends the family gathered, 
the widow and all her nine chilrdren, I believe, bereaved as others, 
yet not as others but bearing a grief aching by a sting of dis- 
honor. There in sight of the house he had built, yet now standing, 
the home which had lost him, in the stillness of the bay and the 
forests, with not a word, not a prayer, the loyalist was laid be- 
neath the sod, — the end of life's aims, joys, conflicts, defeats. 

At that burial place visited a few years since, now concealed by 
a tangled thicket of briers and bushes as it stood forty years ago, 
so now stands a giant oak, in diamater forty-four inches, and begin- 
ning to decay ; and notice, — standing directly upon a grave mound, 
marked by rough sunken stones for a tall man. Was that one the 
tory's grave? On that day long ago, did a squirrel bury an 
acorn in the fresh earth? Or did a loving hand plant a shoot, a 
little sappling in that mound to grow, the only monument allowable 
for the dead? Why did that one stem thrive, why alone pre- 
served becoming a tall tree to spread its branches above the graves? 
Did the family keep it for a memorial? I do not know: it is a 
pleasing fancy. 

These few events at the Kennebec, are merely hints of others 
far more virulent, deeds evil in excess and foully outrageous in 
other colonies. Patiently endured then was the sacrifice, the ex- 
haustion, nor counted too dear the cost and loss of that struggle 
for independence. Will any now refuse equal sacrifice or cry out 
in fear of immense cost of treasure and of life in the terrors and 
atrocities of world-wide war, that there may be secured a larger, a 
nobler freedom for the nations of the world. 

Rather should we cry out for ourselves and our land as another 
for the motherland : — 

God of our fathers, known of old! 

Lord of the far-flung battle-line: 
Beneath whose awful hand we hold 

Dominion over palm and pine: 
Lord God of Hosts: be with us yet: 
Lest we forget; Lest we forget. 



REVOLUTIONARY PENSIONERS IN MAINE 263 

An Alphabetical Index of Revolu- 
tionary Pensioners Living 
in Maine 

(Compiled by Charles A. Flagg, Librarian Bangor (Maine) 

Public Library.) 

(Continued from page 198.) 



List 



Name. 



Service. 



Rank. lAge.' County. 



Remarks. 



Cynthia. 
Daniel. . 



Daniel, 2d. 
Ebenezer. . 
Ebenezer. . 
Ephraim. . 



See Alley, 
Ephraim. 
Hezekiah P.. Mass line. 
Isaac Mass. line. 



Mass. line 



Mass. line . 
N. H. line. 



\llen, 



Isaac 

Jacob, 2d.. ..IN. H. line 

Jacob jMass. line 

I 

James [Cont. navy . . Seaman 

Private. . 



Private and 
Corporal 



Private. 
Private. 



Private. 
Private. 



Private. . . . 
Private.. . . 



Job Mass. line 

'31a Allen, John 



John Mass. line 

John.. . . 



Private. 



35d Allen, John. 



N. H. state. 
Mass. mil.. . 



John Mass. line. 

Joseph, 2d. . . X. H. line. 
Joseph :Mass. line. 



Private.. . . 
Private and 
I Corporal. 
j Private and 
Sergeant. 
I Private.. . . 
'Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 



'40 I Allen, 
'35c Allen, 
'35cAl!ey, 

|40 

40 [Alven 
'40 Alvin, 
'40 \.imes, 
35c|Ames, 
'35diArnes, 
,'40 j A mes, 
35d Ames, 
'35d Ames, 
'40 
r 35d 
'40 
'35d 
'40 



Xehemiah . . . Mass. mil. . . . Private. . . 

Peter [Mass. line. . Private.. . . 

Susannah. . . 

William 'Mass. mil.. . . I Private. . . . 

William Mass. line. . . jCorp. and 

Sergeant 



William. 
Wright. 



Mass. line 
Ephraim . . . . I Mass. line 



Silas 1 

Eliphalet-. -I 

Deborah \ 

Eleazer i Mass. line . 

Jacob [Mass. mil.. . 

Jacob I 

John ! Mass. line . 

Samuel Mass. state. 




Mass. mil 



Mass. mil. 



Private.. 
Private.. 



Private. 
Private. 



Private . . 
Drummer. 



Sergeant. 



Private. 



81 1 Kennebec. 
"or.Kennebec. 
SI 

86 Kennebec. 
71 Lincoln.. . . 

Waldo .... 

Waldo .... 



Lincoln 

82or Cumberland 
77j 
83 [Cumberland 

7oj York 

82|York 

71, Cumberland 

76 Cumberland 

79|York 

71 Cumberland 

77 Cumberland 



86 York. 
76; York. 



75i Kennebec. . 

SLKennebec. . 
73 Kennebec. . 
79! York 

75 Cumberland 
81;Cumberland 
81 'Cumberland 
87 Cumberland 

76 ; Lincoln 

69,Lincoln 

S2;Curnberland 

Slor Penobscot . . 
S7j 

53 Cumberland 

SO^Oxford 

7-lLincoln 

SOlLincoln 

74 l Franklin... . 

80 Oxford 

79; Waldo 

76 Kennebec. . 

76 Kennebec. . 
83 Hancock. . . 

77 Oxford 

75 ; Oxford 

8 li Oxford 

78 Kennebec. . 

54 Lincoln 

73 Cumberland 
79.Cumberland 



Res. Greene. 

('20 and '31b, Daniel 

1st.) 
Res. Winthrop. 
Res. Bowdoin. 
('20. ) 
Res. Montville. 



C20) d. Feb. 3, 1826. 

C20.) 

Res. Minot. 
('20. "31b.) 
Res. No. Ben 
('20, ;31b.) 
Res. Scarborough. 
('20, frig. "Raleigh.") 
('20. ) 

Res. Pownal. 
Rejected as not serv- 
ing in Cont. reg. 
C20)d. Feb. 27, 1832. 



ick. 



Res. Vienna. 



('20.) 
Res. Gray. 

Res. Pownal. 

Res. Bowdoinham. 

('20. ) 

Res. Poland. 

C20) d. Jan. 2, 1832. 

('20; ('35c as Allen.) 

Res. Boothbay. 

Res. Jay. 

Res. Waterford. 

Res. Camden. 

('20) d. Jan. 20, 1825. 

Res. Brooksville. 
Died Sept. 30, 1833. 

Res. Norway. 

Res. Lewiston. 

Res. Otisfield. 



2D4 S-TK/UjUJiS JUUKi\AL Uf lUAlJMli JrLl^IUKY 



List. 



Name. 



Service. 



Rank. 



Age.j County. 



Remarks. 



'40 lAndrews, Ephraim . 

'35c Andrews, Jeremiah. Mass. line 

'35c Andrews, John Mass. line 

'35d Andrews, Robert. . . Mass. line 

'40 lAndrews, Robert 

'3odiAndrews, Sam., 2d. Mass. line 



'40 Andrews, Samuel. . . 

'35c Andrews, Samuel E.N. H. line 
'35c Andrews, Stephen.. Mass. line 
'35d Andrews, William. . R. I. line. 



'35d Applebee, Simeon. 

'40 Applebee, Simeon . 
'35c Arbour, Michael . 

'35c Arno, John 

'35d|Arnold, Nathaniel. 



'35c Arnold, Robert. . . 
'35c Arskine, Alexander 
'35c Artherton, Joel. . . 



Aspenwall, Xancy. 
Atherton, Joel. - . . 



Atherton, John. . . 
Atkinson, William. 
Atkinson, William. 
Atus, Lunun 



Atwood, Nathan. 



'Mass. line 
I Mass. line 
Mass. line 



Mass. liae 



Atys, London 

Aunes, Stephen. . 

Austin, Benjamin. 
Austin, John . . . . 
Austin, Jonah . . . 
Austin, Stephen.. 
Averell, Ezekiel. . 
Averill, Ezekiel. . . 
Averill, Moses. -. . . 
Averill, Moses. . . 

Avery, John 

Avery, Samuel. . . 
Ayer, Benjamin. . . 



Mass. state 

artillerv. 

N. H. state 



Mass. 
Mass. 
Mass. 



'40 
'40 

*35d 
'35c 
'40 
*40 

35c 
'40 
*35d 

'35d 

'35c 

'35c 

*35d 

'35d 

'35c 

"40 

'35c 

'40 

'20 

'35c 

'35d 

"40 
'35c 

"35c 

'35c 

'35d 

'40 

'35c Babrock, Jeremiah i Mass. line 

•35c;Bachelder, David . . N. H. line 

'35d Bachelder, Phineas.jN. H. mil 

'40 jBachelder, Stephen 



Ayer; Benjamin. 

Ayer, Moses jCont. navy 



Cont. navy 



Mass. line 
Mass. line 
Mass. line 

Mass. line 
Mass. line 
Mass. line 



Private. . 
jCorporal. 
'Private.. 



Private. 



Private. 
Private. 
Private and 

Sergeant. 
Private and 

Marine. 



83i Piscataquis. 

77! Oxford 

7Si Oxford 

S2 Cumberland . 
SLCumberland 
SOor Penobscot. . 
77j 
S5 Kennebec. . 

69 Oxford 

78 York 

79iYork 



74! York. 



(Private. 
J Private. 
, Private and 
I Corporal. 
iPrivate 

Private 

Private 



Corporal 
Private. . 
Private. . 



Private. . 



Private. 



88i York 

SO Somerset . . 
87 Kennebec. 
75 Kennebec. 

87;Somerset . . 
84 Lincoln.. . . 
73 .Oxford 

77| Waldo 

77!Oxford.. .. 



Mass. 
Mass. 



line 
line 
line 
mil. 
line 



Mass. line 



Mass 



line 
line 
line 



Babb, Peter Mass. line 

Babbage, Courtney. Mass. line 
Babcock, BenjaminMass.mil. 



'35d;Bacheldor, Stephen; N. H. line 

"35d Bacon, Josiah 'Mass. line 

'35c Baeon, Timothy. . .Mass. line 
'40 i 



'20 Bailey, Eliphalet . 
'35c Bailey, Eliphalet. 
'35d Bailey, Eliphalet 

'35c Bailej', Israel. . . . 
'35cj Bailey, John, 2d. . 

'35c' Bailey, John 

'20 .Bailey, Joshua. . . 

'35c Bailey, Josiah. . . 
'35c Bailey, Josiah . . . . 



Penn. 
Mass. 
N. H. 
N. H. 

Mass. 
Mass. 
Ma.-s. 
Mass. 

Mass. 
Mass. 



line 
line 
stati 
line 
line 
line 



line . 
line. 



Private and 
| Sergeant. 

Private. . 

Private. . 

Private.. 
'Private.. 
I Private. . 
| . . 

Private. . 



72 Oxford 

73 Lincoln 

75 Lincoln 

. . . .Washington. 



77 Hancock. . . 
82 Hancock. . . 
. . . Washington. 



79 York. 



72 York 

100 Kennebec. . 
81 Cumberland 
71 Kennebec. . 

7s Lincoln 

85 Lincoln 

74 Kenne! ec. . 
85 Franklin.. . . 



Private . 
Private.. 
Private and 
i Musician. 



7S Lincoln. 
70 Waldo. 



Marine. . . .| 

L . ' 

Private.. . . ! 
Private.. . . 
! Private.. . 



Private. 

Sergeant.. 

Private. 



76 Kennebec. 
85 Somerset . . 



72 York 

73 Hancock . . . 

75 Lincoln 

82 Lincoln 

7* Kennebec. . 
67 Cumberland 
73 Penobscot . . 
85 Penobscot. . 



Private. . . . | 79 Somerset . . . 
Private... 72 Kennebec. 
Private. . . . 70 Cumberland 
,70to Cumberland 

80| 
. . .1 

77 Kennebec. . 

77 Kennebec 

77| ; 

70 Cumberland 

78 Cumberland . 

71 Oxford 



Res. Guilford. 
C20) d. Feb. 25,1827. 
('20) d. Feb. 7. 1S2S. 

Res. Bridgton. 
('20 and 31b as Sam- 
uel.) 
Res. China. 
('20) d. Jan. 1, 1822. 
C20.) 
('20 as private.) 

('20. ship "Ranger," 

'31b.) 
Res. North Berwick. 

C20) d. June, 1831. 
Died Oct. 13. 1833. 

C20.) 

f 20) d. 1826. 

('20) same as Ather- 
ton. 

Res. Unity. 

Same as Artherton. 
Res. Waterford. 

C20.) 

C20.) 

Res. Le wist on. 

Res. Machias. Same 
as Atys. 

C20.) 

Res. Bucksport. 



C20.) 

('20) d. Jan. 16. 1820. 

('20. '31b.) 

C20.) 

Res. Wiscasset. 

f20.) 

Res. Wilton. 

Not in "35 under Me. 

C20.) 

(20.) 

Res. Monmouth. 
('20, ship "Hancock," 

'31b.) 
('20. ) 
('20, Babbidge.) 

Res. Boothbay. 
('20. '31b.) 
Died Jan. 8. 1829. 
Same asBatchelc'er.P 
Res. Exeter. Same. 

Bacheldor, S? 
Same as Bachelder, S.? 



Private. . 

Private.. 
.Private.. 

Artificer. 
! Private.. 
.Private.. 
IPrivate.. 
: Private.. 

'Private. 
iPrivate.. 



80 Lincoln. 
71;Lincolu. 



('20. ) 

Res. Gorham. 



C31b.) 



C20)d. May 22, 1830. 
('20) d. Aug. 31, 1822. 
C20) d. July 19, 1833. 
('31b) see also Bailey, 

Josiah. 
'20.) 
Error for Bailey, 

Joshua? 



IULVWL.U11U^AIM JT-C-lN OHJ IN HIVO ±x\ IVI/A.I1ML 



zu 5 



List 



Name. 



Service. 



Rank. 'Age 



County. 



Remarks. 



Bailey, Lucy | . . . 

Bailey, Prince Mass. line . 

Bailey, Rebecca ....'■ 

Bailey, Samuel : R. I. line . 

Bailey, Thaddeus. .:Mass. mil.. 

Bailev, Thaddeus . . I 

Baker, Asa G j 

Baker, John j Mass. line . 

Baker, Joseph Mass. line . 

Baker, M ary | 

Baker, Mary ! 

Baker, Samuel Mass. mil. 



40 I 
'35c! 
•40 ; 
'35c 

*35d 
'40 j 
'40 
'35c 
'35d 
'40 ! 
'40 i 
'35d; 

'40 I i 

'35c Baker, Samuel Mass. line 

'35c Baker, Silas Mass. line 

'40 Baker, Silas j 

'40 'Baldwin, Xahum. . . I 

'35c Ball, John Mass. line 

'40 Ballard, Betty. | 

*35c'Ballard, Frederick. . I Mass. line 



(Ballard, Frederick. . | 

Ballard, Jonathan. . Mass. line 
Ballard, Uriah N. H. line 



•40 

•35c 

'35c 

'40 I 

'35c Baloon, Samuel. . . . Mass. line 



Private. 



Musician 
Private.. . 



Private.. . 
Private.. . 



Private and 
Sergeant. 



Private. 
Private. 



Private. 
Private. 



Private. 
[Private. 



'35c 
'35c 
"40 
'35a 

'35c 

'35d 

'40 

*35c 

*35c 

'35c 

'35c 

'40 

'31a 

'35d 

'40 

'35 c 

'35c 

'20 

'35c 

'35c 

'40 

'35c 

•35c 

'35c 

'35c 

'35c 



Banks, John ! Mass. line . 

Banks, Moses Mass. line . 

Banks, Sarah j 

Barbarick, John.. . ,21st reg't.. 

Barber, Solomon. . . j Mass. line . 



Private. 



Private.. . . 
(Lieutenant 



Barker, Benjamin. .Mass. state 

Barker, Benjamin. . 

Barker, Daniel Mass. line. 

Barker, Daniel, 2d. Mass. line. 

Barker, James Mass. line . 

Barker, James Mass. line. 

Barker, James • 

Barker, James 

Barker, Jesse Mass. line . 

Barker, Jes-e ' 

Barker, Jonathan . . Mass. line . 
Barker, Samuel . ... Mass. line. 

Barnard, Daniel. . . N. H 

Barnard. Daniel. . . Mass. line. 
Barnard, Nathan.. . Mass. line. 

Barnard, Sarah 

Barnes, Abraham . . Mass. line. 

Barnes, Joseph Mass. line. 

Barrett, James Mass. line . 

Barrett, John Mass. line . 

Barrett, Nathaniel. N. H. line. 



Corporal. 
Private. . 
i Private. . 



Private. . 
Private. . 
Private.. 
Private.. 



Private. 



Private. 
Frivate. 
Private. 
Private. 
Private. 



;Private. 
[Private. 
Private, 
j Private. 
Private. 



'40 I I . 

'35d Barrows, Asa Mass. mil. 

'35c. Barrows, Ephraim.. Mass. line 

'20 Barrows, Peter R. I 

*35cBarrows, Peter Mass. line 



•40 ' 

'35d Barrows, William. . Mass. line 
*35d Barry, Jonathan . Mass. mil. 
*35c Barstow, Benjamin Mass. line 
"35d Barstow. Timothy.. Mass. mil. 

'35c Barter, John !N. H. line 

'40 iBarter, Joseoh j 

'40 Barter, Mark I 

'35c, Barter, Pelatiah.. ..IN. H. line 

'35aiBartlett, Benjamin Rev.?. 



Private. 

Private 
Private. 
Private. 



'Private. 
Private. 
I Private, 
j Private. 
1 Private. 



Private. 



'35cjBartlett, Caleb. . . . ; Mass. line 



Private. . . 



Cumberland. Res. Minot. 
Kennebec. . . ,('20.) 
Cumberland. Res. Portland. 
Penobscot. . . !('20) d. May 11, 1829. 
Kennebec. I 

Waldo Res. Palermo. 

Lincoln Res. Boothbay. 

York ('20) d. Dec. 17, 1820. 

Oxford Died Dec. 19, 1833. 

York Res. York. 

Cumberland. Res. No. Yarmouth. 
Kennebec. . . I 



Kennebec. . 
Cumberland 
Somerset. . . 
Franklin.. . . 
Somerset . . . 
Somerset . . . 
Franklin.. . . 
Oxford 



Oxford . . . 
Kennebec. 
Oxford . . . 
Oxford . . . 



74 Lincoln. 



77 



York 

Cumberland 

York 

Lincoln 



Hancock . . . 



79 Oxford 

77 Oxford 

SQlOxford 

78' Kennebec. . 
75|Cumberland 
74 Cumberland 

80 Oxford 



92 Oxford 

75 Oxford 

70 Cumberland . 
73! Oxford 



Res. Albion. 

C20.) 

('20.) 

Res. Strong. 

Res. Mercer. 

C20) d. Sept. 3, 1823. 

Res. Temple. 

Transf.from Strafford 

Co., N. H. f 1829. 

Died March 4,1832. 
Res. Greenwood. 
C20) d; Nov. 28, 1830. 
('20.) 

Res. Fryeburg. 
Also given Maloon. 

Died Jan. 16, 1828. 
C20.) 

C20) d. Oct. 10, 1823. 
Res. York. 
Pensioned, 1785. 

Died June 25, 1827. 
('20. '31b) d. June 12, 

1827. 

Res. NewTy. 

C20.) 

('20) d. Aug. 22, 1820. 

Pensioned, 1S25. 

Pensioned. 1818. 

Res. Greenwood. 

Deserted. 

Res. Newrv. 
('20) d. Feb. 11,1824. 
('20, '31b.) 



72 Cumberland. 

67jLincoln |('20, '31b.) 

80;Lincoln 'Res. Union. 

62' York ('20.) 

70: Washington.. I 

66 Cumberland. ('20) d. June 30, 1819. 

75 Somerset. . . . if 20.) 

69 Somerset. . . . Retransf. from Rut- 



74 Somerset. 
83 Oxford . . . 
72 Oxford . . . 



79 Waldo 



85 Waldo 

78 Oxford 

7K Washington. 

62 Lincoln 

72 Cumberland 

74 Lincoln 

57 Lincoln 

54 Lincoln 

93 Lincoln 



..York 

65 Cumberland 



land Co., Vt., 1830. 
Res. Fairfield. 

C20.) . 

Originally on invalid 

pension roll, 1789. 
Res. Camden. 
C20.) 

('20, '31b.) 

C20) 

Res. St. George. 

('20. Peletiah)d. Mar. 

1, 1825. 
Pensioned, 1807. 

Died, 1*25. 
C20)d. Aug. 23, 1F20. 



zoo ^jti^avjuil ^ j \j u k.in rvi^, vjr ivlaximcj ni^ivjt^i 



List 



Name. 



Service. 



Rank. 



Age. County. 



Remarks. 



'35c'Bartlett, John i Mass. line . . . (Private. . . 

*40 I I I 

'35cJBartlett, Joseph.. . . Mass. line. . . j Private.. . 
'35cBartlett, Joseph. . . . ; Mass. line . . . i Private. . . . 

ill 
'35c'Bartlett, Malachi . . Mass. line. . . i Private.. . . | 

'35d Bartlett, Thaddeus Mass. mil Private.. . . 

•40 | | | ! 

'35d.Barton, Benjamin. . R. I. line. . . . jCaptain. . . 

'35c' Barton, John Mass. line. . . | Private.. . . 

'35c Bassett, David Cont. navy. . Mariner. . . 

'35diBassett, Samuel.. . . Mass. state. . I Private and 

I Sergeant. 



82 Oxford. 
89 1 Oxford. 
80 Lincoln. 
75 Lincoln. 



•40 I | 

'35c Bast een, Joseph. ...R.I. line .... , Private. . 
'35c Baston, Jonathan . . Mass. line . . . ;Private.. 

'20 ! Baston, Thomas. . . Mass Private.. 

'40 IBatchelder, Phineas j 



'35c,Batchelder, William N. H. line. . .'Private.. . 

'40 Batchelder, William X. H 

I I 

'35c 
'35d 
'35d 



76 Kennebec. . 
75 Oxford 

81 Oxford 

75 & Waldo 

94! 

82 Lincoln 

85 Lincoln 

86 Kennebec. . 

94 Kennebec. . 
84 Washington. 
80 York 



'40 

'35d 

'40 

'40 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'35d 

'35c 

"35c 

'40 



Batcheldor, Gideon Mass. line. . Private.. . . 

Bates, Doughty. . . . I Mass. mil Private. 

Bates, Jabez | Mass. line . . . | Private and; 

Seaman 

Bates, Jabez R . . . . j 

Bates, Jacob Mass. line 



80 Penobscot 



71 'Kennebec 
79' Kennebec 



87' York 

73 Kennebec. 
73 Kennebec. 



('20.) 

Res. Sumner. 
Died June 2, 182S. 
From Mass. Died 

June 2, 1S28. 
C20)d. Feb. 29, 1832. 

Res. Bethel. 



C20.) 

('20, ship "Warren".) 

Res. Yassalborough. 

C20.) 

('20) same as Boston? 
Same as Boston, T. 
Res. Garland. Same 

as Bachelder, P. 
('20.) 
('20, William, 2d). 

Res. Pittston. 
('20, Bacheldor.) 



Private. 



Bates, Mary i 

Bates, Susannah. . . 

Bates. Thomas i Mass. mil.. . . Sergeant 

j and Fifer. 



Battles, Asa J Mass. mil.. . .Private.. 

Baxter. Benjamin . .JN. H. line . . j Private.. 

Baxter, John Mass. line. . (Private.. 

Baxter, Reliance. . . . ! I 



79 Kennebec. . 
74 Cumberland 

80 Cumberland 
77 Kennebec. . 

82 Somerset . . . 
77 Kennebec. . 

83 Kennebec. . 

69 Oxford 

74 Somerset . . . 
79 Somerset . . . 
84, Kennebec. . 

I 



Res. Leeds. 

Res. Minot. 
Res. Leeds. 
Res. Fairfield. 



Res. Waterville. 

Died Oct. 17, 1831. 

('20, '31b.) 

Res. Yassalborough. 



MAINE INLAND SCENERY 



r 




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-'2 




v y&Lw^ 




\ 


'■J 

i 


w ■ 






I 


4 




















'1 




1 : "- 


: 


.■4 

1 


; 


./■■:^*&*L^^*:^ '^i^-"* 


l»*^w. '-'-S^aSfcjs^i 


*J 



Along the River Kennebec 



TOMBSTONE INSCRIPTIONS 267 

Tombstone Inscriptions 

Some Curious, Some Notable, Some Commonplace 

Collected and Annotated by Edgar Crosby Smith 

(Continued from page 215) 

Our vales are sweet with fern and rose, 

Our hills are maple-crowned ; 
But not from them our fathers chose 

The village burying-ground. 

The dreariest spot in all the land 

To Death they set apart ; 
With scanty grace from Nature's hand, 

And none from that of Art. 

The above, taken from a poem published in the Atlantic Monthly 
of February, 1858, well describes the greater number of early 
Maine burying-grounds. It was, indeed, with little thought of 
beauty or of art that our forefathers selected the sites for the 
burial of their dead. 

As soon as a settlement of a few families was formed one of 
the first necessities was a common grave-yard and this plot of land 
was acquired with a view to its accessibility rather than with any 
sentiment regarding its natural beauty, or of any possibilities of 
artificial adornment at a future day. In sea-coast towns it was 
frequently near the water's edge, that it might be easily reached, 
especially during the winter months. In the inland towns a lot was 
chosen upon the principal thoroughfare of travel and as centrally 
located as possible. The chief requisite tending to its selection be- 
ing that it was "sandy soil and easy digging." 

In the course of ten to twenty years, according to the rapidity 
of the growth of the new town, a church would be formed and a 
few years later a meeting-house built, when it was a frequent cus- 
tom to set apart a lot adjoining the edifice for a burial place. But 
this was by no means a regular custom, for often before the limited 
finances of the little community would permit the building of a 
house of worship, the bleak and lonely grave-yard had become 
populous and a change to the churchyard would entail the dividing 
of family burials or the removal of many bodies from the one to the 
other. • 



zoo 3Jr.K^\uu£. S jUUKi^.-iL Ur JUAlJNJby HISTORY 

As the stern Puritanism of our ancestors became softened and 
mellowed by the influence of time and a broader culture the idea of 
making the places of sepulchre of their dead places of beauty and of 
art, instead of barrenness and of gloom was evolved, and the many 
beautiful cemeteries of today, adorned with natural and artistic 
beauty, have happily taken the place of 

"The dreariest spot in all the land" 
the country grave-yard. 



Sacred 

To the Memory of 

Melatiah Jordan, Esq. 

Collector of the Customs for the 

District of Frenchmans Bay, 

who died Dec. 22, 1818. 

2Et 64. 

If real worth demands a tear, 
Stop reader ; pay thy tribute here ; 
The man who lies beneath this stone, 
Equall'd by few, excell'd by none. 

The foregoing inscription is copied from a tombstone in the 
little Congregational churchyard cemetery in Ellsworth. 

Melatiah Jordan was an early settler of the town, one of its 
leading citizens, and a principal benefactor of the Congregational 
society. He was a descendant of Rev. Robert Jordan, the second 
Church of England clergyman who came to Maine under Gorges, 
arriving in 1640 and settled at Spur wink. Melatiah was a son of 
Samuel and was born at Biddeford, December 2, 1753 or 1754. 
His tombstone records his age as 64, which would make the year 
of his birth 1754; the historian of the Ellsworth Congregational 
centennial states that he was born in 1753. 

He came to the Union River settlement at what is now Ellsworth 
in 1775. He was a member of the provincial militia and served in 
the Revolutionary War. He was commissioned a Lieutenant Col- 
onel of the militia in 1802 and in 1808 received an honorable dis- 
charge. In 1789 he was appointed by President Washington the first 
collector of customs for the district of Frenchman's Bay, which 
office he held at the time of his decease in 1818. 



TOMBSTONE INSCRIPTIONS 269 

He was one of the founders of the Congregational church at 
Ellsworth, being one of the thirteen original members at its organ- 
ization in 1812. Mr. Jordan gave the society the lot upon which 
the church stands together with land for the churchyard cemetery 
in the rear, and in 181 8, at his own expense, he erected the meeting- 
house and presented it to the society. The records of the society 
have the following entry : 

The meeting-house built by Melatiah Jordan, esq., was 
raised on the 24th day of July, 1818, and dedicated on the 
12th day of January, 1819. This meeting-house was built 
by the aforementioned gentleman, and given to the Con- 
gregational society of Ellsworth after reserving eleven 
pews, being one for each of his children. 
His mortal part is interred within the enclosure which was his 
gift to his church. At the centennial exercises in 1912, a tablet was 
placed in the church, near the pulpit, as a memorial to his worth 
and in commemoration of his gift. 

In 1776 Mr. Jordan married Elizabeth Jellison, of Ellsworth, and 
her body rests in the same cemetery, beside his. The inscription on 
her tombstone reads 

Sacred 

To the Memory of 

Mrs. Elizabeth Jordan 

Relict of the late 

Melatiah Jordan Esq. 

who died Feb. 22, 1819, 

JEt. 62. 

Friends nor physicians could not save 
My mortal body from the grave, 
Nor can the grave confine me here ; / 

When Christ shall call me to appear. 

From this worthy couple, through their eleven children, "came a 
line of good men and women who have helped to make the history 
of Maine and to make Ellsworth memorable." 






2-jo SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Upon a granite monument in the Buck cemetery, in Bucksport 
village, is the following inscription: 

COL. JONATHAN BUCK 

The Founder of Bucksport 

A. D. 1762. 

Born in Haverhill Mass. 1718. 

Died March 18, 1795. 

This memorial was erected in 1852 by a few of Colonel Buck's 
grand-children. 

Nearby is his tombstone, which apparently was set about the time 
of his decease, upon which is engraved the following: 

In Memory of 

the Hon. Jonathn Buck Esq 

who died March 18, 1795, 

in the 77 year 

of his age. 

He was a worthy citizen & 

first settler in Buckstown. 

Jonathan Buck was a son of Ephraim Buck and fourth in des- 
scent from Roger, who settled in Cambridge, Mass., in 1643. The 
statement on the monument that he was born in Haverhill is evi- 
dently an error; Woburn, Mass., was undoubtedly his birthplace. 
Both his grandson, Hon. Rufus Buck, and Col. Joseph W. Porter, 
in sketches of his life state Woburn to be the town of his nativity. 
The fact that when Jonathan was about four years old his father 
moved from Woburn to Haverhill and that all of his early life was 
spent in the latter town, probably accounts for the mistake of his 
grandchildren in supplying the inscription for his monument. 

The date of his birth was February 20; the monument states the 
year to be 1718; his grandson, Rufus, says 1719; Col. Porter says 
"probably" 1720. The inscription on the gravestone records "in 
the 77 year of his age," which would conform to 1719, which is 
likely the correct date. 

Col. Buck served in the French War as a lieutenant, his commis- 
sion therein bearing date in 1754. In his earlier days he followed 
the sea to some extent and made trading voyages to the Penobscot. 



TOMBSTONE INSCRIPTIONS 271 

He came to what is now Bucksport in 1762 and was its first settler, 
bringing his family the following year. He built a saw mill and 
other buildings and became one of the leading citizens of the Pen- 
obscot river region. He was appointed a Justice of the Peace in 
1775 and was colonel of the Fifth Regiment of the Militia for some 
years. 

He was an ardent patriot, and in 1779, when the British were in 
occupation of Castine and the surrounding country, they burned his 
house, mills, a vessel and some other of his buildings and he barely 
escaped capture himself. 

In personal appearance he was quite tall and spare and of dark 
complexion. In temperament he was firm and strong willed; of 
positive convictions and ready to defend them. One of those iron 
characters of our pioneer days who were the foundation-stones of 
our future commonwealth. He died March 18, 1795. 

In 1743, at Haverhill, he married Lydia Morse, by whom he had 
nine children. By his side in the Buck cemetery rests her mortal 
part, and on her gravestone is this inscription : 

In Memory of 

the amiable 

Mrs. Lydia Buck 

consort of 

the Hon. Jonathn Buck Esq 

who died 

Deer 15 1789 

^t. 71. 

Hon. Rufus Buck, in his sketch of the family written in 1847, 
said their descendants then numbered over 1000, scattered in all 
parts of the Union. 



BOOKS 

When all that is worldly turns to dross around us, these only re- 
tain their steady value. When friends grow cold, and the converse 
of intimates languishes into vapid civility and commonplace, these 
only continue the unaltered countenance of happier days, and cheer 
us with that true friendhsip which never deceived hope, nor de- 
serted sorrow. (Washington Irznng: Sketch Book: on Roscoe.) 



2-J2 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

QUESTIONNAIRES 

The following verse, written by a well known lawyer of the 
Penobscot County bar and recently published in the Bangor Daily 
News, will be appreciated by the many lawyers who are readers of 
the Journal. 

In editing these pages we ever bear in mind the fact that we 
are writing and preparing reading matter not only for the present 
generation but also for many readers centuries hence who will in 
studying the past history of the State of Maine, find and consult 
bound volumes of the Journal in the public libraries all over this 
country and in countless private libraries as well. 

For the benefit of such who may not one hundred years from now, 
understand the full meaning of the word "questionnaire" as applied 
to any public affairs in Maine of the year 1918, we add that every 
lawyer in the United States is under orders of its Commander in 
Chief, President Wilson, to advise and assist free of charge "regis- 
trants, " so called, who have been registered for military duty in 
America's part in the greatest world war ever known up to this 
time. 

Every lawyer's making 'em, he's making 'em, today 
He's answering ninety questions in a calm, impartial way 
He's fixing frightened farmers, and mixed up married-pairs 
Every lawyer's making, faking, Questionnaires ! Questionnaires ! 

Your clients may be waiting and your desk piled up with mail 
Your creditors a growling and a-baiting you with jail 
Your rent 'is due, your coal-bill, too. Your office-landlord swears. 
But you sit all day a-making Questionnaires ! Questionnaires ! 

You do 'em nights and Sundays, and you do 'em in your sleep 
You do 'em for the waiter, while the hungry patrons weep 
You fix 'em for conductors, while they gingle in the fares 
Question-Answer ! Question-Answer ! Question-Answer ! Questionnaires ! 

How many children have you? Age and color? Hair and eyes? 
What were you last in jail for? Taxes paid? What is your size? 
Are you still in the Asylum? Income? Outcome? Snarls and snares! 
You must find 'em, grind 'em through their Questionnaires ! Questionnaires. 4 

They stand around the office and they sit upon the floor 

They line up through the ante-room, they line-out through the door, 

They line up in the corridor and tail-off down the stairs 

And they're gripping, yipping, dripping — Questionnaires! Questionnaires! 

Then fare you well, my family, and clients tried and true! 
When this cruel war is over, maybe we'll come back to you 
What though the trench be muddy, and the biting beastie shares 
Board and lodging — for we're dodging — Questionnaires ! Questionnaires ! 

BARTLETT BROOKS. 

P., T O jnjQ 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 



Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover, Maine, by John 
Francis Sprague, Editor and Publisher. 

Terms : For all numbers issued during the year, including an index and 
all special issues, $1.00. Single copies, 25 cents. Bound volumes 2 and 3, 
$2.00 each. Volume 4, $1.75. 

Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 
River. 

Commencing with Vol. 3, the terms will be $1.00 only to subscribers who 
pay in advance, otherwise $1.50. 



The first law of History is not to dare tell a lie, the second 
not to fear to tell the truth; besides let the Historian be beyond 
all suspicion of favoring or hating any whomsoever. 

PONTIFF, LEO XIII. 



As It Appears to the Editor 

Number one of volume one of this Journal was issued in April, 
191 3. As we have before asserted, it was at first only an experi- 
mental venture. Were there people interested in Maine historical 
subjects of sufficient number to support a publication devoted ex- 
clusively to such matters? This was the question that we then 
considered. 

The result has been satisfactory. We indulged in no false hopes. 
We never anticipated and have never received any large net income 
from the scheme; neither have we, thus far, suffered any loss. 

So far as it has concerned the editor and publisher it has, from the 
first, been largely a labor of love. 

The ability, character and standing of its contributors has, how- 
ever, been highly gratifying. Without the means of compensating 
anyone for contributions to its pages, the fact that such as these 
have freely and voluntarily added so much to the value of the 
Journal, evidences its popularity among many of the most intellect- 
ual people of Maine. Among them are : 
Clarence Hale William R. Pattangall 

Fanny Hardy Eckstorm Frank D. Marshall 

Lucilius A. Emery Edgar Crosby Smith 

Augustine Simmons Mabel L. True 

Charles A. Pilsbury Charles W. Hayes 

Sylvester J. Walton Willis E. Parsons 



274 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Charles D. Shaw- 
Samuel Lane Boardman 
S. P. Crosby 
T. H. Smith 
Eugene M. Edwards 
James I. Wyer 
William C. Woodbury 
G. Smith Stanton 
Philip F. Turner 
Henry Sewall Webster 
F. H. Costello 
James Phinney Baxter 
Frances Meserve Cotton 
A. W. Stewart 
Jenny Ames Gren 
Charles E. Waterman 
R. C. Whitehouse 
George E. Googins 
Frederic E. Boothby 
Allen M. Phillips 
Martin L. Durgin 
Henry Hudson 
Rev. George A. Martin 
Mary E. Averill 
Lena Goff McKinney 
John Olin Minot 
John A. Morrill 
Merton H. French 
Justin H. Shaw 
Charles M. Starbird 
Margaret Clark Dan forth 
Newell White 
Rev. Henry O. Thayer 
Raymond Fellows 
Edward P. Blanchard 
Samuel J. Guernsey 



W. Scott Hill, M. D. 
Sir Hiram Maxim 
Stanley Plummer 
William Smith Knowlton 
Rev. William O. Ayer 
Will E. Leland 
Angus O. Campbell 
Harry J. Chapman 
Mrs. B. M. Packard 
H. Hilliard 
Sarah Lucas Martin 
Josephine Richards 
George W. Adams 
William Otis Sawtelle 
Holman F. Day 
Garrett W. Thompson 
Rev. John M. Harrington 
Samuel H. Boardman 
Windsor P. Daggett 
Archie Lee Talbot 
William B. Kendall 
Charles E. Oak 
Allen E. Hammond 
Beecher Putnam 
Frederick W. Plaisted 
Job H. Montgomery 
George C. Wing 
Fred R. Fife 
Gen. Joseph S. Smith 
William R. Allan 
Charles A. Flagg 
George E. Corson 
G. H. Knowlton 
Charles W. Stephens 
Elmer W. Sawyer 



In the year 1215 the confederated barons of England, on the 
meadow fields of Runnymede, with drawn swords extorted from 
King John that famous document known as the Magna Carta, or 
Great Charter of Liberties. This was the beginning of a tremen- 
dous world struggle between the forces of despotism and freedom. 

The civil war in England, when the people beheaded their king; 
the long parliamentary struggles and the revolution of 1688; the 
declaration of American independence and the Revolutionary War; 



AS IT APPEARS TO THE EDITOR 275 

Garibaldi; John Brown and Harper's Ferry; the American Civil 
War; Abraham Lincoln and the emancipation proclamation, were 
epochal events and renowred personage? of this great conflict of 
the ages. 

Today nearly the whole world is divided and arrayed on either 
side of the line marked out by these immortals. 

America has entered this terrible battle of Armageddon. Every 
true American knew when the army of despotism invaded peaceful 
Belgium in its ruthless design to crush France, that we owed a 
sacred debt to that nation that could be paid in no currency other 
than the blood of freemen, and that the day of payment had arrived 

He also knew that as a nation it was our bounden duty to civiliza- 
tion to immediately take our place in the ranks of those fighting 
for the rights of humanity. 

We are in it to crush despotism and to win such a victory in 
the conflict begun at Runnymede that future generations in all of 
the centuries to come may know that such as Washington and 
Lincoln did not live in vain. 



The commercial and economic methods and systems of today as 
compared with those in vogue four years ago demonstrate fairly 
well that the world, our own country included, is directly on its way 
to be turned upside down. 

America cheerfully submitting to all kinds of taxation, that at 
any other period in her history would have been impossible, is 
wearing a resplendent smile that is observed and welcomed in every 
corner of the earth, except such parts as are occupied by Germany 
and her partners in barbarism. 

Her grim determination in the midst of this turmoil to see this 
thing through to the bitter end is so manifest and so solidified that 
it amazes mankind and is almost marvelous. 



Speaking of taxation, it may be proper to observe that no one 
knows what we have yet to pass through. 

After July first of this year magazines will be taxed under some 
sort of a complicated zone system. Publishers running big maga- 
zine concerns — so big that the entire business of the Journal in one 
year would hardly keep one of these fellows supplied with cigars — 
are studying this matter and, so far as we know, have not yet arrived 



276 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

at any conclusion as to what it means and are awaiting the pro- 
mulgation of rules concerning it by the post office department at 
Washington. 

Occasionally they send forth pessimistic opinions regarding it. 
They are positive that there are certain "classes" of magazines which 
will be utterly destroyed by its workings. How well they under- 
stand, or how much they misunderstand the situation, we do not 
know. We can only hope that fate has not placed the Journal in a 
"class" of publications that is doomed for destruction. 

When the great taxation machine rolls over the whole mass of 
newspapers and periodicals next summer it is possible that the 
Journal, being so small, may drop into some little cavity of safety 
undiscovered by the great minds who contrived this law, about 
which there is so much complaint and confusion. 

So it may be that our very smallness may save us from serious 
internal injury. 



But yet, the subject has a grave aspect. We fully realize that we 
stand in need of the cooperation of every friend and subscriber of 
the Journal, in order to survive while this war is being waged. 

If every person who reads these lines and believes we are doing 
a commendable work for the State of Maine will make a oersonal 
effort to influence some other one to subscribe for it, that person 
will have "done his bit" towards its survival. 



In this awful crisis we should avoid becoming panicky. We 
should not get into a state of mind whereby we may become pessi- 
mistic, niggardly or parsimonious. Such are never successful in 
war or any other undertaking. 

Americans have probably been for many years the most wasteful 
of any people in any of the enlightened nations. Wastefulness, 
however, can never be cured by false economy, which is often in 
itself one of the chief causes of waste. Neither can the extreme 
pessimist ever be a safe leader in times like these. Rather do we 
need more optimism, and certainly more cheerfulness. 

Recently a Portland (Maine) dispatch called attention to an or- 
ganization known as the "State of Maine Agricultural and Indus- 
trial League," claiming for it that it was established 



AS IT APPEARS TO THE EDITOR 277 



for the promotion of better farming, better marketing, better business, 
better living in Maine. 

We know nothing about it whatever and hence hold no brief for it ; 
but these words have the true ring. 



We again call attention to the fact that subscribers having all of 
the numbers of volume 5 of the Journal may forward the same to 
us, with 75 cents, and receive in return a volume bound in the same 
style as have been all of the previous volumes. 



As the Journal has heretofore observed, the Maine Federation of 
Women's Clubs has already done the state inestimable service in 
adding to the historical literature of Maine two valuable books: 
"Maine in History and Romance" (1915), and "The Trail of the 
Maine Pioneer" (1916). 

The members of the Maine Writers Research Club are now en- 
gaged in a work, if possible, more laudable than t !, e former, \vhi~h 
is preparing for publication a book for the public schools to be de- 
voted entirely to Maine historical stories and sketches. 

As our readers are well aware, the Journal has been constant in 
endeavoring to convince the people of Maine that in allowing its 
school system to neglect the study of Maine history to such an ex- 
tent as has long existed, is little short of a crime; that the youth 
of our state are entitled to this knowledge and that no study can be 
devised that will better aid in making patriotic Americans, than this. 
First teach the boys and girls to know and love their own town, 
county and state, and you have gone a long way towards making 
them know and love their country. 

Hence we are profoundly gratified to see the bright and able 
women of Maine undertaking with enthusiasm a job that the men 
of Maine have for a long time shunned and shied at. 



By reason of the index to volume 5 inserted in this issue, we have 
been obliged to delay the publication of several valuable contribu- 
tions ; among them Elmer W. Sawyer's sketch of the late Judge 
Simmons of North Anson ; a valuable document, contributed by 
Charles W. Stephens of Old Town, referring to the organization of 



' 



27& dCT&fUxUX. £ JUUKiMAi. Ut MAIJNH, rilblUKY 

Penobscot County, and one on Michael Philbrick, by Professor 
Daggett of Orono. These will appear in the first part of the next 
volume. 



We call especial attention to the leading article in this number, 
"The Loyalists of the Kennebec," by that well-known writer of 
Maine history, Reverend Henry O. Thayer, of New York City. 



Monvel's Journal 



Prior to General Knox coming to Thomaston, Maine, to assume 
control of the Waldo Patent which his wife had inherited, he caused 
to be sent to that territory, in 1792 a French mineralogist, M. Mon- 
vel. From May 18 to October 11, in that year, M. Monvel explored 
and examined the geological conditions of the Waldo Patent. 

In it were situated Thomaston, W'aldoboro, Union, (then called 
Porter's Field) Camden, Lincolnville, Belfast, Searsport, Prospect, 
Frankfort; and he also explored Brigadier's Island, Islesboro, Blue 
Hill, Mount Desert and some of the islands in the mouth of Penob- 
scot Bay, 

On November I, 1792, Monvel, at Philadelphia, delivered to Gen- 
eral Knox a book in which was daily written his "Journal of Obser- 
vations Upon the Waldo Patent." After the death of General Knox 
this book was missed. Ever since then historians, antiquarians, book 
collectors and scientists have searched much for it without avail. 

About February 15 of the present year, Dr. G. L. Crockett, of 
Thomaston, discovered it and is giving it publicity in the Courier- 
Gazette, a Rockland (Maine) newspaper. Three parts of this 
Journal have already been printed in its columns, contributed by 
Dr. Crockett. We understand that these contributions will continue 
until the full text is published. It is a valuable Maine historical 
document and ought to be published in a brochure and accessable 
in the public libraries. 



DOCUMENTARY 279 



Documentary 



Letter of Charles Sumner, referring, in part, to the North East- 
ern Boundary Controversy: 



Mr. John Francis Sprague, 
F oxer oft, Maine. 



Portland, Me., February 2, igi8. 



My dear Mr. Sprague: 

Mr. Frank J. Wilder, of 46 Cornhill, Boston, has asked me to 
send you a copy of the letter of Charles Sumner which we recently 
acquired from him; and this I enclose. 

I have tried to copy it exactly, with reference to punctuation, 
insetions, erasures, etc. It was a little difficult to read, but I 
think I have deciphered it correctly; and it is extremely interesting 
to see what views Sumner held concerning war when he was a 
young man. His mind evidently changed later in life. 

I suppose the letter was written to Richard Fletcher, of Boston; 
but no first name is given. 

Yours very truly, 

EVELYN L. GILMORE, 
Librarian, of the Maine Historical Society. 

London Travellers, Club, 

March 20th, 1839. 
My dear Mr. Fletcher: 

I hope you received my letter of Dec. 28th, because it contains the 
answer, somewhat at length, to some of the queries contained in your 
favor of the 29th. I then referred you to Chitty on the Prerogative as a 
book, which contains a statement with regard to the law governing what 
is called the petition de droit & the monstrous de droit. Since I wrote 
you, I have conversed with the Attorney General & Solicitor General, & 
found them, (not to speak disrespectfully of these distinguished function- 
aries, nor vainly of myself,) knowing very little more about the matter 
than I did'. The Solicitor had on his table the papers in a case of a petition 
de droit, but it was the first or second that had come before him during 
his holding office, which has been for five years. With great frankness, 
he professed ignorance of all the minutiae of the process, & said that it 
was so seldom resorted to that few, if any, knew anything about it beyond 
that which is to be found in the books, & all this I had read, as well as he. 
It seems, therefore, that this process is practically very little known; & 
there is very little occasion to resort to it, for the different officers of the 
Crown are suable & are often sued; thus the Lords of the Treasury are 
sued on any matter growing out of their duties. I have not, however, 



28o SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



been able to get any details about this which I could transmit to you. 
But if you should wish for specific answers to a series of questions I can 
obtain them for you at anytime, either before or after my return to the 
U. States. It does not seem that there is any complaint in England of a 
failure of remedy. 

With regard to the other matter upon which you enquired, private 
business in Parliament, I have also endeavored to get some light. I believe 
I referred you to Dwarris on Statutes, a work which is in Boston. There 
is also a recent work by Mr. Holcomb on the mode of managing private 
business. But this is only one off several that have been published. I think 
my friend L. S. Cushing has some of these ; and also our Law Library at 
Cambridge. Further reports os this subject have been made to Parliament, 
of which I enclose a memorandum, being a note from Mr. Booth, of the 
Chancery Bar, to Mr. Parkes of whom I made enquiries. I have not pro- 
cured these, because I understood there is a complete set of all the Par- 
liamentary Reports in the Library of Congress. You will be able to find 
these, by observing the dates in Mr. Booth's 1 note. I have enquired of 
many persons, members & parliamentary barristers on this subject, & have 
been always told — "Don't "follow us; we are in inextricable confusion, & 
it will be worse than the blind following the blind." — I am sorry that I 
have been able to give you an answer so little satisfactory as, I fear, this 
will be on your two matters of legal enquiry. I think that I have written 
you at some length on some of the other matters, about professional charac- 
ter & conduct. To Judge Story I have written fully about the bench & bar. 
I hope that you will be calm and quiet at Washington & not allow us to 
be blown into war. Do not believe the English nezvspapers ; they are not 
the government. The Govt, are kindly disposed, & wish to do justice. Their 
great fault is indifference to, & ignorance of, the matters in dispute between 
us. I have talked with several of them, & have found them entirely igno~ 
rant of all that relates to the Xorth Eastern Boundary. We should press 
them to study it, & examine it; & I shall not regret all Gov. Fairfield's 
misguided zeal if it have this effect. But, do not go to war. I doubt not 
that you would agree with me, that peace is the duty of nations before all 
things ; & that the hazards of war are not to be encountered, even for some 
paltry acres of land. I would rather give up the whole state of Maine, & 
Massachusetts to boot, than go to war. Excuse me vfor touching upon this ; 
but I have this moment read the speeches in Congress of Feb. 27th and 
28th, & have been much troubled by observing the blustering, not to say, 
the war-like character they have. 

I am now on the point of leaving England, where I have staid longer 
than I ever expected to, & have received the most constant kindness. I go 
to Italy; my address in future will be to the care of Draper & Co. Paris, 
as it will be better to receive my letters, while on the continent, through 
Paris. 

Mr. T. C. Grattan, a gentleman of considerable literary celebrity, the 
author of the History of the Netherlands, & of several novels &c, has 
been appointed British Consul at Boston. He is about 50 years old, & is 
a very gentleman-like person. He has been introduced to me by many 
of my English friends, & has asked me for letters to Boston. He will 



DOCUMENTARY 281 



arrive in June or thereabouts, with his wife, a daughter of 12, & a very 
pleasant son of 21, & will fix his residence among us. He is desirous to 
know all the most distinguished people that we have, & I have promised 
myself the pleasure of presenting him to you. 
Believe me ever very faithfully Ypurs, 

CHARLES SUMNER. 

(This letter has never bdfore been published. (Ed.) ) 



Elbridge A. Flanders was born in Dexter, Maine, November 22, 
185 1 and died at his home in North Dexter, November 7, 191 4.. 
He was a direct descendant of Stephen Flanders, who, according 
to the History of Penobscot County (1882) was the first of that 
name who emigrated to America during its early history sometime 
before 1650. One of his descendants, Reuben Flanders, was born 
in the town of Cornville, Somerset county, Maine, in 181 1. He 
was brought up on a farm in that town until nineteen years of 
age when he came to Dexter village where he engaged in the busi- 
ness of cabinet-making and was the pioneer of that branch of busi- 
nss in the village. He followed his trade in Dexter about thirty 
years, when he sold out and in 1867 he purchased the Charles Jump- 
er mill property about four miles north of the village, and for many 
years was there engaged in the manufacture of long and short lum- 
ber, and was the founder of the village that has ever since been 
known as North Dexter. 

His son, Elbridge A., succeeded him in business and at one time 
established there a woolen factory and carried on considerable 
wood working business. His activities in the lumber industries at 
times extended into Kingsbury Plantation and other places. He 
was a man of broad intelligence, a lover of books, who read them 
with a discriminating mind. He took much interest in Maine 
historical subjects and had been a subscriber to the Journal from 
the first. Progressive and enterprising, he was always public 
spirited and stood with those whose desire was to go ahead and 
do something in the world. He was a man of integrity and high 
sense of honor with many endearing characteristics. 

The writer's relations with him were close and friendly for many 
years and he felt honored to be reckoned as one of his friends. 



282 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Sayings of Subscribers 

Honorable William P. Whitehouse, former Chief Justice of Maine 

Supreme Judicial Court: 

"Your calendar the 'Colonial Kitchen' is fine and greatly appeals 
to me. I have read 'Sprague's Journal of Maine History' with 
increasing interest from the first number to the last, and have been 
amazed at the amount of original, interesting and valuable historical 
matter you have published. It deserves splendid success." 



Honorable W. H. Waterhouse, Mayor of the City of Old Town : 

"Please accept my thanks for the splendid calendar received from 
the Journal of Maine History office. It is like the Journal itself, 
instructive, artistic and entertaining." 



Professor George H. Hamlin, Orono, Maine: 
"Yours is a valuable Journal." 



Lewiston Journal : 

"There is nothing better of its kind published in the United 
States, than Sprague's Journal." 



Charles A. Flagg, Librarian Bangor Public Library: 

" I do think you are giving us a high grade 

publication year after year." 



Frank J. Wilder, Proprietor of W r ilder's Bookshop, 46 Cornhill, 

Boston, Mass. : 

"Sprague's Journal of Maine History while devoted to the. his- 
tory and geneology of Maine people, incidentally is of great value 
to all students of early New England historical and geneological 
subjects. The price barely covers the cost of production. So far as 
I can see it should be in the hands of everyone." 



SAYINGS OF SUBSCRIBERS 283 

Mr. R. C. Tobey, Editor Brunswick Record : 

"The Journal comes along regularly and as I took up the last 
number the thought came to me that not only were the separate 
issues interesting and valuable, but every subscriber should pre- 
serve them for binding. The articles and illustrations will make 
books of inestimable value to students of Maine History in years 
to come." 



Miss Anna L. Dingley, Chairman of Publishing Committee of the 

"Maine Writers' Research Club :" 

"I am an ardent admirer and constant reader of Sprague's 
Journal." 



Mr. T. H. Smith, Chicago, 111.: 

"Although I have been unable to be out of doors during this 
severe winter, which reminds one of old times, I have received your 
number four of volume five, and read it as always with a great 
deal of interest. I note in it that you print Mrs. Mace's beautiful 
poem: "Only Waiting." Do you remember that David Barker's 
poem "The Blind Gateman" p. 208 of the edition of Barker's Works 
published (1876) ; also on p. 193 of the second edition published by 
O. F. Knowles & Co. (1886) was said to have referred to the 
same party, Paul Demeritt." 



Hon. Dudley P. Bailey. Everett, Mass. : 

"I value your publication highly, and I am glad that someone 
can be found with nerve enough to keep a record so valuable in 
regard to local history." 



Rev. George A. Martin, Pastor of the Grace Methodist Episcopal 

Church, St. Johnsbury, Vt. 

"Your Journal grows better with every issue and I look forward 
for its coming as for an old friend. Every article is read with a 
keen relish and with much profit." 



284 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Mrs. Janet Harding Blackford, Rochester, Vt. : 

"It is a great pleasure to read the many interesting articles in 
the Journal." 



Mr. Frank J. Wilder of Boston notifies us of the sad death of 
Otis G. Hammond, late superintendent of the State Historical 
Society at Concord, N. H. He died at the Brooks hospital in Bos- 
ton, Sunday, February 10, 1918. He had a wide circle of friends 
especially among book men and historical writers throughout New 
England, all of whom deeply sympathize with his family in their 
affliction. 







ij r~- i M 








. ".i .% -_^-~*»~^ 



THE SMITHS GIVE A GREAT DEAL OF TROUBLE 



Powhatan Blaine. "Just let me give him one whack to show 
how strong I am." 

Pocahontas Chamberlin. "No, don't, Jim; you'll make a mess 
of it." 

A cartoon from Harper's Weekly of February 7, 1880, referring 
to an episode of moment and seriousness in the history of Maine 
Politics, known as the "count-out." 



INDEX 



28= 



INDEX 



An ind'.x is a necessary implement, 
without a due to direct readers within. 



-LL zf '*•''• • '— -**- * ■« • '-**-* 



Abbot, Charles O., 
Elizabeth, 
Enos, 

Harriet N., 
Hiram E., 
James M., 
John G., 
Laura E., 
Levi B., 
Levi E., 
Maria E., 
Sarah E., 
Sarah J., 
Thomas 
Aeadians, The 

first settlement of 
on the Kenebeckasis, 
Adams, George W., 
Mark, 
Samuel, 
Albany, petition to incorporate. 
Allan, Col. John, 
Alligash River explored. 
Alphabetical Index of Revolutionary 

Pensioners living in Maine, 
American Historical Association, 
Andover Theological Seminary, 
Andrews, Emery, 
Emory, 
Flora L., 
Loved, 
Anthony, Rev. A. W., 
Appleton, John, 
As It Appears to the Editor, 
Atlantic & St. Lawrence R. R., 
Averill, Anna Boynton, obituary, 

poems of, 26 

sketch of, 
Elihu B., 
Ezekiel, 
George, 

Job, adventure with Indians, 
John, 

Luther M., 
Mahala, 
Mary, 
Mary E., 
Nancy, 
Nicholas, 
Robert, 
Thomas, 
William, 
poem, 
Avery, Clara A., 



154, 



154 
236 
154 
154 
154 
154 
154 
154 
154 
154 
154 
154 
154 

153, 154 

23, 25 

23 

23, 25 

236, 274 

38 

46, 242 

219 

156, 177 
25 

189, 263 

44 

36 

19 

151 

153 

1.53 

233 

176 

273 

150 

30 

27, 60 
26 
28 

230 
28 
29 
28 

28, 29 
28 
28 
26 
28 
30 
30 

28. 29 

29, 30 
30 
30 



B 



Bacon, James, grant to, 
Bailey, Dudley P., 
Rev. Jacob, 
escapes arrest, 
his list of loyalists, 
leaves Maine, 
mobbed. 
Cant. John, 
Joshua, 
Baileyville, town of, 
Baker, John, prosecuted, 
grant to, 
Joseph, 
Bangor Daily News, the, 



25 

283 

243 

250 

244 

252, 253 

244 

247 

243 

156 

24 

25 

176 

208, 272 



158, 162, 164, 
177, 178. 179 



244, 



Historical Magazine 

gangs, John Ken'drick, ' 

Bar Harbor Times, the, 
Barker, David 
Bartlett, Mrs. Boyd, 
Bates College, 
Bath, 

Baxter, James P., 
Manuscripts, 44 

Bean, Abigail, 
Hannah, 
John, 
Beauchamp, John, 
Bernard John, imprisoned 
Berry, Sally, 
Stephen, 
William W., 
Berwick, town of 
Bigelow, Mary, 
Col. Timothv, 
Blackford, Janet Harding, 
Blair, James, 
Blake, H., 

Blanchard. Benjamin W 
Charles, 
Edward P., 
James, 
Ozias, 
town of, 
Blin, James, 
Blood, Abel, 
Bloomfield, town of, 
Bluehill mines, early, 
Bowdoin College, 

_ 36. 62, 155, 159, 160, 

Boynton, Alice, 
Anna, 

Clarence, \ 

Ernest, 
Irving, 
Isabel, 
Josephine, 
Robert T., 
Brackett, Anthonv, 
Manley G., 
Capt. Richard, 
Thomas, 
Bragdon, Joshua, petition of 
Brewer, Col. Josiah, 
Bridge, first in Welchville 
Broad Ray, 

the settlement at, 
Brookings, Josiah, 
Brooks, Bartlett, 
Brown, A. H., 
Albert, 
Anna, 
Arthur I., 
Celia, 
Clarissa, 
Cyrus, 
Esther, 
Henry, 
Hortensia, 
Jacob D., 
Jacob W., 
John, 
Leonard, 
Lucy A., 
Marjory, 
Marv, 
Mary S., 
Roscoe, 
Ruth, 



146, 237 

220 

189, 263 

210 

178 

4S, 283 

218 

226 

159 

234. 274 

165, 171 

222, 223 

163 

163 

163 

4 

249 

154 

234 

154 

163 

199 

199 

284 

247 

153 

236 

214 

185, 274 

249, 252 

226 

185, 214 

243 

63 

35 

162 

175, 177 
150 
28 
150 
150 
150 
150 
150 
153 
233 
233 
233 
233 
162 
179 
18, 19 

6, no 

140, 141 

24 4 

272 

236 

28 

17 

162 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17, 149 

149 



150. 



17 

17, 153 

149 

163 

149 

17 
149 

17 



286 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Sally, 




149 


Samuel, 


17, 19, 38 


152 


v.. 




28 


Brunswick, town of. 




160 


Indian troubles at. 




171 


petition of selectmen, 




171 


Record, the 




283 


Bryant, H. W., 




234 


Buck, Ephraim, 




270 


Col. Jonathan, 




270 


Lydia, 




271 


Roger, 
Rufus, 




270 


• 


270 


Bucksport, first settler of. 


270, 


271 


Buckstown, 




270 


Bunker Hill, battle of, 




138 


Burrage, Dr. Henry 3., 


164. 


234 


Burrall, Nathaniel, 




33 


Burrill, Charles, 




28 


John, 




29 


Nancy, 




28 


Burying-grounds, early, 




207 



Calais, 

Callahan, Capt. Charles, 

Canaan, 

Card, Albert M . 

Cargill, Janet, 

Carleton, John, 241, 244, 

activities of, 254, 

burial of, 

death of, 

fined, 

mobbed, 
Carr, Diantha, 
Casgill, Captain, 
Castine, 

Catholic Indian Chief — Orono, 
Chadwick, Joseph, petition of, 
Chalmers, William, 
Chamberlain, George W., 

Gen. Joshua L., 
Champlin, Edwin R., 
Chandler, Charles P.. 
Chase Chroniclp, the, 
Cheslev, .Moses, 
Chilton, Mary, 
Cilley, Gen. J. P., 
Civil War, Foxrroft in the, 
Clark, Col. Charles A., 
Cleeve, George, 
Clergyman of Foxcroft, 
Cleveland, Retsey, 

D^a. James. 
Colby College, 
Cole, Lillian A., 

Samuel V., 
"Committees of Correspondence, 

Inspection and Safety" 
Confiscation of tory property, 
Connor, Benjamin, 

Governor, 
Continental Congress, the first. 
Cony, Daniel, 
Cook, John, 
Cooper, Boice, 
Cornish, Leslie C, 

village, 
Corson, George E., 
Cowell, Prof. Hovey H.. 
Cox, Abby C, 
Cragie, Gen. Andrew, 

heirs of, 
Crawford, James, 
Crockett, Dr. G I... 
Crosby, Ada, 

Anna, 

Caot.J.S.. 19, 

John, 

Josiah, 



156 

248 

35 

237 

137 

245. 249 

255. 256 

261, 262 

260 



Mary. 

William G.. 
Cummings, Asa, 
Gushing, John, 

Wainwright, 
Cushman, Abner, 

Christinia, 

Joshua, 

Mary, 
Cutting, Jonas, 



D 



D. A. R., Maine State Council. 

Margaret Goff Moor chapter, 
Davee, Samuel H., 

Thomas, 
Davis, Daniel, 
Deane, John G., letter of, 

Josiah, 

Mary, 
Deering. Henry, 
Delesdernier, Lt. Lewis Frederick, 

William, 
Demerritt, Paul, 
Democrat-Republican, the, 
Dennen, Bethsheba, 

Frederick, 

Ruth, 
"Desire of the Moth for the Star," 
Dingley, Anna L-. 
Dix, Dorothea Lynde, sketch of, 

Dorothea, park, 199, 

Memorial Association, 



19 

177 

219 

38 

81 

157 

147 

156, 157 

157 

176 



159 

137 

181 

214 

38 

22 

17 

17 

234 

156 

156 

283 

78, 181 

17 

17 

22 

the, 42 

218, 283 

199-209 

207, 208 

207, 20S 





252 


Dr. Elijah, 


199, 


200, 


201, 


202 




246 


Joseph, 








199 




17 


Mary Bigelow, 








199 




11 


Dixfield, town of, 








202 




13 


Dixmont, town of, 








202 




9 


Documentary, 


38, 


166, 


219, 


279 




158 


Dodge, Eva, 








151 




244 


Fred, 








151 




233 


Harry, I., 








151 




36 


Mary, 








150 




27 


Minerva, 








151 




176 


Myra, 








151 


48 


183 

227 

234 

81 

81 


Lt. William, 

Maj. WilliamS., 
Donnel family, 
Douglass, Sir Howard, 

J. Sherman, 

Veenie, 








151 
150 
10 
24 
235 
162 


229 


233 
90 
35 
35 


Dow, Benjamin, 

Joseph, 
Drew, Clarissa, 

Jesse, 








182 
216 
225 
225 




159 


Morrill Newman, sketch of. 






225 




182 


Drowne, Thomas, 








5 




215 


Dunbar, Colonel, letter of, 
David, 








6, 7 
4 




242 


Duperre, Pierre, 






22, i 




247 


Durell, Joanna, 








21 




216 


Peter, 








21 




234 


Duty of the State in HLstorica 


1 Re- 








243 
38 
19 


search. 








44 
















144 
235 


E 












216 














238 














233 


Eagle Lake, 








180 




17 


Eastport, 








156 


148. 


149 
148 
163 


first postmaster at, 
Eaton, Rev. Samuel, 
Eckstorm, Fanny Hardy, 








156 
246 
273 




278 


Edes, George V., 






77, 


181 




19 


Editorial, 




44, 


173, 


273 




19 


Elkins, Samuel, 








63 


152, 


153 


Ellsworth, an early settler of, 






268 




19 


Congregational Church, 






268, 


269 




176 


meeting-house built, 








269 



INDEX 



287 



Elms. Charity, 
Emerson, Bulkley, 

Rev. Daniel, 

Hannah, 
Emery, Lucilius A., 
Everett, Charles A., 



22 

221 

230 

230 

32, 176, 179, 273 

176, 182 



Factory Island, 
Fairfield, first log house in. 
Fall River Times, the, 
Falmouth, 

riotous doings at, 
Farlej*, John 

Federal Constitution, Maine and the 
Fellows, Oscar F., 

Raymond, 
Fernald, Senator Bert, 
Flaeg, Charles A., 164, 189, 215, 203, 

Gershom. 
Flanders, Elbridge A., 

Reuben, 

Stephen, 
Fletcher, Richard, 
Flint, Dr. Edgar T., 
Fort Halifax, bill for labor on, 

Point, 

Pownal, 
Foster, Andrew, 

Johp, 

Thomas, 
Fox, John, 
Foxcroft Academy: 

act of incorporation, 

building erected, 

chartered, 

debating societies, 

famous alumni, 

first principal of, 

funds raised for, 

History of, 

land grant to, 

present building dedicated, 
erected, 

presidents of, 

school-city government, 

epcond building erected, 

secretaries of, 

site chosen, 

teachers of, 

treasurers of, 

trustees. 
Foxcroft Centennial: 

committee on publication, 

display of antiques, 

historical program, 

History, 

parade, 

Poem, 

Proceedings, 
Foxcroft in the Civil War: 

Coast Guaid Infantry, 

first company raised, 

First Maine Cavalry, 

Fourteenth Maine infiintry. 

Thirteenth Maine Infantry. 

Thirty-first Maine Infantry, 

Twentieth Maine Infantry, 

Twentj-seeond Maine Infantry, 
Foxcroft, Joseph E., 50, 62, 

Rev. Samuel, 
Foxcroft, town of, 

act of incorporation, 

bands, 

boundaries of, 

clergymen of, • ' 

Congregational .church organized, 

dedication of bridge (1911), 
of Masonic Hall, 
of soldier's monument, 

doctors of, 

early days in. 



216 
232 

27 

3 

221 

38 

32 

180 

220, 271 

47 
274, 2S2 
220 
281 
281 
281 
279 

93 
220 
240 
163, 240 
148 
148 
148 

38 

100 

72. 103 
72, 100 
105 
111 
72, 103 
101 
99-112 
103 
107 
106 
110 
109 
105 
110 
102 
111 
111 
109 

51 
56 

55 

62-81 

52 

60 
49-134 
81-89 
87 
82 
83 
So 
84 
87 
85 
87 
102 
63 



100, 



67 

76 

62 

90-93 

71 

130 

126 

119 

91-9S 

79, 80 



eariy settlers of, 


64 


exploration of, 


63 


first bridge, 


130 


burying-ground, 


69 


child born in, 


64 


clearing, 


63 


'"house in, 


64 


la try er, 


72 


religious meeting in, 


70 


road. 


64 


school in, 


113 


school building in. 


113 


settler. 


64 


store. 


69 


telegraph line to. 


79 


town meeting, 


68 


freshets. 


74 


industrial development of. 


73-76 


lotted. 


63 


Masonic fraternity, 


123 


meeting-houses, 


71 


old streets. 


80 


oldest house in. 


65 


100th. anniversary, 


52-59 


patriotic societies of. 


li7 


petition for incorporation. 


66 


postmasters, 


77 


railroads, 


78 


records, extracts from, 


51, 6S, 73 


schools and schoolhouses. 


112-11? 


soldier's monument, 


227 


whiskey distillery, 


69 


French, Capt. Abel, 


170 


Merton H., 


170, 274 


Friendship, town of, 


6 


Frye, Simeon, 


38 


Fryebure, town of, 


155 


Indian village at, 


216 


Fuller, Jonathan, 


248, 249 


Fullerton, Capt. James, 


244 



Gardiner, Abigail, 153 

John, 149 

Nathaniel, 24 4. 24 <* 

Sally, 17, 149 

Dr. Silvester, 201, 202 

William. 248 

Gardner, Dr. Frank A.. -89 

John, 38 

German emigrants, account of, i42 

their sufferings, 143, 144 

Germans in Maine, the 3, 140 

Gerrish, Frederick A., 163,181 

Samuel, 17 

Gerry, Elbridge, 46 

Gilbert, Cynthia N\, 148 

Elihu T:, 148 

Harriet W., 148 

Hiram, 148 

Sarah, 148 

Gilman, Lt. Andrew, • 13 

Augustus W., 182 

Gilmore. David, 244, 250 

David Jr., . 244 

Evelyn L., .279 

Jane, . • 24o 

William, 244, 249 

Godfrev, Edward, 217 

Goff, John, 137, 138 

Col. John, 137. 138, 139 

Maj. John, ■ 138 

Marcia, 138 

Margaret and her Family, 137, 138 

Peggy, 138 

Rebecca, 138 

Goldthwaite, Joseph, 158 

Philip, 247 

Goodall, F. A., 216 

Goodman, Ichabod, 3* 

Googins, George E.. 178, 235. 274 

Goo Id, Nathan, 189 



288 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Gorges, Thomas, 
"Gospel Way, The" 
Gould, Capt. Daniel I., 

Samuel, 

William E., 
Grand Trunk R. R., built, 

agents at Welchville, 
Grant, Elijah, 
Grigg, Hannah, 

James, 

John, 



H 



Hale, Clarence, 
Halifax, Mass., 
Hall, Charles, 
Horace, 
Mary, 
Ruth W. f 
William, 
Hamlin, Dr. Augustus C, 
George H., 
Hannibal, 
Hammond, Otis G., 
Hampden, town of, 
Harbor Beacon, the, 
Hardy, Mary, 
Theophilus, 
Thomas, 
Harlow, Nathaniel, 
Harnden, Samuel, 
Harpswell, 

loyalist mob at, 
Harper, George, 
James, 
John, 
Mary, 
Susan, 
Susie, 
William, 
Harrington, Rev. John M., 
Harvard College, 3. 4. 155 

"Has Maine a History?", 
Hasey, Rev. Isaac, 
Haskell, Bant., 

Jessica J., 
Hatch, Dr. Louis C, 
Haven, Abner, 
Frank, 
Genie, 
Ida, 

Samuel, 
Susan, 
Havey, Andrew P., 
Hawthorne, Hildegarde, 
Haynes, John, 
Hebron, town of, divided, 
first brick-yard in, 
incorporated, 
proprietor of, 
Hemmenway, Re 
Herbert, Simon, 
Hewes, Elihu, 
Hichborn, Robert Jr., 
Hill, Dr. W. S., 
Hinckley, Rev. George W., 
Hiram, Indian village at, 
Historical Association, American, 
Historical research, duty of state in, 
Hodgdon, Daniel, 
Hodgkins, Raymond, 
Holmes, J. S., 
Holt, Jonathan, 
Little Isle of, 
House, Charles J., 
Hunnewell, Richard, 
Hunt, Elizabeth, 
Hutchings, William, 
Hyde, William DeWitt, 



249, 



9, 48, 
157, 227 



Moses, 



217 
218 

47 
243 

48 
150 
150 
249 
137 
137 
137 



273 

157 

150 

150 

150 

22 

150 

208 

282 

225 

284 

199 

181 

163 

163 

154 

221 

252 

36 

246 

151 

151 

15l 

151 

151 

151 

151 

274 

230 

173 

233 

219 

218 

164 

148 

148 

148 

148 

148 

148 

181 

46 

28 

148 

x9 

148 

148 

41 

24 

146 

221 

234 

235 

216 

44 

44 

233 

181 

77 

219 

146 

197 

247 

149 

194 

194 



Ilsley, Enoch, 


221 


seizure of goods by customs officers 


221 


Indian deed. 


216 


fort at Cornish, 


216 


sagamore, Sunday, 


216 


troubles at Brunswick, 


171 


village at Fryeburg, 


216 


at Hiram, 


216 


Indians, Abenaki, 


9 


Canibas, 


9 


in Revolutionary War, 


12, 13 


Passamaquoddy, truck-house, 


165 


Penobscot, 


9 


Sokokis tribe, 


216 


Tarratines, 


9, 11 


Industrial Journal, the, 


216 


Irish settlers, 


6, 144 



Jackson's surplus, President, 
Jay Treaty, the, 
Jellison, Elizabeth, 
Jewett, Jedediah, 
Johnson, George W., 

Mary C, 

Thomas, 
Jones, John, assault upon, 

imprisoned, 

trial of, 
Jordan, Albert C, 

Elizabeth, 

Melatiah, 

Rev. Robert, 

Samuel, 



K 



Kaler, John, 

Otis, 
Kast, Philipp Gottfried, 
Kavanaugh, Edward, 

letter of, 
Keegan, Peter Charles, 
Keene, Carter B., 
Kellogg, Rev. Elijah, 
Kendall, Gen. William, 
Kendall's Mills, origin of name, 
Kenebeckasis, the, 
Kennebec Company, the, 

Loyalists of the, 
Kenney, Samuel, 
Kent, Edward, 
Kidder, Benjamin, 
Kilgore, Selden H., 
Kimball, Charles E., 

George H., 

Solomon, 
King, Ellen A., 

Frank, 

Capt. George W., 

Lorenzo, 

Mary, 

Minerva, 

Philander, 

Silas E., 

Tavern, the 

William, 

William H., 
Kingfield, founder of, 
Kittery, early settlement at, 
Knights of Columbus, 
Knowlton, Prof. G. H., 

Hiram, 
Knowlton's Mills cemetery, 
Knox, General, 
Kurtz, Friedrich, 



150. 



232 

23 

269 

38 

34 

175 

63 

244 

248 

250 

19 

269 

268, 269 

268 

268 



237 

237 

143, 144 

22, 25 

25 

180 

238 

36, 63 

232 

232 

23 

5 

241 

222 

176 

138 

183 

182 

184 

146 

153 

152, 153 

150, 152 

17 
150 
151 
151 
152 
159 
159 

151, 153 
159 
185 

8, 15 

238, 274 

226 

36 

278 

144 



INDEX 



289 



Lake Hogan, 


17 


Lancester, 


244 


Lane, John, 


165 


I-athani, Sally, 


227 


Laughton. Dr. Sumner, 


232 


Lebanon, historical tablet at, 


233 


incorporated. 


233 


Lebroke, Augustus W., 


176 


Leland, Henry, 


36 


Levcrett, Governor, 


4 


John, 


4 


Thomas, 


4 


Lewis, Daniel, 


48 


James, 


237 


Lewiston Journal, the 


282 


Lexington, battle of, 


170 


Libbey, Artemas, 


176 


Limeburner, Capt. Robert, 


162 


Thomas. 


162 


Lincoln, Enoch, 


155 


Levi. 


155, 213 


Levi, Jr., 


155 


Lincolnshire Patent, the 


4 


Lisotte Pierre, 


22, 23 


Littell, James, letter of, 


145 


Littlefield, Anna I., 


177 


Capt. James, 


39, 41 


Mary Ann, 


17 


Walter, 


177 


I*>ngfellow, Jonathan, assault upon, 


222 


memorial of, 


222 


Lord. Rev. O. M., 


233 


Loughead. Flora Haynes, 


28 


Lovejov. Abiel, 


231 


Charles H., 


231 


Lovell, Zacheus, 


139 


Low, Robert, 


182 


Lowder, Capt. Samuel, 


14 


Loyalist, defined, 


241 


Loyalists imprisoned, 


248 


of the Kennebec, 


241 


Parson Bailey's list of. 


244 


proscribed, 


248 


Lucas, Sally, 


227 


Sarah A., 


227 


William, 


227 


Ludwig, M. R., 


141, 146 


Lugton, George, 


217 


Lunt, Anna, 


19 


Lynde, Dorothy, 


202 


Joseph, 


202 



M 



MeCobb, Gen. Samuel, 

William, 
MaoDonald, Moses, 
McFarland, George W., 
Mclntyre, Robert, 
MeKenney, Lina GofT, 
McQuillan, Arthur, 

Mary, 
Mace, Benjamin H., 

Frances L., 27, 

Maehias, 156, 165, 

assault on magistrate at, 
Madawaska settlement, 
Madigan, John B., 
Madocawando, 
Maine, act for admission to Union, 

and the Federal Constitution, 

Commercial Travellers Assn., 
officers of, 

"count out," 

first governor of, 

Germans in, 

Has it a History' 



251 

38 

176 

181 

6 

137, 274 

151 

151 

232 

231, 283 

177, 222 

222 

22, 26 

180 

9, 10 

41 

32 

233 

234 

284 

159 

3, 140 

173 



Historical Society, 

in Mass. legislature of 1793, 

map of District of, 

mining history, a bit of. 

Revolutionary pensioners, 

shipbuilding, 

state burying-ground, 

state park, 

state tomb, 

Woods, the 

writer*, an appeal to, 

Writers Research Club, 
Manning. Prentice C, 
Manson, J. W., 
Map, District of Maine, 

Northeastern Boundary, 
Marble, Sally, 

Sebastian S., 
March, Stephen, 
Mars Hill, 
Marsh Island, 

John, 
Marston, James, 

Mary M., 

Rachel. 
Martin, Rev. George A., 

Dr. Harold C, 

Herman S., 

Nathaniel, 

Osgood P., 

Sarah A., 
sketch of, 

Selden O., 
Masonic fraternity of Foxcroft, 
Massachusetts convention of 17S8, 

Maine delegates to, 

vote of, 

land grants in northern Maine, 
Mast timber, 
Mather, Increase, 
Matilde, dau. of Madocawando, 
Maxim, Sir Hiram, 
Mayflower, the, 
Mayhew, Nathaniel, 
Mayo, John G., 
Meder, Isaac N., 
Medomak river, 
Medumcook, 

"Mellinockett Lake," poem, 
Merrill, Rev. George A., 
Miller, S. L., 
Minot, John Clair, 
Mob violence at Kennebec, 
Monroe, President, in Maine, 
Monsweag, 
Monvel's journal, 
Moody, Rev. Samuel, book of 
Moor, Col. John, 

Margaret Goff, 

Samuel, 
Moore, Abraham, 

Joseph, 
Moosehead Lake, 
Morrill, Anna I., 

Col. John A., 

Judge John A., 

Nahum, 
Morse, Lydia, 
Munsell, Capt. Joseph 

Lt. Joseph, 
Murrhie, George A., 
Muscongus patent, 



39, 166, 177, 



234, 279 

38 

148 

162 

189, 263 

34 

155, 156 

155 

155 

180 

164 

218, 277, 283 

234 

236 

148 

2 

17 

226 

20 

23 

10, 14 

10 

21 

19 

21 

274, 283 

227 

227, 235 

138 

227 

117, 274 

227 

227 

123 

32 

32. 33 

32, 33 

24 

4 

137 

9 

47, 48 

46 

179 

78 

182 

140, 142 

6 

42 

62 

145 

160 

244, 246 

232 

247 

278 

217, 218 

138 

138, 139 

138 

138 

138 

150 

177 

176 

179, 274 

176 

271 

9 

13 

180 

4 



243, 



137, 



N 



Nasson, Samuel, 33 

Needham. Samuel C, 229 

Nequasset, 242 

New Gloucester, first minister at, 63 

New Hampshire Revolutionary roll, 170 

Newichawnnock, 216 



290 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Noble, Colonel, 


146 


Gov. Thomas, 


Susan P., 


17 


Pratt, Andrew, 


North Dexter, founder of, 


281 


Benajah. Jr., 


Northeastern boundary controversy. 




Charitv, 


22, 164, ISO, 


2S0 


Horatio K., 


boundary map, 


2 


Margaret, 


Northwest angle of Nova Scotia, 


23 


Ruth. 


Norway, town of, 


147 


Zebedee. 


Notes and Fragments, -16, 


229 


Preble, CaDt. John 


Nova Scotia, 


23 


William P., 


Noyes, Thomas, 


222 


Pushard, Peter, 



20, 22, 150. 



240 

15 2 
153 

22 

22 

22 

22 

17 

13 

25 

232 



O 



O'Brien, Jeremiah, 






222 


Old Town, 




' 


10 


Enterprise, the, 






28 


Orne, Col Azor, 






46 


Judge Henry, 






46 


Orneville, town of, 






46 


Orono, Catholic Indian 


chief 


sketch of 


9 


monument to, 






8 


speeches of, 






12, 13 


Ossipee rivers. 






216 


Osson, Chief, 






11 


Otis, James, 






46 


Owl's Head, 






11, 12 


"Oxen, The," poem. 






154 


Oxford County, 






219 


Plantation, petition 


to in 


corporate. 


219 


Oxford, town of, 






147 


incorporated, 






148 



Questionnaires, 



272 



Page, Moses, 




17 


Robert, 




38 


Paine, Albert W., 




176 


Paris, town of. 


147, 


155 


Parker, Betsey, 




35 


Jordan. 




38 


Parrv, Edward, 




249 


Parsons. Willis E., 99. 130 


. 182, 


273 


Passamaquoddy, first collector at, 




156 


Indian trade at. 




165 


Patriotic societies of Foxcroft, 




117 


Paul, Anne, 




163 


Pearson, Moses, 




212 


Penobscot Bay, 




146 


Indians, 




9 


Pensions: see Revolutionary. 






law. first service. 




192 


first V. S., 




191 


Percy. Thomas, 




251 


Perkins, Ephraini, 




158 


Perry. Adeline C, 




148 


Benjamin F., 


147, 


148 


Charles C. 




148 


Christiania, 


147, 


148 


James, 




147 


Zebedee C , 




148 


Peters, John A., 




176 


Phillips, Allan M., 




235 


Phipp«, David, 




254 


Pillsbury Island, 




180 


"Pine, The," poem, 




210 


Piscataquis Farmer, the, 




77 


Herald, the 


77, 


181 


Observer, the 


27. 30, - 


Plaisted, Jo-eph, 




145 


Plummer, Stanley, 




183 


Porter, Col. Joseph W., 




270 


Portland Sunday Telegram, the 




234 


Transcript, the, 




27 


Portsmouth (X. H.) Times, the, 


47 


179 


Powers, Llewellyn, 




226 


Pownalboro jail, threatened attack 




upon, 




244 


Pownal, Fort, 


163 


240 



R 



Rankin, Hugh, 




137 


Jauet, 




137 


Reed, Thomas B.. 




233 


Republican Journal, the. 




162 


Revolutionary muster roll. A, 




170 


pensioners, alphabetical index 


of 




Maine. 


189, 


263 


classes of. 




191 


lists published. 




193 


soldiers. 13, 17, 29. 36. 148 


, 156, 


157, 


170. 194, 197. 198, 213, 


230, 


263, 


264, 265, 266. 268 






soldiers, Mass., published rolls, 


189, 


190 


soldiers, regimental histories, 




189 


War. Indians in, 


12, 1 


Richards, John, 




19 


Richmond. Eliab, 




21 


Roads, early, how located, 




18 


Robinson, .Alexander M., 




176 


Capt. Andrew, 




46 


Evelyn P., 




21 


George, 


20, 


153 


George O., 




20 


Hannah, 




20 


Hill, 


147, 


149 


Julia, 




21 


Milton, 




21 


Sally R., 




21 


Samuel, 




20 


Stephen M.. 




21 


Rockland Courier-Gazette, the, 




278 


Roe, Alfred S., 




199 


Romaigne, Father. 




14 


Ross, Capt. Alexander, 


212 


221 


Elizabeth, 




212 


Madam. 




212 


Rugeles, Hiram, 




226 


Russell Mountain, how named, 




186 



Saco. first court at. 






217 


St. Anne, (N. B.). 




23 


. 25 


St. Castin, Baron, 




9, 48, 


178 


St. Croi.x river determined. 






23 


St. John river commission, 






180 


Sampson, Abigail, 






154 


Elizabeth, 




154, 


236 


William, 






154 


Sangerville. town of. 






36 


Savage, Arthur, 
James, 




- 


222 
244 


Sawtelle, William Otis, 






237 


Sayings of Subscribers, 


47, 


182, 235. 


282 


Schooner, origin. of name, 






46 


Sewall, Dummer, 






248 


Shapleigh, Maj. Nicholas, 






216 


Shaw, Judge Justin H., 


47, 


179, 183, 


274 



lINJJh.A 



291 



Shay. Felix, 229 

Shepard, Alexander, Jr., 148 

Shepardsfield, 148 

Shipbuilding. Bath, 34 

Bowdoinhani, 34 

Maine, 34 

Shirlev. Governor, 142, 144, 146 

William. 220 

Shirroff, William, letter of, 158 

Shorey, Maj. H. A., 47 

Simpson, Abigail, 236 

Daniel F., 236 

Eliza, 236 

William, 236 

Sin*field, Edward, 138 

Skowhegan cemetery, 35 

Small, Francis, 216 

Freeman, 19, 153 

Joshua. 216 

Samuel, 216 

Smith, Charlotte Louise. 42 

Edgar Crosby, 35, 155, 211, 267, 273 

Hanah, 230 

Israel, 243 

James, 244, 253 

Menasseh, 230 

T. H., 274, 283 

Snow, E. W. t 182 

Isaac, 38 

Soldiers: see Revolutionary. 

Solemn League and Covenant, the, 243 

Soule, James, 147 

Southerland. James, 222 

Spaulding Island. 230 

Spauldingtown, 64 

Sprague, John Francis, 123, 178, 199, 234 

Sprague's Journal of Maine Historv, 

164, 179, 228, 273 

Spurwink, 2^8 

Staples, Alden C, 153 

Almena, 152 

Alvin T.. 152 

Andrew, 152 

Annie, 153 

Arthur, 153 

Caroline, 153 

Cyrus E., 153 

David, 152, 153 

Dennis, 153 

Eliza, 152 

Elizabeth, 153 

Everett, 153 

Flora, 153 

George D., 153 

George W., 153 

Harriet, 152 

John G., 153 

King, 152 

Louisa, 153 

Mattie G.. 153 

Mirinda S., 153 

Olive, 153 

Orrin. 153 

Roscoe F.. 152, 153 

Sally. 152 

Sarah, 153 

Simon, 152, 153 

Sophia A., 153 

William K., 152, 153 

Starbird. Charles M.. 185 

State, duty of in historical research, 44 

Stead man, Margaret, 22 

Stetson, Josiah, ' 232 

Stewart, David D., 176, 234 

Stinson, Robert, 244, 249, 251 

Storer, John, 38 

Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 160 

Sturtevant, W. H., 112 

Sullivan, Abigail, 163 

Anne. 163 

Anne P.. 163 

Benjamin, 163 

Daniel, 163 

Eben, 163 



High School, 

James, 

John, 

Marjory, 

Mary. 

town of, origin of name, 
Sumner. Charles, letter of, 
Sunday. Captain, 
Swan Island, 
Sylvester, David. 
Symonds, Joseph W., 



181 
163 
163 
163 
163 
163 
279 
216 
230 
38 
234 



Talbot, C. letter of, 






7 


Tarbox. Hanson, 






19 


Tax. Wells Parish, in 1794, 




39, 


166 


Telos Canal. 






180 


Thatcher, Josiah, 






38 


Thayer, Rev. Henry 0., 234, 


241, 


274, 


278 


Thomas. Dr. Augustus 0., 






218 


William W., 






234 


Thomaston, 






278 


Thompson. Garrett W., 3, 


140, 


179, 


274 


Samuel, 


33 


, 38, 


244 


William, 






38 


Thoreau, Henry D., 






150 


Thwing, Nathaniel, 38, 


247, 


249, 


252 


Tibbetts. Nathaniel. 






249 


Tiffanv, Rev. Francis, 






199 


Tillson, Mary, 






157 


Tobey. R. C. 






283 


Tomasus, Chief, 






11 


Tombstone inscriptions, annotated, 






35, 155, 


211. 


230, 


267 


Topsham, loyalist mob at. 






246 


Tcry, defined, 






241 


refugee*, flizht from Boston, 






247 


Town-meetings, pre-Revolution, 




242 


Tucker, Joseph, 






38 


Richard, 






229 


Tyng, Ann Waldo, 






211 


Commodore Edward, 






211 


Elizabeth, 






212 


William, 






211 



u 



Uncle Tom's Cabin, written at 

Brunswick, 
Union River settlement, 
L T niversity of Maine, 



Vaux, Josiah, 
Vehicle light law, 1917, 
Villages, how they evolved, 
Vinal, Phineas, 
Vines, Richard, 
Violette, Francis, 
Vogler. Philip C, 
Vose, Edward J., 

Eliza. 

George H., 

Col. Joseph, 

Richard H., 

Gen. Rufus C, 

Solomon, 



W 



Wade, Joseph, 
Wainwright, Lucy, 
Wait, Benjamin, 
Waldo, Ann, 
Cornelius, 



160 
268 
227 



19 

43 
17, 18 

10 
229 

24 
146 
213 
213 
213 
213 
213 
213 
213 



249 

4 

222 

211 

3 



292. S PRAGUE'S JOURNAL: OF MAINE HISTORY 



Francis, letter of. 




221 


Whittier, Mathew F., 


229 


Jonathan, 




3 


W T hittredge, Daniel, . -- 


181 


Patent, the, 




278 


Widgerv, William, 


32, 38 


Samuel, 3 


140 


, 146 


Wild, Jacob, 


38 


Waldoboro, German settlers at. 




140 


Wilder, Frank J.. 


279, 282, 284 


Walker, Eva, 




151 


Williams, Rev. Thomas, 


70 


Solomon, 




249 


Wilson, Alice King, 


17 


William, 




151 


Frank L., 


17 


Wards worth, Peleg, 




38 


Winslow, first minister at, 


157 


Wardwell, Harrison, 




19 


Winter, Francis, 


38 


Warren, Joseph, 




243 


John, 


217 


Wasaumkeag point, 




240 


Wiscasset epitaphs, 


230 


Washburn, Angelia, 




19 


Wise, Thomas, 


217 


Diantha J., 




19 


Wolff, L. W., 


235 


Ellen E., 




19 


Wood, Abiel, ill-treatment of, 


244 


Emma L., 




19 


Ethel M., 


233 


George, 
Isaac, 
Jacob T., 




19 


Howard, 


180 




19 


Woodburn, Prof. James A., 


44 




19 


Woodman, John, 


38 


Jacob W. t 




19 


Woodsum, Sophia A., 


153 


Mary Ann, 




19 


Woolwich, 


242- 


Mary M., 




19 


committee of safety, 


- 249 


Nancy, 




19 


confiscation policy, 


247 


Peleg, 




228 


tories, 


249, 250 


Rachel N., 




19 


Wright, Abigail, 


21 


Rosanna, 




19 


Almira, 


21 


Susan L., 




19 


Augusta M M 


21 


Washington, President, in Maine, 




232 


Chandler, 


- ■ 21 


Waterhouse, Charles, 




157 


Charles H. D., 


21 


Samuel, 




247 


Daniel, 


21 


W. H., 




282 


Ellen L., 


21 


Waterman, Charles E., 16, 47, 


147 


274 


Emily S., 


21 


Guy Bates, 




153 


Esther, 


21 


Samuel B., 


19. 


17 


Esther A., 


; 22 


Waterville, 




157 


Ezra, 


20, 21 


Weare (X. H."), first settler of, 




138 


Ezra S.. 


21 


Webber, Charles, 




38 


Georee W., 


22 


Webster, Daniel, at Bangor, 




229 


Hannah, 


21 


Henry Sew all, 175, 


202. 


274 


John F., 


21 


John M., 
Joshua, 




175 


Kate. 


21 




222 


Lois, 


21 


Martha T., 




175 


Margaret S., 


21 


Mary C, 




175 


Martha E., 


21 


Sarah H.. 




175 


Nathan, 


20, 21 


Welch, Elizabeth, 




149 


Nathan R.. 


22 


George W., 




150 


Roscoe G., 


21 


Harrison S., 




150 


Ruth, 


21 


John, 
John H., 
Thomas J., 
William, 




149 


Samuel, 


20 




149 


Samuel C, 


21 




149 


Sarah. 


21 




149 


Silas M., 


21 


William F., 




149 


Susan D.. 


21 


Wilson J., 




149 


William C, 


21 


Welch ville and Some of Its Earl} 






Wilson W., 


22 


Families, 


16. 


147 


Wyer, Joe, 


237 


blacksmiths, 




153 




- 


early roads. 




147 






first bridge, 




18 


Y 




school, 




153 




settler, 




17 






M. E. church, 
old church. 




153 


Yates, Hannah, 


17 


148, 


149 


York. 


163 


postmasters, 




153 


County, 


216, 223 


taverns. 


147, 


148 


census of 1820, 


223 


Wells, town of, 




162 


court records, 


217 


parish tax of 1794, 39, 


166. 


183 


Deeds, 


44 


taxpayers in 1794, 


39, 


166 


Historical and Improvement 


So- 


Wentworth, Thomas, 




38 


ciety, 
old gaol at, 
Yorke, P., letter of, 


217 


Western cemetery, Portland, 




36 


217 


Weston, Stephen, 




63 


7 


"What others say about us," 




179 






Wheeler, Dr. George A., 




234 






Whipple, Oliver, 




202 


Z 




White, Newell, 


182, 


274 




Philip, 




244 




Whitehouse, William P., 


176, 


282 






Whitnev, William C, 




148 


Zuberbuhler, Sebastian, 


141, 146 



INDEX 293 



LIST OF PLATES IN VOL. V. 

Northeastern boundary map 2 

Monument to Joseph Orono - 8 

Ready to climb the mountain ^ 16 

Anna Boynton Averill 27 

Mount Desert from Shore Walk 37 

Joseph E. Foxcroft 50 

Foxcroft Centennial parade 53, 57 

Centennial decorations, Foxcroft 71 

Oldest house in Foxcroft .-. 79 

Congregational Church, Foxcroft 91 

Foxcroft Academy 107 

Foxcroft village school ." 113 

Monument Square, Foxcroft 125 

Foxcroft Bridge, ] 854 131 

Foxcroft Bridge. 1911 - 133 

State Capitol, Augusta 136 

King Tavern, Bath „ 159 

Bar Harbor .'. ;*...." ' 161 

A Maine home in the 18th century . . 188 

Poling down a shallow stream 198 

A canoe load of trophies 224 

Fort Pownall 240 

Along the River Kennebec ; 266 

"The Smiths give a great deal of trouble" 284 



294 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



A Lyric for the North 



By Rev. James F. Norris 



Mine eyes have seen the beauty 
Of many a tropic clime, 
Where freezing breath of winter 
Ne'er chills the Summer time. 



VIII 

Eut winter, grand old winter! 
He works in black and white; 
Revealing in his paintings 
The mysteries of light. 



II 

Where always tree-clad mountains, 
With palm-blest vales between, 
Rejoice in endless verdure 
Of never fading green. 



IX 

No southern skies of azure, 
No tropic sunset glow, 
Like these that fondly linger 
O'er fields of spotless snow. 



Ill 

Put sequence of two seasons, 
Unvarying wet and dry, 
Produces weary sameness, 
On land and sea and sky. 



I'll never lose the picture, 
More delicate, more sweet, 
Than e'er enraptured dreamland, 
Or poet fancies meet; 



IV 

Give me our far north climate, 
Where seasons four unite 
To dress their dear earth-mother 
In countless colors bright. 



XI 

The vision weirdly charming, 
Which came with morning light,- 
Eut bear it with me, even, 
To realms where dwells no night. 



Where swelling buds of Springtime, 
As clouds with shadows play, 
Sketch swift on laughing landscapes 
New wonders every day. 



XII 

Earth dressed in bridal whiteness 
To meet her spouse, the sky; 
The eager sun uplifting 
With joy his glowing eye. 



VI 

Then follows close the glory 
Of radiant floral bloom, 
For all-year tropic splendor 
Doth here find summer room. 



XIII 

Till every snow-rapt branchlet, 
Till each bright icy spray, 
Is glittering like a diamond 
In gem-embosomed day. 



VII 

Now comes our "sober" Autumn, 
Yet, by a shrewd device, 
Puts tints on field and forest 
He stole from Paradise. 



XIV 

Thus, silver-threaded draperies, 
Wrought by magician hand, 
Adorn the* forest chambers 
Of fairies' wonderland. 










' 






i ■ — t 






1 r 



■■"*4^^^is5»»«~ 






II 






No. 2 



/ --- c.': 5 tn -•-..- ever Impartial 
never prejtid 






0ESSSO& 



— -«« 

1917 

O 1 












M 














; 



FT GJ= 



Union Square Pharmacy 



Established in its present quarters in Masonic Block 
In the "'Centennial Year" 1870. 

Our policy of "Quality First" and the maintenance of 
an up-to-date pharmaceutical stock has won for the 

Union Squar© Pharmacy 



I a fair proportion of Dover-Foxcroft patronage. 

Your Drug Store requirements come first with us and 
i we cordially solicit your continued patronage. 



j ELMER E. COLE Registered Pharmacist 



-''■■■ ■ ^ " ; ' oil ft In^ftM^ 



V 



We have everything li; -to-date in the way of Eye-Glasses and 
Spectacles in solid gold, gold filled and nickel. 

We are as particular about making the frame fit the face as we 
are that the lense shall suit the eye. We knew how. We art- sticklers 
for quality. The best is the cheapest and the most satisfactory- in ev- 

■ ay. Our personal guarantee goes with every frame or mounting 
: selL We solder gold frames. We fit new temples and spri 
We replace broken lense-. Give us a trial. 



S"l * X I ft i * • JL 



FOXCROFT 



. . 



*~ -i f ^^^—^X^J'X^J^- 




4 



WM. W. ROBERTS CO. 

Stationers caricS Ol^nnk. OooR Manufacturers 

Office Supplies, Filing Cabinets and Card Indexes 

233 Middle Street, PORTLAND, MAINE 



SdardT) '%] Beyer & 
Th« Established Le^er Conssrvative investment Beds 

All kinds of Typewriters bought, sold, „,£ OFFER 

exchanged and repaired. Municipal, Railroad and Public Utility Usue» 

LESLIE E.JONES Special, i. Maine Securities 

130 Main St^ BANGOR, MAINE -Augusta Portland Eangor 



Send Your Linen by Parcei Post to 

Guilford steam Laiiriclry 

V. H. ELLIS, Prop., GUILFORD, MAINE 
We Pay Return Postage 



; ' £ h V F ^ a ^* ^ our P* arH to start y° ur ■aviaga account 

is I h rllV I -j <*& fl a L „;th this bank on your "very next pay-day. 
Set aside One Dollar 1 — more if you can spare it — come to the Lank and 

rae. 
Put system into your savings. Save a little every week and save that 
little r Make it an obligation to yourself just as you are duty bound to 

pay the grocer or the coal WE FAITHFULLY. The dollars you save 

l trill have greater need for them. 
PISCATAQUIS SAVH IK, Dover, Maine. 

F. E. GUERNSEY, Pres. W. C. WOODBURY, Treas. 



Money Back If Not Satisfied 
Your Protection 

JOHN T. CLARK & Co. 

CLOTHIERS 

SGOR, - MAINE 



::■■■: .■ " > 



\ 



I & SALE 

INTERS OF 

De I is 

set 

PORTLAND, 



RAILROAD 

DIRECT ROUTE to Greenville, Fort 
Kent^ Houlton, Presque Isle, Cari- 
bou, Fort Fairfield, Van Buren and 
Northern Maine. 

Excellent Roadbed Splend First 

rains. 

Any ticket a^ent will be p ieas< I \ . furnish 
all y forma rature d red or tarns 

can be sd by writing - 

Traffic Manager. 

*o. M- Houghton 

Pttwenser Traffic Manager 

Bangor, Maine 



■ it : • e • 



: i.wwcsiu.oe-1, uecember.January 

-"■g ^m, ■■ ■iii— « — 










L. 




■ 

■ 









- 









..«■ .::::..• 



M* 







■18 ] 

•» — —a 

: i sv 

■CJE ' 

. ' • - 









. 






WM, W. ROBERTS CO. 

£»tiaf ion©r» and EUsxrak. Oook. Manufacturers 

Office Supplies, Filing Cabinets and Card Indexes 

233 Middle Street, PORTLAND, MAINE 



The Royai Standard Typewriter; Bayer a Small 

The E«xmb!i*hed Leader Consercatiyg Investment Bonds 

AH kiodU ©f Typewriter* bought, told, j WE OFFER 

exchanged And repaired. ; Munici?*!. R»i!*o»d *od Public Utility !**«*» 



LESLIE E. JONES 



130 Main St 



S* r >«ci*Ji« • in M*iae Seeuritie* 



BANGOR, MAINE Augusta Portland 



Bangor 



Z\r: 



HHatervillc fiDonuno Sentinel 

Goes to press later than any other paper reaching Central Maine. It handles 

messages by ^ire up to 3 o'clock in the morning. If you want the latest 

news, READ THE SENTINEL. $4.0€ per year by mail for cash. 

"CClatenuUe Sentinel piiWisbing" Company. 
TOatenulle, Baltic 



i CX ay? Lav vour plans to start your savings account 
II h ttfO III *»? ft ? *. with 'this bank on your 'very next pay-day. 
Set acids? One DoUar— moro if you can spare it — come to the bank and 
make your first deposit. Sruall sums are welcome. 

Put nyitcm into vour «av inert. Save a little every week end save that 
little regularly. Make it an obligation to yourself just as you are duty bound to 
pay the grocer orth-* coal man. SAVE FAITHFULLY. The dollars you save 
D W will serve you later on v-nen you will have greater need for them. 
PISCATAQUIS SAVINGS BANK, Dover, Maine. 
F. E. GUERNSEY, Pre*. VY. C. WOODBURY, Trea*. 



Money Back If Not Satisfied 
Is Your Protection 

JOHN T. CLARK & Co. 

CLOTHIERS 

BANGOR, • MAINE 

SMITH & SALE 

PRINTERS OF 

De Luxe Editions 

45 Exchange Street 

PORTLAND, MAINE 



j Bangor I Aroost: 

RAILROAD 

DIRECT ROUTE to Greenville. Fort 
Kent, Houlton, Preaqu* I»i«, Cari- 
bou, Fort Fairfield, Van Suren and 
No/them Main*. 

Excellent Roadbed, Spier !id Service, First 
' 1j •• Equipment, Solid V< ste train*. 

An* ticket agent win he pleased to famish 
r. ! i in 'arf&aticn or literature desired cr aaui* 
can be i btained +»r writing to ih* i»iu*«Kf*r 
!'>*,>.. Manager. 

Geo. M- Houghton 

P»«cc7»f Traffic M*«»2*r 

Bandar, &3aSn« 



W« have positive evidence of the reliability of the advert: pages 




A I 



= 



WM. W. ROBERTS CO. 

Stationers and Blank Book Manufacturers 

Office Supplies, Filing Cabinets and Card Indexes 

233 Middle Street, PORTLAND, MAINE 



fiBuupi aldlCdiu ijfpswrue 

The Ezt&blAhed' Leader 

All kinds of Typewriters bought, sold, 

exchanged and repaired. 

LESLIE E. JOXES 






Small 



_ ■ '■: i - - 

Conservative Inv3stmeni Bonds 

WE OFFER 
Municipal, Railroad and Public Utility Issxe-a 
Specialis s in Maine Securities . „ 



130 Main St., 



BANGOR, MAINE Augusta Portland 



Bangor 



Hhe WMexville riDorntng Sentinel 

Goe> co press late; than any other paper reaching- Central Maine. It han.iles 
?aires bv vire up to 3 o'clook in the morning'. If vou want the latest 
nesvs, READ THE SENTINEL. £4.00 per year by mail for ca.sh. 

UGJatetviile Sentinel BtaMfebfng Company 
taatenulle, fl&aine 



' " ^ hub ^ a ~ y° UT P^ ans to start your savings account 

fll S fllu I U <W fi 1 L with 'this bank on your 'very next" pay-day. 
£> t cside Cnj £oi«rr — .nore if you can spare it — come to the bank and 
ru«ke your first deposit Small sums are welcome. 

Put ^y?tem into your savings. Save a little every week and save that 
little regularly. Make it an obligation to yourself just as you are duty bound to 
pay the grocer or the coal man. SAVE FAITHFULLY. The dollars you save 
ill servcyou later on when you will have greater need for them. 
PISCATAQUIS SAVINGS BANK* Dover, Maine. 
1 F. E. GUERNSEY, Pres. W. C. WOODBURY, Treat. 



Money Back If Not Satisfied 
Is Your Protection 

JOHN T. CLARK & Co. 

CLOTHIERS 

BANGOR, - MAINE 



Bangor 



D 



•j '•> :•' '' 2 * : 



h 



SMITH & SALE 

PRINTERS OF 

De Luxe ns 

4-5 Exch . A 

portla: . :•: 



RAILROAD 

DIRECT ROUTE to Greenville, Fort 
Kent, Houho«, Presque Isle, Cari- 
bou, Fort Fairfield, Van Buren and 
Northern Maine. 

Excellent Roadbed, Splendid Service. First 
Vestibule Trains. 
;• trcket a?ent will be pleased to t uroish 
ali informal • ed or same 

can be obtained by writing r.o the faAvmser 
Traffic; Manager. 

Geo. M. Houghton 

Pajts.en^«r Traffic M«B»ser 

Bangor, Main© 



l-.-rrr: 



ave posit.. :e of the r .- of the advertisers on these p 



NOTICE 

Pa.ge, Spearing & Co. ! BOOKS New and Old 

OF GUILFORD J 

Under management of Thomaa Murphy We carr >* in stock a lar S e 

Estate of Old Town, Me. and varied assortment of 

books, both old and new. 
Catalogues sent on request. 

^in7 a Ccmplste lln8 Gf IteS ! Correspondence Solicited. 

-• . .. , '- ., . ,. Books Bought. 

Fyrnishiiigs of Everr Descnptioii. A ? HnQtrm . 

| Free delivery by auto truck any- | jrX * Jm *-<^^--5 

where or freight prepaid. 92 Exchange Street 

! Co,*™ t--« ,o ah | PORTLAND, MAINE 

Cash or Easy Terms 



VV . L. b AMirSvyiN 



Monumental \v' crks 



r> * f* r- c^C *. ^'\Tp r r*/^ Imported and American Granite and 

rAUC, ^KCAKJfSU & LU. Marble. Up-to-Date Designs 

^ M i matic Tools: ESTABLISHED 1879 

CiUiilOrd, i'lC I Lon» Distance Bee Ul-J, Res. l*l-a 

FOXCROFT, MAINE 
Works, 45 Union Square. Dover, " 
t 

THE BANGOR COMMERCIAL 

MAINE'S BEST PAPER 

TRIAL SUBSC I >N TO DAILY s\.-,0 FOP, THREE MONTHS 

Weekly, three months for 25 cts. one year, 31.00 
The Commercial CBaily and Weekly) offers advertisers the most powerful ad- 
: io ueoce that cad l)e brought to bear on Maine trade. 



j J. P. Bass Publishing Co., PUEL,SHE * S A ; 



ANGOR, MAINE 



50,000 Horse Power 

AVAILABLE FOR INDUSTRIES IN CENTRAL MAINE 

Central Maine Power Co. 

Offices at Augusta, Gardiner, Waterville, Skowhegan, 
Pittsfield and Dexter 



!ay e posi lence oi i Ivertisers on th< 



New York 



■ k 



a >"■; 






I 



for Volume 5 



c in] ! flF 

Ml HISTORY 

-in order to make successful 
the work the JOURNAL has 
begun we require the aid of 
everyone of its friends. 

Will not each one of them secure 
one or more new subscribers. 

TERMS: Only One Doiiar Per Year in Advance 

Address 

SPRAGDE'S JOURNAL, COVER, MAINE 
KINEO TRUST CO., 

DOVER, MAINE 

Organized in 1905 to meet the bank- 
ing need3 of *"his community. Kineo 
Tru t C iteadily grown in 

"oday 
it -.'. unh traall) - - or t of 

the large and strong financial institu- 
tion i or Eastern 

Liberal Interest Paid on 

■ v r,:-5 Dej 

L. P. EVANS Prea,, W. S OWEN, V. Pres. 
G. I- ARNOLJ 






B I ■ 



. ,. -- 



J 






Marsotvc E- 

R. rjL-^VND, /VIE. 

We want your business and proaniie our 
best effort* ko give you good service 



Syndicate 



113 MAIN STREET 



BANGOR, 



"h r a 

MA 



INE 



Maine's Biggest Cut 
Price Store in Men's 
Clothing, Furnishing 
Goods, Shoes and 
Rubbers. 



Simon Cohen 

Manager 



Portland-Monson 
Slate Co. 

Quarriers and Manufacturers 



SLATE 3S 

of Every Description 
E¥3onson, Me. 

SLATE 

For Plumbing, Struc- 
tural and Electrical 
Uses a Specialty 
Mons : n Re >fi rig 

Slate 

Office and Factory 

25 Central Wharf 

PORTLAND, - MAINE 



Quarries and Mill 
ISON, - MAINE 



e have ] - of the reliabi advertisers ,; ^ pi 



,.;.-.■■' 



JULY 




I X. , 



.^ : ■:; .JIT 



//>%!■. 4'W^l ^ '™\; 






^K 
















( Vol. 6 f N 



L_ Wo - l t 



L<! 




History ia the truth; ever impartial 
never prejudiced 

—-■■■! — atiStffrM 



PI' D BY" 






DC z L,MB. 







WM. W. ROBERTS CO. 

Stationers and Blank OooK. Manufacturers 

Office Supplies, Piling Cabinets and Card Indexes 

233 Middle Street, PORTLAND, MAINE 



Theloyal Standard Typewriter Beyer & Small 

The Established Leader ConsorvaUva Investment Sands 

All kinds of* Typewriters bought, sold, WE OFFER 

exchanged and repaired. Municipal. Railroad and Public Utility Issues 

LESLTE E. JQ^V ES Specialists in Maine Securities 

13 Main St., BANGOR, MAINE] Augusta Portland Sanger 



Cbe mriatervillc 



omutd Sentinel 



Goes o press later than any other paper reaching Central Maine. It handles 

messages by * ire up to 3 o'clook in the morning. If you want the Litest 

news, READ THE SENTINEL. §4.00 per year by mail for cash. 

UClaterviile Sentinel publishing Company 

'ulateivnlle, /IDaine 



ST 



Ta* B|\ 5 fj "5 s ! ' 5 V *" *' : "*- v y° ur P- ans to start your savings account 
2 il i Q i J «es^ i\ f h> with this bank on your "very next pay-day. 
Set fcsid?. One Dollar — more If you can spare St — come to the bank and 
make y-»ur fir-t deposit. Small sums are welcome. 

Put system into your savings. Save a little every week and save that 
little regularly. Make it an obligation to yourself just as you are duty bound to 
pay the grocer or the coal man. SAVE FAITHFULLY. The dollars you ^ave 
now will serve you Later on when you will have greater need for them. 
PISCATAQUIS SAVINGS BANK, Dover, Maine. 
F. E. GUERNSEY, Pre<r. W. C. WOODBURY, Treas. 



Money Back If Not Satisfied 



Is Your Protection 



I Aroostook 



Bangor 



RAILROAD 

DIRECT ROUTE to Greenville, Fort 
Kent, Houlton, Presque Is!e, Cari- 
bou, Fort Fairfield. Van Buren and 



JOHN T. CLARK & Co. I "-*■» 



M 



a.r.e. 



CLOTHIERS 



BANGOR, 



MAINE 



Excellent Roadbed. Splendid Service, First 
j Class Equipment. Solid Vestibule Train:!. 

Any ticket agent will be pleased to furnish 
i all information or literature desired or same 
can be obtained by writing to the Passenger 
1 Traffic Manager. 

Geo. M. Houghton 

Passeng-sr Traffic Manager 

Bangor, iV'ia.ne 



We have positive evidence of the reliability of the advertisers on these pages 



CONTENTS 



O. R. Emerson, M. D. 



J. J. McVety, M. D. 




i liiiJii] 




.^> 



_ 



The E. & M. Hospital 

Newport, Maine 
Admits all medical and surgical cases except conta- 
gious and mental diseases 
For information, rates, etc., address: 

OLGA J. HANSON, Supt., Newport, Me. 



CONTENTS 



John Gilmore Deane 

Some Knights of the Road 

Alphabetical Index of Revolutionary Pensioners in Maine. 

Augustine Simmons 

About the U. S. Census in Maine for the Year 1800 

More About Rev. Samuel Moody 

Referring to the Organization of Penobscot County 

Michael Philbrick. Son of Capt. Zachariah Philbrick 

Browsings by the Editor in his Own Library 

Sayings of Subscribers 



PAGE 

3 
10 

18 

28 

3C 
3* 
32 
34 
30 



Ff ^% YEARS the Insurance Man of Somerset Co. 

^^^ ^r Never a Failure— Never a Law Suit— What more do you want? 

*-^ **4 CHARLES FOLSOM-JONES, Skowhegan Maine 

We have positive evidence of the reliability of the advertisers on these pages 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



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Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

Vol. VI MAY JUNE JULY 1918 No. 1 

John Gilmore Deane 

By Edgar Crosby Smith. 

Numbered among those men, who in the first half of the last 
century, helped to place our state on a firm basis, and a pedestal of 
prominence with the others which compose our union, and who to 
our shame and regret we are relegating to a nameless oblivion, is 
one whose name in his day and generation was known and honored 
throughout our borders. 

Born in our mother state, of genuine old Bay State stock, John 
Gilmore Deane first saw the light of day March 27, 1785, in the o'J 
town of Raynham. His parents, Joseph Deane and Mary Gilmoic, 
both were born in that town, and lived all their days there. Mr. 
Joseph Deane was a prosperous farmer and a highly respected in- 
habitant of his native town, of high repute for his honesty and in- 
tegrity, and held in great esteem by his neighbors and townspeople. 
He served in the War of the Revolution, entering the service imme- 
diately after the Concord and Lexington fight, and remained in 
the regular service for several years. 

John G. Deane had the benefit of a college education, graduating 
from Brown university in 1806. He read law in Taunton, Mass., 
with Hon. Seth Padelford, judge of probate, and came to Ellsworth, 
Maine, Sept. 2$, 1809. The following September (the 13th) he 
married Rebecca, the youngest daughter of Judge Padelford, his 
former law tutor. 

Mr. Deane sailed from Boston for Ellsworth, Thursday, Septem- 
ber 21, and arrived at the head of Union bay the following Satur- 
day. As the tide was too low when the vessel arrived to permit 
the passing of the bar, he prevailed upon the captain to set him 
ashore at Surry, and from there he walked the remaining two miles 
to Ellsworth. He at once secured a boarding place and a room 



4 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

for an office, and on Tuesday started on a trip to Castine to gee 
for himself blanks necessary in his practice. On his trip to Castine 
he went up to Hampden, and visited acquaintances, a Mr. and Mr=>. 
Brown. Here he met General Ulmer of Lincolnville, who u^gec 
him to settle in that town, and invited him to pay him a visit and 
look over the situation. Two days later he went down to Lincoln- 
ville, and although the general made him very generous induce- 
ments, offering to take him into his family to live, and to furnish 
him enough business to pay for his board, Mr. Deane considered 
that Ellsworth promised more for the future, and remained firm in 
his original determination to settle in that town. 

He returned to Ellsworth October 3, and commenced fitting up 
his office. In a letter of October 6, to his future wife, he says ;he 
is ready to begin practice. His equipment at the time consisted o£ 
his few books, one chair, a table and a bench. 

Close application to business, and carefully guarding the interests 
of his clients, soon brought him a fair clientage, which grew to 
large proportions as the years went by. During the earlier years 
of his professional life he was connected with the military organi- 
zation in Ellsworth, and held a commission as lieutenant-colonel. 
He served for a short time in the war of 181 2. 

In person Mr. Deane was about five feet and ten inches in height 
of quite large frame, dark complexioned, brown hair and eyes, 
rather spare, and never wore a beard ; an entertaining conversa- 
tionalist, though not much inclined to be talkative. Hon Charles 
S. Davies. a colleague and co-laborer with Mr. Deane in the ad- 
justment of the North Eastern boundary question, said of his per- 
sonal appearance in an obituary notice, "the cast of his countenance 
was remarkably intellectual and indicative of acuteness, foresight 
and sagacity. It had also something of a more grave, reflective 
and resolved character. The upper part of the face, particularly 
the intersection of the principal features, bore a striking resem- 
blance to the bust of Alexander Hamilton, while the perpetual 
activity of its fibres in their animated expression, might remind one 
who had seen the original of the incessant motion of Lord 
Brougham's." 

^ He was much loved in his family, entering into the sports of 
his children with a zest that made him one of them, and as one of 
his sons said, "More the big brother than the stern parent." He 
was an admirer of manly sports, fond of hunting and fishing and 



JOHN GILMORE DEAXE 



an excellent marksman. He loved the woods and the study of 
nature. Surely these traits of character eminently fitted him for 
the prominent part which he was to take in later years in the 
exploration and survey of our northern wilderness. He was also a 
man of decided literary tastes, and his style of composition was 
clear and polished, as an inspection of any of his writings and 
reports on the North Eastern Boundary question will show. 

He collected a good sized library, consisting of history, poetry, 
romance and essays. His law library was very large in comparison 
with those of his day. He was a subscriber to the North American 
Review from its first issue to the time of his death. 

Mr. Deane was not a member of any church, but he was a con- 
stant attendant at the Congregational church in Ellsworth after its 
organization in 1812, and his pastor during all the time of his life 
in Ellsworth was the much revered Parson Peter Nourse, the 
brother of the U. S. senator, Dr. Amos Nourse of Bath. He was 
of a Catholic spirit, and all the church organizations received as- 
sistance from his purse. When the Baptist church was erected he 
purchased a pew there, although his attendance was still with the 
Congregationalists. 

But as interesting as each little event connected with the lives of 
our pioneers and early statesmen may be, I must, with reluctance, 
leave this part of my sketch, and turn to the more important events 
in the life of the man whose work for his state was of so great 
concern. Mr. Deane was admitted to practice in the Court of 
Common Pleas in Hancock county, in 1810, and four years later, 
as was the rule in those days, as an attorney and counselor in the 
Supreme court. As his reputation grew for being a learned, sound, 
and discriminating lawyer, so his practice increased accordingly, 
and very shortly he was enjoying a remunerative clientage. As 
his business extended he was brought in touch with prominent men 
in all parts of the state, and numbered among his personal friends 
were Jacob McGaw, Prentiss Mellen, Joshua Hathaway, Simon 
Greenleaf, William P. Preble, and many others of equal note and 
distinction. 

It is certain that he took an active interest in municipal affairs 
as soon as he was settled in Ellsworth, for he was one of the select- 
men as early as 1813. He was first brought prominently before the 
general public by being elected a member of the General Court of 
Massachusetts in 1816; he was returned to that honorable position 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



for four consecutive terms, thus indicating that he filled the posi- 
tion to the eminent satisfaction of his constituents. 

He was a member of the House of representatives of the Maine 
legislature for the years 1825, '26, y 2~, '28, and '31, and it was 
during his service there that he became a particularly conspicuous 
figure, not only in Maine, but throughout the borders of our 
country, on account of the prominent part he took in bringing about 
the settlement of the dispute over our northeastern boundary, and 
the vast fund of material he had collected, and knowledge acquired 
relating to this vexed and troublesome controversy ; a controversy 
that he was not permitted to live to see settled. 

In 1827, Governor Lincoln endeavored to bring this matter to the 
attention of the general government with a view to having the 
matter finally determined, and referred to the question in his mes- 
sage to the legislature. A committee was appointed to whom was 
referred "So much of the governor's message as relates to the 
northeastern boundary, "' and Mr. Deane was its chairman. 

Perhaps it may be well to take a glance at the previous training 
that so peculiarly fitted him to fill the position that from this time 
on until his death he assumed regarding our north and eastern 
frontier. 

As has been said previously, he was a lover of nature; he loved 
to feel himself in her sublime and ennobling presence, and as one 
has said of him, "He loved to pierce the vast, profound, unpeopled 
solitudes of the forest. He liked also to meet the remnant of the 
ancient race of proprietors, in their native woods." His natural 
ient inclined towards these things, and he cultivated the inclination. 

Sometime before he settled in Ellsworth, John Black, a young 
Englishman, located there as deputy agent of the Bingham heirs, 
who owned large tracts of land in Washington and Hancock coun- 
ties, commonly known as the Bingham purchase. Mr. Black later 
became an American citizen, and on account of his holding a com- 
mission in the militia, was known as Col. Black. The two men 
became intimate friends, and Col. Black employed Mr. Deane in 
his professional capacity in connection with the lands of which he 
had charge. This called for many excursions into the wilderness 
to inspect the lands, adjust disputes, and locate boundaries, and 
gave him much valuable and practical knowledge which was of 
great advantage to him in the performance of his duties relating 
to our disputed limits. 



JOHN GILMORE DEAXE 



His duties as a member of the committee of the legislature of 
1827, did not require much labor, as this was about the beginning 
of our legislature as a body taking much interest in the subject ; 
yet the report of the committee, which was prepared by Mr. Deane, 
though brief, shows that he had already given the matter much 
study, and that he was thoroughly familiar with the situation. 
In this report of his we find the key note of the whole political 
situation at the time, and the one that governed the Webster- 
Ashburton treaty of 1842, made after Mr. Deane's death. He 
says : "The rule for settling the boundary definitely, is clear and 
plain and explicit. Xor can we forbear to remark, that if views 
of national interest did not interfere there would be no difficulty in 
ascertaining the line." 

In 1828, the matter of the dispute over the northeastern boun- 
dary was a subject that interested everyone, the executive, the legis- 
lator, and the citizen. The British provinces had become aggres- 
sive, and one of our citizens was in the Fredericton jail charged 
with trespassing. Gov. Lincoln devoted over half of his message 
addressed to the legislature of 1828, to this all-absorbing topic. A 
joint select committee was appointed to whom was referred so 
much of the governor's message as related to the northeastern 
boundary question, of which committee Mr. Deane was chairman 
on the part of the House. Practically the whole of the work of 
preparing the elaborate report submitted to the legislature was his. 
It is always referred to as Deane's report, and he was granted an 
allowance of $100 for expenses in procuring information regard- 
ing the subject of his report. The report exclusive of documents 
occupies 56 closely printed pages of the acts and resolves. 

Much has been written on this subject, and by able men, but I 
doubt if a clearer, more concise, and accurate treatment of the 
question ever appeared. He traces the history of the boundary 
from the records of the earliest discoveries, grants and treaties, 
down to the time in which he wrote, and his array of facts and 
force of argument must convince the most skeptical that our claim 
was the just one. This report was ordered to be printed, and 
copies to be sent to the President of the United States, the gov- 
ernors of each of the states of the union, to each of our foreign 
ambassadors, and to our senators and representatives. So far as 
Maine is concerned, this is the most important document ever pub- 
lished relating to the question. 



8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Mr. Deane's next term in the legislature was in 1831, when he 
was again a member of the House; again the governor referred to 
the much vexed boundary question, in his message, and Mr. Deane 
was again the spokesman and authority for the committee that was 
especially appointed to consider the matter. This report dealt with 
the unsatisfactory, idle and absurd award of the king of the Nether- 
lands, and Mr. Deane takes up paragraph after paragraph of that 
award and considers it in the light of history, statecraft, and in- 
ternational law, and leaves but little chance for argument when 
he has finished. The report of the king was not accepted. The 
arbiter's work was for naught. 

In 1838, during Gov. Kent's administration, a resolve was passed 
directing a survey and location of the northeastern boundary of 
our state, and Mr. Deane on account of his intimate and accurate 
knowledge of the subject and the country, was at once appointed 
to execute the commission. This work he did to the satisfaction 
of the government. 

From the time of his first interesting himself in the boundary 
question in 1827, it was an all-absorbing topic with him. He mas- 
tered more of its details, historical, geographical and statistical. 
than any other person, and wrote, spoke and printed, not only more 
than any other person, but possibly more than all others combined. 
Personal business was secondary with him, he ate, drank and 
slept with our northeastern boundary question. When discoursing 
on the subject he was in his native element, "His foot was on his 
native 'heath and his name was McGregor." No difficulty wearied 
him or obstacle appalled. He gave it his best thought, hardest 
labor and maturest deliberation. Never was a public servant more 
devoted to his trust than he; it was his ruling passion. But possi- 
bly, providentially, he did not live to see the determination of the 
question by the Webster-Ashburton treaty in 1842. It would have 
been a cup of bitterness and a feast of mortification. It may have 
been statecraft, diplomacy, or international amity that effected the 
compromise, but nevertheless we lost six million acres of most 
valuable territory, and receded from a position that was right 
logically, historically and lawfully. 

Mr. Deane removed to Portland in the fall of 1835. He died in 
the prime of his manhood at the age of 53. His death occurred at 
Cherryfield, in November, 1839, where he had gone on business 
connected with his large landed interests. 

"Strong to the end, a man of men, from out the strife he passed." 



JOHN GILMORE DEANE 



The Deane Maps. 

The maps of Mr. Deane followed those of Moses Greenleaf, 
and were prepared for the special purpose of delineating our 
northern and eastern boundaries. Previous to 1838 there had 
"been only partial surveys of this disputed territory, and Mr. 
Deane's work as commissioner on behalf of the state to execute a 
full survey of these boundaries afforded him exceptional facilities 
to procure the material to make a map showing the true limits 
of our state. To accompany his report to the legislature, a large 
map of the territory survey was prepared under his direction, and 
having all the data at his disposal he considered it an opportune 
time to publish a map giving the exact north and east boundaries 
of the state, an undertaking that heretofore it had been impossible 
to accomplish. Three new counties had been incorporated since 
Mr. Greenleaf's map of 1829. viz: Aroostook, Franklin and Pis- 
cataquis, consequently a new map of the state was needed. 

Mr. Deane was not a civil engineer, neither was he a cartogra- 
pher, and the actual work of constructing and drafting his map 
was done by another hand, although under his direction and super- 
vision. Mr. Deane died the year his first map was published. 

(1839). 

Mr. Williamson gives four editions of the Deane map, 1839, 
1840, 1842 and 1843. I have seen and examined but two, viz: The 
1840 and 1842. These are well executed, and are good examples of 
map-making. The size is S3 x2 7y an< ^ tne engraving was done by 
C. A. S"wett of Portland. 

His great work in locating our disputed boundaries soon came to 
naught, as the Webster-Ashburton treaty of 1842 changed the 
location entirely, and his maps were of no further usefulness so 
far as these were concerned. On account of this change, I assume 
that the sale of his maps was much curtailed, and they are becom- 
ing quite scarce. The work he intended to do was well performed, 
but events beyond his control abridged its usefulness. If the 
boundary had not been changed the map would have been of great 
value, as it is thev are of much historical interest in showing the 
exact location of the bounds as claimed bv the state of Maine. 



io SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Some Knights of the Road 

By Charles E. Waterman. 

It is a axiom with Boards of Trade and Chambers of Commerce 
that transportation facilities make a town ; and looking back into 
the past would indicate the slogan is not of recent origin. 

A party of pioneers can make a settlement, but it takes years of 
settlement with the slow accumulation of public utilities to make a 
town. The original purposes for which towns were incorporated 
were to support the unfortunate poor, to introduce and maintain 
schools, and to build and maintain roads. The first is necessary 
in any humane community and the second an investment for good 
citizenship ; but the third is, perhaps, the most valuable of the 
three, for it presents a social and business opportunity for visiting 
one's neighbors to observe and absorb advance ideas which mean 
community progress. That this is true is easily confirmed in any 
community which has been sidetracked by reason of location from 
the great arteries of traffic and travel. They become stagnant. 

The look backward discloses the fact that in what is now the 
State of Maine there was a time when there were no roads. The 
first settlers picked their way on foot through forest trails to the 
land they "took up," and for many years thereafter retraced them 
on foot or on horseback to older settlements which had become 
community centers. As more land was cleared, more cattle could 
be kept. To clear land on any extended scale, the ox became a 
necessity; so the trails were widened into logging roads. With 
these slow animals settlers did such traveling as they were obliged 
to do. 

In the earlier days, there were no mails, and consequently little 
reading. As most of the settlers came from Massachusetts, their 
theocratic opinions of that commonwealth were made manifest in 
most households by the presence of a Bible. Without mails there 
could be no newspapers and letter writing was nearly a lost art 
among early settlers. On rare occasions letters were exchanged, 
but they were likely to remain in outpost postoffices for days and 
weeks and many times months before someone from the community 
to which they were addressed arrived and called for such mail as 
belonged to himself or neighbors. 



SOME KNIGHTS OF THE ROAD u 



When the United States set up housekeeping and took her first 
census in 1790, she found but a single postroad within the District 
of Maine running along the Atlantic shore eastward from Boston, 
as far as Wiscasset, and but two postoffices, one at Portland and 
the other at Wiscasset. The latter office was established the very 
year the census was taken, and the first postriders from Portland 
to Wiscasset were John Smith Foye and Samuel Seavey. 

The post route between Boston and Portland had been estab- 
lished in 1775. William Wescott was the first mail carrier. He 
traveled sometimes on foot and sometimes on horseback at first. 
but later on horseback altogether. It was intended to be a weekly 
service, but was in fact very irregular. A coach was put on as far 
as Portland in 1787. It is related in McLellan's History of the 
Town of Gorham, that the first chaise to travel east of Saco was 
in 1777 when Stephen Gorham and wife visited relatives in Buxton. 
As immigrants became more firmly settled in their wilderness 
homes, and began to exchange their log cabins for frame houses 
the desire for roads became more pronounced. The newly made 
plantations and towns confiscated the logging roads running from 
house to house, dug out the stumps and stones, filled up the mud 
holes, and made culverts and bridges across watercourses. There 
was a demand for trunk lines running through strings of towns 
connecting them with seaports. That they should be as direct as 
possible, required they should be laid out by some power not 
interested in single towns but in the settlements as a whole; so this 
power was first delegated to the courts. 

In the western part of the District, all roads centered in Portland, 
then as now the principal seaport ; and in that day people depended 
more on the sea for transportation and sustenance than at present. 

The opening of communication between seaport and interior 
awakened sleeping memories of settlers to the conventions of older 
communities. They wanted to hear from relatives in longer settled 
parts of the colonies, and from the world in general, so they 
brushed up their handwriting and called for a postal service. 

The first services in this line were post riders who traveled on 
horseback (as most of the roads were yet unfit for vehicles ) with 
saddlebags in which to stow away mail for the different postoffices. 
They also maintained a private delivery of newspapers to patrons 
along the route, for Portland had discovered the new life of her 
neighbors and established a newspaper (The Falmouth Gazette in 



12 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

1785). Each rider carried a long tin horn upon which he blew a 
blast when approaching either a postoffice or private patron. 

In 1793 a highway was laid out running from Portland through 
the towns of Gray, Xew Gloucester, Greene, Monmouth, Winthrop 
and Hallowell to Augusta, and from that settlement through Pitts- 
ton and Pownalboro to Wiscasset. The next year William Blossom 
went on the route as postrider, making weekly trips. The first 
coach was put on this line in 1806. 

In 1799 a route was laid out from Portland to Bridgton. In 
1802 this route was extended to Waterford. Jacob Howe was the 
rider, and he traveled through the following towns : From Port- 
land to Gorham, Standish, Raymond and Bridgton to Waterford, 
and returning through Norway, Paris, Hebron, Poland, New Glou- 
cester and Gray. 

The local postoffice followed the introduction of the postrider, 
and the extension of routes is recorded quite accurately by the 
dates of which local offices were established in the various towns. 
The office in Augusta was established in 1794; Greene in 1796; 
Lewiston in 1799; Waterford in i8co; Paris, Norway and Poland 
in 1801. 

The perfection attained by highways is also shown quite accu- 
rately by the history of postal routes. The riders generally traveled 
horseback for a decade or two after the routes were established. 

In 18 12 William Sawin, who was on the Waterford route, adver T 
tised that he would travel with a light wagon and carry passengers 
when asked to do so in advance. In 1820 he put on a four-horse 
coach. The roads by that time had attained a degree of perfec- 
tion sufficient to accommodate such vehicles ; also the people had 
began to travel to an extent warranting the introduction of a 
coach. Beside carrying mail and passengers each driver did quite 
an express business. 

Mail carriers were advance agents of progress in more ways 
than one. Not only did they introduce the local postoffice, but 
the local store as well. The postoffice was the center of a com- 
munity, and it was but a step from delivering mail to supplying 
merchandise : so the postoffice became the store as well, goods being 
received largely via the mail coach. 

One can readily believe the first merchants were peddlers, travel- 
ing on horseback with saddlebags. Records of such callings are 
not numerous but some have come down to us. For instance, Mark 



SOME KNIGHTS OF THE ROAD 13 

5 — — _ 

Andrews was the first merchant of Turner, going from house to 
house with saddlebags. In 1793 he had such things in his stock 
as spelling-books, mouse traps, jewsharps, fish-hooks, jack-knives 
and tacks. 

As stores increased in size and number, merchandise became too 
bulky for transportation on stage coaches and freight services were 
introduced. There was another reason for the special freight ser- 
vice. In early days money was not plenty and barter was an im- 
portant element of trade. There was, therefore, merchandise to 
transport not only from but to seaports, consequently in about the 
third decade of the nineteenth century the freight wagon became an 
established institution. As the pay was unusually large for the 
times, ambitious young men sought employment in either the coach 
or freight service. It was the writer's good fortune to know 
some of these drivers in their later days and his early ones, espe- 
cially freight drivers ; and as they have not been immortalized in 
song and story to such an extent as coach drivers, some attention 
will be paid to them here. 

Many merchants in interior towns maintained their own freight 
service. The motive power, generally was horse-flesh. The 
wagons were large and roomy and, when loaded, required from four 
to eight horses to haul them. Not only did these teams transport 
merchandise for the firms owning them, but for smaller merchants 
along the way. From Zadoc Long's diary, of the date of January 
7, 1835, one learns that the father of Governor John D. Long, who 
was a merchant in Buckfield at that time, sent four tons of dried 
apple to Portland, receiving four and one-half cents a pound for the 
product. 

At the time of the opening of roads, manufacturing had begun in 
a small way, and the products of mills, kilns and shops found way 
to Portland by these conveyances. Some of the smaller products 
went by the regular freight wagons, but lumbermen generally 
maintained teams of their own. There is evidence to believe that 
a large portion of the lumber wagons were hauled by oxen. It 
seems that the sons of Jacob Stevens, who settled in Turner in 
1789, built a saw mill in Auburn, (or what was known at that time 
as Bakerstown or Poland) still known as Stevens' Mills, and manu- 
factured lumber for the domestic and export trade. The latter 
was hauled to Portland with oxen according to the story told the 
writer in his younger days by John Stevens, then an old man, who 



14 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



had been one of the drivers. The distance was thirty-six miles. 
Mr. Stevens said this means of transportation was not uncommon 
before 1850. 

Another freight driver, better known to the writer than any 
other, Samuel B. Waterman, of Oxford, took up this occupation 
before he was twenty years old. First he drove a freight wagon 
from West Minot to Portland, then from Buckfield to that seaport. 
At the latter place he was in the employ of Ephraim Atwood, an 
old time merchant of Buckfield. His wagon was hauled by eight 
horses. He had unusual skill in training horses and used no 
reins in guiding his animals, they obeying his vocal commands much 
as oxen do. 

One of Mr. Waterman's fellow drivers, William Stone, was a 
dashy fellow and a general favorite with the servants around hotels 
or "tarvans," as they were then called, at which they stopped for 
meals or lodgings. 

A brief description of him will show the typical teamster of that 
day. He was a dandy in dress, wearing "store clothes" in an age 
when the general dress was homespun. In cold weather he wore a 
thick overcoat of fancy tailoring, and protected his hands at all 
times with gloves. Even when caring for his horses he affected 
style by covering and protecting his clothes with a long frock, 
gathered in at the waist by a red sash. 

The driver of that day was a marked man. He was a traveler 
when most people remained at home. He saw and heard things un- 
known to rural inhabitants. He almost always developed into a 
good story-teller and was welcomed at barroom firesides on that 
account. If he possessed imagination he could rival Munchausen 
in this art, for people who knew little of the outside world could 
dispute nothing however improbable, and there was always a temp- 
tation to see how much they would swallow. In short, the stage 
and freight driver of that day in Maine occupied the same position 
in social life his western counterpart did a generation or two later. 
Mark Twain's description of the latter product in "Roughing It" 
can well apply to the earlier members of the craft in Maine. He 
says: 

The stage driver was a hero — a great shining dignitary — the world's favor- 
ite son — the envy of the people — the observed of nations. When they 
speak to him, they receive his insolent silence meekly, as being the proper 
conduct of so great a man; when he opens his lips they hang on his words 
with admiration. 



*,* 



SOME KNIGHTS OF THE ROAD 15 

In the older days, shipmasters became merchants, owning their 
own vessels, and buying and selling their own cargoes. Such men 
were Captains Joseph Decker and Samuel Clough, of Wiscasset, 
and Captain William Ladd, of Minot. In like manner freight 
drivers became inland merchants, buying the freight they carried 
and selling to small store keepers in the interior. Mr. Waterman 
and Mr. Stone entered this business. They even traveled into Can- 
ada with lines of goods. 

The golden period of the passenger coach and the freight wagon 
was between the years 1840 and 1850. In 1846 Grovenor Water- 
house opened a daily stage line between Paris and Portland. The 
same year the British mail was carried from Portland to Montreal 
in twenty-six hours as against a previous record of thirty-two 
hours. Even before the first date Maine people had begun to 
dream of different and faster methods of transportation. 

Those living on waterways had always enjoyed an advantage in 
this respect, as sailing vessels had been able to work their way 
some miles into the interior, and in 1807 Robert Fulton, by intro- 
ducing steam power into their hulls, had greatly assisted develop- 
ment along their banks. The first coast steamboat appeared in 
Portland in 1823 and the next year one was placed in the Kennebec 
River. The locomotive with its railed tracks was not far behind. 
The first railroad was opened in England in 1825, the first one in 
the United States in 1828 and the first one in Maine in 1836. These 
innovations did not take instant hold of the people for it required 
capital to build and operate them, and a considerable volume of 
commerce to maintain them when built. The first railroads were 
of necessity a long time investment. 

As water transportation presented fewer difficulties in early days, 
schemes for their improvement occupied public attention first. 
Where navigable rivers did not exist canals were advocated. 

In the western part of Maine, of which I am writing, the earliest 
dream of improved transportation was to connect its numerous 
lakes with canals. This idea was considered as early as 1820, and 
one of the acts of the first legislature of Maine was to charter The 
Cumberland and Oxford Canal Company. The scheme contem- 
plated connecting lakes as far north as Waterford. Work was 
begun on this artificial waterway in 1828, and completed as far as 
Sebago Lake in 1831. With exception of improvements in the 
Songo River, that was as far as it ever got, as the railroad fever 



16 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

took full possession of the people about this time. The canal was 
discontinued in 1875. 

Local historians of western Maine, occasionally disclose the 
workings of this new germ. The first mention found is in 1835, 
When a railroad connecting Portland with Montreal was agitated. 
Surveys were made that year and committees were appointed in 
small towns to influence the surveyors, if possible, to lay out the 
line through their respective towns. In 1837 the Portland, Saco 
and Portsmouth Railroad was chartered and the road completed in 
1842. The Grand Trunk Railway, or Atlantic & St. Lawrence Rail- 
road as it was then called, was chartered in 1845, as was also the 
Portland & Kennebec Railroad and the Maine Central. Work was 
begun on these roads at once. 

It was then that the old stage coach gave up its life in a blaze 
of glory. There was competition between Portland and Bos- 
ton as a terminal for the new railroad, and advocates for each 
city had rival routes surveyed, and in January, 1846, expresses, 
carrying mail were started from each city. Orin Hobbs, dressed, 
as the writer has been informed, in a blue suit, with silver quarter 
dollars as buttons on the coat and silver dimes as buttons on the 
waistcoat, took the Portland express as far as Norway, when it 
was taken by Grovenor YVaterhouse as far as Canaan, Vermont, 
where it was taken by another messenger. The first stage was 
made in two hours and forty-five minutes, the second in eleven 
hours, and the whole distance between Portland and Montreal, some 
more than three hundred miles, in twenty-six hours, shortening 
any previous record by six hours. So the building of The Portland 
& St. Lawrence Railroad was decided. It was begun in 1845 an '^ 
completed in 1853. 

The building of railroads sounded the knell of long-distance 
staging in Maine: and the old ideal coachmen of those times be- 
came the first conductors on the railroads. The two drivers men- 
tioned above, Hobbs and Waterhouse, served on the first Atlantic 
& St. Lawrence trains. 

The building of railroads was an incentive to manufacturing, and 
the beginning of modern industry dates from that time. The con- 
struction of railroads, dams and buildings opened another industry 
by calling for explosives for cleveing rocks, and powder mills came 
into existence. They had been in existence in a small way for 
some time, but the increased demand for explosives increased the 



SOME KNIGHTS OF THE ROAD i 7 

output. This opened a new field for freight drivers, for this ma- 
terial had to be transported wherever railroads or towns were build- 
ing, or quarries opened. This gave a romance to the business not 
there before, because of the danger involved. Mr Waterman, 
mentioned above and Benjamin Chandler Rawson, of Paris, were 
among those who entered this business and many adventures and 
narrow escapes did they experience, such as traveling through forest 
fires, etc., on the roads delivering these explosives. They were 
employed by Messrs. Marble & Hubbard, of Paris, who owned 
powder mills situated at North Buckfield. 

The range of their travels were in northern New Hampshire and 
Vermont, where railroads were building, and in central and south- 
ern Maine. In the latter state, not only were railroads supplied, 
but the lime quarries of Rockland and the slate quarries of Brown- 
ville and Monson, then in the beginning of operations. 

This transportation was far from easy, for many of the roads 
traveled were little better than wood trails. If one desires an ade- 
quate description of them, one only has to read Henry D. Thoreau's 
"Maine Woods," about excursions made at this time. Of the prim- 
itiveness of the times, Thoreau can be quoted. Of Monson, Mr. 
Waterman's northern point, he has this to say : "At a fork in the 
road between Abbott and Monson, about twenty miles from Moose- 
head Lake, I saw a guide-post surmounted by a pair of moose- 
horns, spreading four or five feet, with the word Monson painted 
on one blade." 

Considering the ever possible pyrotechnic display, this might be 
called, perhaps, the brilliant exit of the freight service, for in a few 
years the long-distance freight wagon had disappeared. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF MAINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

At the annual meeting- of the Maine Historical Society held at Brunswick 
Tuesday, June 18, 1918, officers for the coming- year were elected as follows: 
President, James P. Baxter: vice president, Dr. Henry S. Burrage ; treas- 
urer, Fritz N. Jordan; recording secretary, Charles T. Libby; corresponding 
secretary, \V. D. Patterson, librarian, Evelyn L. Gilmore ; standing com- 
mittee, Prentice C. Manning, Judge George A. Emery of Saco, Judge George 
E. Bird, Judge Clarence Hale, Frederick D. Conant, Charles A. Flagg, 
Edward D. Noyes (in place of Henry Deering, deceased) Edward A. Butler 
of Rockland (in place of General Selden Connor, deceased.) 

The report of Evelyn L. Gilmore, the librarian, was important and 
exceptionally interesting and entertaining. Her work is probably not excelled 
by any one in a similar position in New England. 



18 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

An Alphabetical Index of Revolu- 
tionary Pensioners Living 
in Maine 

(Compiled by Charles A. Flagg, Librarian Bangor (Maine) 

Public Library.) 

(Continued from page 266, Vol. 5.) 



List. 



Name. 



Service 



Rank. 



Age. County. 



Remarks. 



Beal, Daniel Mass. line. . . |Private. 



'35c 

'40 

'35d!Beal, Job Mass. mil 



Beal, Elizabeth 7. 



Private and' 
Sergeant. 



'35cjBeal, Joseph |Mass. line. . . Private, 



'35d 



'35c 

'40 

•35d 

'20 

*35c 

'40 

1792 



Beales, Isaac Mass. mil . . . Fifer, mat- 

I ross and 
I drummer 

Beall, Benjamin. ... N. H. line . . . Private. . . . 

Reals, I ydia | I 

Bean. Daniel Mass. line . . . 'Private. . . . 

Bean, Ebenezer .... R.I Private. 

Bean, Ebenezer .... Mass. line . . . Private. 

Bean, James R ! I 

Bean, John 3d N. H. regt. Corporal . . 



1794 1 

'20 JBean, John 



'35ciBean, Jonathan 

I 
'35d Bean, Josiah. . . 
'40 \Befln, Margaret, 
'40 |Bean. Oliver. . . 
'35c.Bean, Samuel. . 

'35a Beans, John . . . 



'35c 

'35d 
'40 , 

'35c 

'35c 

*35d 

'35c 

'35d 

•40 

'20 

'35d 

•35c 

•40 

'35c 

'40 

•35c 

'35 c 

'40 



Bearce, Elemezer. 
Bearce, Gideon. . . 

Bearce, Levi 

Beckey, Magnus. 



Beckford, William 
Beckler, Daniel . . 
Beedle, Henry . . . 



3d N. H. regt. Corporal. 
N. H Private. . 



Mass. line. . . Private. . . 
N. H. line. . . Private.. . 



R. I. line. . . . Private. .. 
N. H. line. . Private.. 



Mass. line . . . Lieut 



Beeman, John. . 
Belcher, Supply. 



Bemis, Jacob 

Bemis, Thaddeus. 



Mass. state. . Marine. 
Mass line... Private. 
Private. 



N\ H. line 



Mass. mil. . Private. 
Mass. line. . . Private. 
Mass. state.. Private. 



I 
72 Cumberland . C20) Died Sept." 4» 

! 1825. 

78 Cumberland . Res. Freeport. 
74 Cumberland . 

i 
77, Waldo ('20) Died Oct. 29» 

f 1830. 

74'Kennebec. . . 



76 Lincoln C20) d. July 26, 1823 

74 Kennebec. . . Res. Greene. 
75,Ozford 



96' York. 
67 York . 



79 Oxford . . . 

75 Kennebec. 
82 Oxford.. . 
42 Kennebec. 
70 Lincoln. . . 



Kennebec 



79 Lincoln 

76 Oxford. 
82 Oxford. 

77 Oxford . 



Mass Private. 

Mass. line. . . jPriv'te and 
I Sergeant 
Mass. line . . . Private 



72 Somerset . 



72 York.. 
86 Oxford. 
75 York. . 
80 York.. 



Died 1824. 

<"35a) Res. Hollis. 

Wounded 1779. Pen- 
sioned 1789. 

Res. Washington. 

('31b)same as Beans,. 
J. 

('20) d. Nov. 19, 
1826. 

'•20, 31b). 

Res. Bethel. 

Res. Readfield. 

('20) d. Aug. t 14, 
1818. 

Transf. from Mass. 

1819. Same as Bean, 
J. d.Xov.12,1832. 

("28 as Ebenezer). 
d. May 3, 1827. 



AsBearseRes. Hebron 
C20) d. Dec. 17, 

1826. 
('20 as Beckley). d. 

May 19, 1S24. 



("20) d. Sept. 4, 1833. 

Res. S. Berwick. 
Same as Buman ? 



Mass. line . . . Private . . 

Benjamin, Samuel. . Mass. line. . . Lieut. . . . 
Benner, Christopher Mass. line. . . Private.. 
i 



82 Kennebec. 

76 Cumberland. ('20). 

83 Cumberland . Res. Pownal. 
75 Oxford C20). 

81 Oxford Res. Frveburg. 

82 Oxford ('20, '31b). 

78 Washington., f'20). 

84 Washington. . Res. Dennysville. 



REVOLUTIONARY PENSIONERS IN MAINE 



19 



List 



Name 



Service. 



Rank. 



Age 



County. 



Remarks. 



'35c Benner, Peter Mass. line . . . Corporal 



•40 ; 

'35e 

'35e 

'35c 

'35(1, 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'40 

•35d 

*35d 

*35c 

'35d 

'35c 

'40 

'35c 

'40 

'35c 

'35c 

'35d 

'40 

'35c 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

*35d 

'40 

'35c 

'40 

*35d 

*35d 

'35d 

'35d 

*35d 

'40 

*35d 

'35c 

'40 

'35c 

'35d 

*4C 

'40 

'35d 

•35d 

'35c 

•35c 

'35d 

1794 

1792 

'35a 

'40 

•35d 

'40 

*35c 

'35c 

'35c 

'31a 



'35d 

'40 

'35c 

*35c 
'35d 
'35c 

'40 

'35c 
'35c 
'35c 



Bennet, John. 
Bennett, Andrew. . . Mass. line. 
Bennett, Moses . . . . ! Mass. line . 
Bennett, Samuel.. . . Mass. line . 
Benson, Ichabod ... Mass. line . 

Benson, Jeptha I 

Benson, Robert .... Mass. mil . 
Berdens, Timothy. .1 

Berry, Abigail. 



Private. . 
Private. . 
Private. . 
[Private.. 



Drummer. 



Berry. George : Mass. line . . 

Berry, Jonathan. . . . 'Mass. line. . 

Berry, Joseph Mass. line . . 

Berry, Josiah Mass. state. 

Berry, Josiah , Mass. line . . 

Berr\ , Josiah \ 

Berry, Nathaniel 



Private. 
iPrivate. 
Private. 
Private. 
Private. 



Mass. line. . . I Private. 



Berry, Pelatiah Mass. line. . . [Private. 

Berry, Thomas .Mass. line . . . Lieut . . 

Berry, Thomas :R. I. state. . . Private. 



Berry, Timothy .... 'Mass. line. . . iPrivate. 

Berry, Timothy I 

Berry, Zebulon Mass. mil . . . iPrivate. 



Mass. mil 



Mas 



Besse, Jabez. 
Besse, Joseph 



Bessee, Ebenezer. . . Mass. line. 

Bett, Amzi 'Mass. mil.. 

Bettis, Jeremiah. . . . Mass. line. 

Beveridge, Matthew Mass.mil. 
Bibber, James Mass.mil.. 



[Private. 



Private. 



Private.. . . 

Private. . . . 

Priv'te and 

Sergeant 

Private 

Private. . . . 



Bickford, Benjamin. Mass. mil. ... Private. . . 

Biokford, John N. H. line. . . Private.. . 

Bickford. William ' 

Bickmore, John . . . . Mass. line... Private... 
Bicknell, Abner. . . . Mass. mil.. . . Private.. . 



Bir knell, Olire ! . 

Bitrge, David Mass. mil. 

Billings, Abel Mass. mil. 

Billington, Issac. . . Mass. line 
Bisbee. Elisha Mass. line 



Private. 
Private. 
Private. 
1 Lieut . . 



Bishop, Knos.. 
Bishop, Squire 



Bishop, Squire, Jr. 



Mass. mil.. . . Private. 

M'Cobb's mil Private. 
I regt. 

S. Webb'srgt. Private. 

[Blunt's Co. .1 



Mass. line. . . Private.. 



Bishop, Squire . 
Bishop, Zadock. 

Bishop, Zadoc j 1 

Biter, Peter Mass. line. . . Private. 

Black, Henry Mass. line. . . iPrivate. 

Black, Joab .Mass. line. . . (Private. 

Black, Joseph [Private. 



Black, Josiah Mass. state. . [Private.. 

I 



Black, Moses Mass. line. . . iPrivate.. . . j 

Blacking ton, James. Mass. line. . . iPrivate. ... 
Blacketon, William .Mass. mil.. . . 'Sergeant.. . 
Blackstone, John. . . N, J. line. . . . iPrivate.. . . 



Bl achat one, Rebecca 

Blackwood, Jarnes. . Mass. line. 

Blair, Jarnes Mass. line . 

Blake, Benjamin .. . Mass. line. 



Private. 
Private. 
IPrivate. 



72j Kennebec. . 

58|Cumberland 
81 W r aldo I 

78 Cumberland . 
86 j Somerset 

77 Oxford ! 

81! Hancock. 

79 York 

76jYork 



73|York 

7S Kennebec . . . 

78|York 

78'York 

73 Cumberland 

75[Lincoln 

38 York 

78'Kennebec . . . 
84'Kennebec. . 
74iCumberland 
92jLincoln 

72| Oxford 

78 Oxford 

82i Oxford 

87iYork 

74|Cumberland 
80|Cumberland 
72' Kennebec . . . 
75!Kennebec. . 

74-Oxford 

..jOxford 

SliSomerset 

72j Oxford 

71 York 



C20). d. Sept. 9, 

1833. 
Res. BrunswicI:. 
C20). 

C2C)d.Feb. 12/1832 
t'20). 

Died Aug. 1. 1833.1 
Res. Brooksville. 
Died July 1. 1S33. 
Same as Burdeen. 

Res. S. Berwick. 
Res. York. 
('20, '31b). 

('20). 
C20). 



Res. Limerick. 
C20). 

Res. Pittston. 
C20). 

('28). d. Jan. 
1828. 

iRes. Buckfield. 

j('20) 
Res. Cornish. 

[Res. Scarborough. 



27, 



08! Waldo 

78Cumberland 
84 Cumberland 
91,Kennebec. . 

75! York 

84!Lincoln 

76 Waldo 

70 Waldo 

76| Waldo 

89! Oxford 

85;Cxford 

78i Hancock . . . 
70i Kennebec. . 

78|Oxford 

87 Cumberland 



Res. Wavne. 
C20). 
Res. Paris. 



('20 as Bettes). 



Res. N. Yarmouth. 

C20). 

Res. Lewiston. 

('20) d. Sept. 4,1832. 

Res. Frankfort. 
Res. Hartford. 



Died Dec. 10, IS29. 
C20).d. Dec. 4, 1826 

Wounded 1779. Res. 

Washington. 
W r ounded 1779. Pen. 
sioned 1792. 
Kennebec 
85 Kennebec. . . . jRes. Yassalborough. 
85 Kennebec. . 
911 Kennebec. . 
79j Kennebec. . 

76| York 

81 Cumberland 



1827. 



York. . . . 
York.... 
Hancock 



70 Lincoln . . . 
79j Kennebec. 
75|Lincoln. . . . 



79 1 Lincoln. . . . 
90 Washington. 

81! Lincoln 

69j Oxford 



Res. Leeds. 
(*20)d.Mar.4, 
C20). 

('20, '3 lb). 
Rejected on account 

of amount of his 

property. 
C31a). 

Res. Limington. 
('20) d. Dec 22, 

1829. 
C20). 

('20) d. Dec 20, 

1818. 
Res. Richmond. 
C'20) d. Mar. 1827. 
C20). 
C20). 



20 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



List. 



Name. 



Service. 



Rank. 



Age. 1 County. 



Remarks. 



'40 Blake, Deborah. 

'35d Blake, James . . 
'35d Blake, John 



Mass. state. . 
N. H. line. .. 



Private. . . . 

Ensign and 

Lieut. 



'40 

'35d Blake, John I Mass. line . . . Private. 

'40 , Blake, John I 

'35c Blake, John '' Mass. line . . . Private. 

'35c Blake, Joseph Mass. line . . . ,Corporal 

'40 Blake. Josiah [ I 

'35d' Blake, Robert Mass. mil.. . . I Private. . . .! 

'40 i : ! ! 

'35di Blake, Willing I Mass. line. . .jPriv'te and! 

I Sergeant.; 

'40 ' Blanrhard, Sarah . . j I 

'35d Blanehard, Seth .... Mass. mil. . . . ! Private. ... I 

'40 ! | j [ 

'35d| Blanehard, Solomon R. I. mil. . . .JPriv'te and! 

Art. 

'40 ' ! 

'31b Blanehard, Theoph. 'Private I 

'35d Blanehard, Timothy R. I. line. . . . Priv'te and ; 

' Sergeant.! 
35c Blaneher, Theophilus Mass. line. . .[Private. . . . 

'35c Blasdell, Daniel .... Mass. line. . . j Private.. . . 
'35c Blethen, Increase. . . Mass. line. . . Private.. . . | 
'31a Blodget, Jonathan. jPrivate. . . .1 

i ! ' 

'35d Blodget. Jonathan . . X. H. line . . . I Private. 

'40 j i 

'40 Blue, Hannah • 

'35c Boas. James |Mass. line. . . Private.. . 

•40 , Booker, Aaron i i 



I 
*0to Cumberland 
80 

71 Cumberland 
'7 & Penobscot. . 

79 

86 Penobscot. . 
J2 Kennebec. . . 
SO Kennebec.. . 
66 Cumberland 
76 Cumberland 
80 Franklin.. . . 
82 Kennebec. . . 

87 Kennebec... 

72 Lincoln. . . . 



iRes. Gorham. 



78' Lincoln 

86 Lincoln. . . . 
74 Cumberland 
81 Cumberland 
72 Lincoln. . . . 



('20, "31b). 

Res. Brewer. 
C20)-. 

Res. Gardiner. 

(*2C). 

jRes. Phillips. 

Res. Fayette. 

;c2o>. 

'Res. Warren. 
iRes. Richmond. 

;Res. X. Yarmouth. 



77 Lincoln IRes. Dresden. 

. . . ! ISame as Blancher. 

79 Lincoln ('20, '31b). 



7G Lincoln. 



86 Lincoln.. 
76 Somerset . 



'20 Borlen. Theodore. . Mass Private.. 

'35a BoJwell, F.benezer. . ICorporal. 

'40 | i | 

'35c Bogues, Samuel .... Mass. line ... Private. . 



'35c Boice. Janie* 

'35c Bointon, Joseph. . 
'35c Bointon, Pelatiah. 



Va. line Mariner. 

X. H. line. Private.. 
Mass. line ... Private. . 



'35c Bois, - John X. H. line. . . Private.. 



'35c Bold en. John 
'35c Bolton, David 



'35c Bolton, Solomon. 
'40 



Va. line 
Mass. line 



Private. . 
Private.. 



Mass. line ... Private. . . . 



'35c 
'35c 
'40 
*40 



Bomous, Morris. 
Bond, Jonas . . . . 



Mass. line 
Mass. line 



Private. 
Private. 



Bonney, Isaac. 



'35d Bonneys, Isaac. . . . 
'35c Booiei, Ebeiezer. 
'35c Boo'len, Theodore 



35c BoofFee, Thomas. . 
'35d Boo!-er, Aaron .... 

'40 Booker, Anna 

'35c Booker, fsaiah . . . . 
'35c Booker, Josiah . . . . 
•40 Bnthby, -lizahdh. 
'35c Boothby, William. 
'35d Bornhumen, Jacob. 



Mass. line. 
R. I. line. 
Mass. line . 



|X. H.line. 
Mass. line. 



Private. 
Private. 
Private. 

Ensign. 
Private. 



Mass. line. 
Mass. line . 



Private. . . 
Private. . . . 



Mass. line. 
Mass. mil. 



'40 Boater, Jonathan 

'35d Boston, Elijah. . 
"J5d Boston, Shebruel 
'35d Bo3ton, Thomas. 



Private. . . . 

jPriv'te and 

marine. 



('20") same as Blanch 

ard. 
C20) d. Feb. 4, 1829. 
C20). 

Reg't. not on Con- 
tinental establish- 
ment. 
78 Oxford 

83 Oxford IRes. Gilead. 

78 Kennebec. . . Res. Monmouth. 

73 Cumberland ! (20 as Boaz). 

88 York ISame as Booker, A. 

I Res. York. 

. . . ! Same as Booden, T. 

. . . Oxford IFroru Mass. in 1817. 

55 Oxford Res. Andover. 

76 Lincoln | Misspelled Rogues. 

C20). 

77 York I ('20 ship "Ranger"). 

80 Oxford ISame as Boynton, J. 

Kennebec. . . ('20 as Boynton, P.) 
Same as Boying- 
ton, P. ? 
C20) d. Mar. 16, 
1833. 

88 Lincoln :C20). 

64 Kennebec. ..Same as Botton ? d. 
j Feb. 4, 1828. 

78 Penobscot. 
82 Penobscot 

78 Oxford. . . 

74 Washington. . 

80 Washington. . Res. Robbinston. 

85 Oxford Res. Sumner. Same 

[ as following? 

79 Oxford Same as preceding ? 

o7 Hancock .... 

Same as Boden, T. 
[ and as Bowden.T? 

C20) d. Jan. 10, 1*20 

Same as Bocker, A. 
IRe-. Richmond, 
ji. Feb.27, 1833. 

C20) d. Feb. 27, 1823 
;Re-. Limerick. 

('20. 31b). 



74 Somerset . 



Res. Orrington. 
Same as Bumfries ? 



70 Penobscot 



Mass. line . 
Mass. mil. 
Mass. line. 



Private. 
Private 
Private. 



S4 Lincoln 

80 York 

75 Lincoln.. . . 
72 Somerset. . 
7* Ke inebec. . 

80 York 

76 \ ork 

69 Lincoln ! Same as Burnheimer. 

86, York Same as Baston, J. ? 

Res. Kennebunk. 

81 York '('20, '31b). 

78 York ! 

74 York Same a^ Baston, 



T. 



REVOLUTIONARY PENSIONERS IN MAINE 



21 



List. 



Name. 



Service 



Rank. 



Age. County 



Remarks. 



'40 ? 

'35c Bosworth, Daniel. 
•40 |- 



Mass.line. . . Private. 



*35c Bosworth. Jonathan Mass. line 

'20 

'20 

'20 

'3od 



'35c 

'40 

'40 
'40 
'35c 

'20 

'35c 

'40 

'35c 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'28 
'29 

'35e 
'35c 
'35d 
'35d 
'35c 

'35d 
'35d 

'35d 

'40 

'35d 

'•JO 

'40 

'40 

'20 

'35d 

'40. 

'35d 

'35d 

'35c 

'35d 

'40 

'35d 

'35d 

'40 

1792 

1794 

'35c 
'40 



Private. . 

Botton, David Mass Private. . 

Bouden, Amos Mass Private. 

Boulter, Nathaniel . . Mass , Private. . 

Bourne, John I Mass. mil . . . Private. . 

Bowden, Amos Mass line. . . . Private. . 



Bowden, Theodore. 



Bowen, Samuel . . . 

Bowen, Sarah 

Bowers, Benjamin 



Mass. line. . Private. 



Bowing, Jabish ! N. H ; Private. 

Bowing, Jabish .Mass. line. . . Private. 

Bowing, Jabes ■ ' 

Bowker, Levi 'Mass. line. . . 'Private. 



Boyd, Samuel I Mass. line ... Priv'te and 

I Drummer 
Boyington, Peltiah. . I 



Boynton, Joseph . . . j JLieut 

Boynton, Joseph .. . N. H. line ... Lieut. Inf. 



Boynton, Joseph. 
Bracey, James . 
Bracket, Joshua. 
Bracket, Joshua. 
Bracket, Josiah.. 

Bracket, Peter . 
Bracket, William 

Brackett, James. 
Brackett, James 
Brackett, John. 
Brackett. John . 
Brackett, Joshua 

Brackett, Joshua 



3d N. H. line. Lieut. 
, Mass. line. . 
Mass. state. 
Mass. mil.. . 
Mass. line. . 

Mass. line. . 
. Mass. state. 

Mass. mil.. . 



Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 

Pvt.of Art 

Priv'te and 

Sergeant 

Private. . . . 



York 

Washington. 
Washington. 
Somerset . . . 



74 York. . . . 
62 Hancock. 



Hancock. . 

Waldo. . . . 
Waldo .... 
Penobscot . 



I 

IRes. Kennebunkport 
. C20L 

:Res. Dennvsville. 
.('20). 

JSame as Bolton, D? 
jSame as Bowden, A. 
{Same as Butler, N. ? 

'Same as Bouden. A. 
I d. Dec. 23, l\23. 

Same as Booden. T ? 
j Res. Penobscot. 

Res. Brooks. 

Res. Yinalhaven. 
iTransf. from Cale- 
donia Co. Vt. 1825 



77 Somerset . . . .| 
82lSomerset .... Res. Starks. 
71 Washington.. I ('20). 
77! Washington. . Res. Machias. 
81j Kennebec 

82 Somerset .... 'Same as Bointon.P.? 
j Res. Mercer. 



York 

York 

York 

York 

Cumberland 

Cumberland 
Oxford 



!('20). Same as Boin- 
ton, J. 

('20). 

Same as Brackett. J. 
Same as Brackett, J. 
Same as Brackett, J. 
, d. Aug. 8, 1820. 



Mass. line. ...Private. 



Brackett, Josiah .... ! 

Brackett, Nathan.. . .Mass. state. .Private 

Brackett, Nathan.. 

Bradan, Robert. . . Mass. state. 
Bradbury, Paul. . . . Mass. line. . 



Bradford, Elijah. . . 
Bradford, Peabody, 



Mass. line. 
Mass. line. 



Private." - 'I 
Priv'te andi 
Corporal 
Private. 
Corporal. . . j 



Same as Brakett, 
W. 

Oxford |C20). 

Franklin Res. Berlin. 

Cumberland ('20, '31b). 
Cumberland Res. Harrison. 

York Same as Bracket, J. 

j Res. Acton. 

York Same as Brackett J. 

I Res. Limington. 

I . . . Same as Bracket, J. 

i 80 1 Oxford 

Res. Clinton. 
Died Jan. 4, 1S33. 



70 
7C 
83 
70 
82 ' 

78 



Kennebec. 

York 

Kennebec. 



Bradford. Peter. . . 
Bradley, Samuel.. . 
Bradley, Samuel. . . 
Bradstreet, Dudley 



Mass. mil.. . 
Mass. line. . 



Invalid's regt 



Sergeant. . 
Private. . . 

Private. . . 



Col. Francis' 
I regt 

Brag, Nicholas Mass. line. . . 

Bragden, John 



'35c Bragdon, Aaron. 

*40 

'35d Bragdon, Arthur. 



Mass. line. 

Mass. line. 

'35c Bragdon, Daniel.. . . Mass. line. 
'35c Bragdon, Ezekiel. . . Mass. line. 

'35c Bragdon, John Mass . line . 

'35c Bragdon, John, 2d. . Mass. line. 

'40 Bragdon, John 

'35d Bragden, John Mass. line. 

'35c Bragg, Joab Mass. line. 



Private. 
Private. 



Private. . 



73; Lincoln .... 
70 Cumberland 
82 Cumberland 
89 Kennebec . . 
72 Kennebec. . 
74 Frar.klin.. . . 



82 Cumberland 
86 York 



Priv'te and' 

Corporal; 

Private. . . . ! 

Private.. . . | 



74 Penobscot . 
83 Penobscot . 
78 Oxford 



99 York. 
86 York. 



Private. 
Private. 



Private.. . 
Private. . . 



77 York. 



74 Cumberland 
80 Cumberland 

71 York 

76 Kennebec. . 



Died Nov. 23, 1829. 
|i'20). 

iRe^ Minot. 
JDied Jan. 11, 1834. 

Res. New Sharon. 
Wounded 1777. Pen- 
sioned 1792. 
Res. Portland. 

Same as Bray, N. ? 
Res. Kennebunk. 

Same as Bragdon, 

_» •> 

('20) d. Oct. 22, 1S32 
Res. Corinth. 
('20, '31b). 

C20; d. 1821. 

('20) d. June 19, 
1827. 

C2Q> Same as Brag- 
den, J. ? 

f'20). 

Res. Poland. 

C20). 



22 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



List j Name 



Service. 



Rank. 



Age. 



County. 



Remarks. 



'40 \Braqg, Lydia . . . . 
'35d,Brainard, Church. 



IN. H. state. 



'40 Brakett, William. 



Priv'te and 
marine 



71 Kennebec. 
77 Kennebec 



Res. Yassalborough. 



88 Oxford. 



'35di Brand, Jeremiah.. . . Mass. mil.. . . Private.. . 

'40 t Branscomb, Rebecca i 

'35cBranscum, Charles.. Mass. line. . . Private.. . 



l794!Brawn, Daniel Col. E.Phin- Private. 

ney's mil. rgt 
'35c Bray, Joseph Mass. line. . . Private. 

'40 I : j 

'40 IBray, Nicholas : 



76 Lincoln.. . . 
95 Hancock. . 
S5 Hancock. . 



6S Somerset . . . 
76 Somerset . . . 
89 Cumberland 



'40 

'35d 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'40 

'35d 

'35c 

'40 

*35c 

'40 

'40 



Breck, Patience 

Breman, Aaron Mass. line. 

Breth, Amzi 

Brewster, Darius. . . Cont. navv 



Private. 
Seaman 



Brewster, Lucy . . . 
Bridgeham. John 



Bridges, Daniel.. . 
Bridges, Edmund. 



Mass. line. 
X. H. line. 
Mass. line. 



Sergt. andi 

Ensign '& 
Private.. 



Private. 



Bridghani, John. 



'40 Br id )h am, Lucy. ... 

'35c Bridghani, Samuel. .Mass. line. 
'35d Bridgham, William.. .Mass. mil.. 

'35d Briggs, Abner R. I. line. . 

'35c Briggs, Aden j Mass. line . 

'35c Brigss, Jesse Mass. line. 

'40 Briggs, Xaomi I 

'35d Briggs, Samuel !Mass. line. 

'35c Briggs, William. . . 'Mass. line. 

'35c Brimigion, Thomas. Mass. line. 

i ; 
'40 Briniyion, Thomas. . j 



Private. . 
Private. . 
Private.. 
Private. . 
Private. . 



'35c 
'35e 
"35d 
'35c 
'35c; 
'40 I 
'35<J 
'35d; 
'35c; 
*35c 
'35c 
'40 | 
'35dl 
'40 I 
'35d! 



Britt, John 

Britton, John 

Brocklebank, Joseph 
Brooks, Samuel . . . 
Brooks, Samuel. 2d . 
Br out {-s. Widow of So. 
Brooks. Solomon. . . 
Brooks, William. . . 

Broun, Amos 

Brown, Amos. 2d. . . 
Brown, Andrew. . . . 
Brown, Andrew 
Brawn, Andrew . . . . 
Brown, Asenath . . . . 
Brown, Cyril 



Md. line.. . . 
4th Ya. line. 
Ma.-s. mil.. . 
Mass. line. . 
Mass. line . . 

in Hi t 

Ma>s. line. . 
Mass. mil... 
Ma-, line. . 
Mass. line. . 
Mass. line. . 



Private. . 
Captain 

Private. 



Private. . . 
Private. . . 
Private. . . 
Sergeant.. 
Private.. . 



Kennebec. . . 

Cumberland. 

Oxford 

Lincoln 

Lincoln .... 

Waldo 

80' Cumberland 
74! 

72. York 

79 York 

7LHancock . . . 
77 1 Hancock . . . 
86 Cumberland 

74'Cumberland 

71 Oxford 

7S Cumberland 
71 Cumberland 
67 Somerset . . . 

75 Oxford 

78 Oxford 

70 Somerset . . . 
S3 Kennebec. . . 



79 Lincoln. 
85 Lincoln 



Private ' 

Private.. . .! 
Private. 
Private.. . . j 
Private. ... I 



Mass. state . Private. 



Mass. mil. 



'40 I Brown, Cyril 

'35c| 

'35c! 

'40 

*35c 

'35cj 



'35c 

'35c 

'40 

'35d 

'35c 

'35c 

'35d 

'40 ' 

'35c 

•3od 

'35c 



Priv'te and 
! Sergeant 



Brown, 


David 


Mass. 


line. . 


. Private.. . . 


Brown, 


Enoch 


Mas>. 


line. . 


. Private.. . . 


Brown, 


Enoch 








Brown, 


Ezekiel 


Mass. 


line. . 


. surgeon... . 


Brown, 


Ezekiel 


Mass. 


line. . 


. suigcon 


Brown 


Jacob 


Mass. 


line. . 


. Private. . . 


Brown 


Jacob 


Mass. 


line. . 


. Private.. . . 












Brown 


James 


Mass. 


line. . 


. Private.. . . 


Brown 


James 


Mto. 


line. . 


. Private. . . . 


Brown 


James, 2d.. . 


Ya. line. . . . 


. Private 


Brown 


Jeremiah. . . 


Mass. 


mil.. . 


. Private. . . . 


Brown 


Jesse 


Mass. 


line. . 


. Private. . . . 


Brown 


John 


Mass. 


state. 


. Private. . . . 


Brown 


John 


Mass. 


line. . 


. Private. . . . 



80 Kennebec. . 

Lincoln 

71. Cumberland 

77 York 

62 Oxford 

75 Oxford 

80 York 

79 York 

81 Oxford 

74 Oxford 

74 Lincoln 

79 Kennebec. . 
71 Cumberland 

76 Waldo 

7?> Hancock. . . 

84 Waldo 

80 Lincoln 

82 Penobscot. . 

89 Piscataquis. 

90 Kennebec. . 

78 Hanccck. . . 

76 Lincoln 

73 Oxford 

8.3 York 

74 York 

74 Lincoln. . . . 

74 York 

74 Kennebec. . 

79 Kennebec. . 
70 Cumberland 

77 York 

74 Kennebec . . 



Same as Bracket, 
W. Res. Dixfield 
or Peru. : ^« 

Res. Mt. Desert. 
('20 as Branscom). 
> d. Sept. 18. 1825. 
Wounded 1777.' Res. 
! York. 
C20). 

Res. Anson. 
Res. Harrison. ('20). 
Same as Brag, N.? 
Res. China. 
I 
Res. Paris. 

Res. Thomaston. 
Res. Camden. 
Same as Bridgham, 

('20). 

.Res. York. 
■C20). 

Res. Castine. 
JC20) Same as Bridge 
I ham. Res. Minot. 
! Res. Minot. 
j('20^as Bridgman.) 

1(20). 

:C2U)d. Feb. 14, 1S28 
C20) d. Feb. 8, 1833. 
Res. Paris. 

|('20) d. Aug. 11. 

! 1819. 

i'"20) same as Brin- 
iyion. 

Same as Brimigion. 
Res. Bowdoin. 

C20) d. 1833. 



('20) d. June, 1826. 
C20) d. Apr. 1825. 
Res. Porter. 



C20) d. Dec. 1827. 
('20) d. Jan. 11. 1S2S 

Res. Litchfield. 

f'20). 

Res. Palermo.* 

C31a as Cyrel). 

Res.' Searsmont. 
C20). 
C20). 

Res. Sebec 
('20, '31b as private} 
Perhaps identical 

with preceding. 
C20)d. Dec. 2 f »1831? 
Died Dec 2, 1831 T 
Res. Parsonsfield. 
C20). 

Died Jan. 28, 1827. 
C20). 

Res. Winthrop. 
('20). 
.''20). 
Died Oct. 22, 1822. 



REVOLUTIONARY PENSIONERS IN MAINE 



23 



5d Brown , Thaddeus. . . Mass. mil.. . . Private. 



'35d 
'40 
'40 
'35c 
'40 
'28 
'35c 
'35d 
"40 
'35d 
'40 
'35c 
'35c 
*40 
'35c 
'35d 
'28 
'35d 
'40 
'35c 
35d 
'35d 
I 
'40 
'35c 
'31a 
'35c 
'20 
'40 

'40 
'40 
'35c 



I | 

Brown, Jonathan. . . Mass. line. . . iMatross. . . 

Brown, Jonathan j 

Brown, Mary | j 

Brown, Moody Mass. line. . . Private.. . . 

Brown, Moody | 

Brown, Peter Wyer iEnsign 

Brown, Peter W. . . . Mass. line. . . Ensign. ... 
Brown, Samuel Mass. line. . . Private. ... 1 



82 Lincoln | 

68 Lincoln Res. Bowdoinham. 

73 Kennebec. . . Res. Monmouth. 

70 Oxford C20). 

75. York Res. Cornish. 



Cont. navy. 
Mass. line. . 



Brown, Thomas 

Brown, William 

Brown, William. . . 

Brownwell , Ichabod Mass. line. 

Bruckett, James. .. . Mass. line. 

Bryan Joseph 

Bryant, Abijah Mass. state 

Bryant, Abijah 

Bryant , Daniel Mass. line. 

Bryant , John 'Mass. mil . 

Bryant , Joseph Mass. mil. . 



Mariner, 
i Private.. 



Private. . . . 
Pvt. of Art. 
2d Lieut... 
Private.. . . 



SO Cumberland 
66 Oxford 

72 Oxford 

73 Oxford 

79 Oxford 

68 York 

79 Lincoln 

80 Lincoln. . . . 
85 Kennebec. . 
79 Cumberland 



Private., . . 
Pvt oi Art . 
Priv*te and 

; q.m. 



74 Oxford 

79 Oxford 

75 York 

G9 Washington. 
75 Cumberland 



C20)d.Feb.2S, 1S30 

C20). 

Res. Oxford. 

Res. Waterford. 
('20, "Dean" frigate) 
(*20). 
Res. Bath. 
Died 1823. 

Invalided. 

Res. Hartford. 

('20). 

.('31a). 



Bryant. Stephen. . . .'Mass. line. . . Private. 

Buck, Moses Private. 

Buman, John Mass. line. . . Private. 

Bumfries. Morris. . . Mass Private. 

Bumps, Shubal 1 



Bumpus, Hannah . . | 

Bum;,u*, Huldah j 

Bumpus, Shubael. . . Mass. line . . iFifer. 



83 Cumberland Res. Baldwin. 

67. York C20) d. 1S23. 

Deserted. 

70 Kennebec. . . Same as Beeman ? 

Same as Bompus.M? 

81 Waldo Same as Bumpus, S. 

■ Res. Thorndike. 

76 Oxford Res. Hebron. 

78 Oxford Res. Paris. 



'35d Burbank, Eleazer. . . Mass. line . . . Musician. 
'35d Burbank, John Mass.st. navy Mariner, 



75 Waldo. . . 
69 Kennebec 



S3 York. 



'40 
'35c 



Mass. state. 



Burdeen, Timothy . . Mass. line 



bergt. and 
Master 1 
at Arms J 



('20) same as 

: S. 

('20. '31b 
j nezer.) 
.('20 Ship 
j Richard ' 



88 York Res. Lvman. 



Bumps 

is Ebe 



"Good 
31b.) 



Private. 



70 York. 



Ber- 



'40 Burgexe, Keziah 

'35d|Burgess, David Mass. line . . (Private. . . . 

j I 

'35c Burgess, Edward . . . Mass. line . . Private. . . 
'35d Burgess, Jonathan. . Mass. line. . . Priv'te and 

i Sgt. Maj. 

'40 

'35c Burkman, Thomas. . > Mass. line . . . j Lieut 

I I 

'20 Burkmar, Thomas . . Conn Lieut 

'35c Burnell, John Mass. line . . . Private.. . . 

"40 Burnheimer, Jacob 



80 Kennebec 
72 Somerset . 

85 Kennebec. 
75 & Kennebec 
73 

81 Kennebec 



('20) Same as 

dens, T. 
Res. Wayne. 
('20, '31b) d. 

11, 1S32. 
C20) d. Jan. 12. 1831 
('20). 



Nov. 



'35d Burr, Daniel , Mass. line . . . I Private. . . . 

'31b Burr, David j Private 

'35c Burr, Joseph Mass. line . . . Private. . . . 

'35\l Burrell, Humphrey Mass. line ... iPvt. Gun- 



'35c Burrell, John 
*40 Burrill.John. 
'35d Burrill, Noah. 



Mass. line 



jner & Corp. 



Res. Vassalborough. 
82 Hancock Same as following ? 

1 d. May, 1826 

'Same as preceding ? 

75 Somerset ('20) d. Jan. 14, 1823 

75 Lincoln Same as Bornhumen. 

j Res. Waldoboro. 
72 Kennebec ('20) d. Mar. 15, 

! 1834. 

. . ! Same as preceding. 

84 Kennebec. . .|('20). 
81 Somerset. 



K'20). 



Private. 



Mass. line. . 'Sergeant. 



35d Burton, Thomas.. . . Mass. mil 

'35d Burton, William... Mass. state. 

[40 

'40 Bussel, Isaac i 



Pvt. Corp. 

& Lieut. 

Private. . . . 



82 Penobscot. . . ('20). 

83 Piscataquis. .!Res. Sangerville. 

73 Somerset ■ ('20 as Burrell) . 

92 Lincoln 

77 Lincoln ! 

83 Lincoln Res. Cushing. 



'35c- Bussel!, Isaac Mass. line. . . Private 



3."ie Bussell, Isaac 1 Mass. line . 

'35d Bussell, Jonathan. ..! Mass. mil.. 

'35d Butland, Jesse Mass. mil.. 

'35c Butland, Nathaniel Mass. line. 



Private. 
Private. 
Private, 
i Private. 



84 Washington. 



63 Washington. 

Washington. 

73 Kennebec. . 

77 York 

84 York 



C20) same as Bus- 
sell. I. ? Res. Co- 
lumbia. 

Same as Bussel, I. ? 



I ('20 as Nathan) d. 
Feb. 18, 1834. 



24 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



List 



Name. 



Service 



Rank. Age. County 



'3od Butler, Moses ! Mass. state. . Private. . 

'35c Butler, Nathaniel. . Mass. line. . . Private.. 
'35d Butler, Nathaniel ... Mass. mil. ... j Private. . 
'35c Butler, Phineas Mass. line. . . Private. . 

'35c Butman, Benjamin . Mass. line . . . 
'35d Butterfield, Jesse. . .; Mass. line. . . 

'40 Butterfield, Jesse . . . ! i 

'35d Buxton, William... .Mass. mil. 

'3od Buzzell, James Mass. mil. 

*35d! Byram, Ebenezer. . . i Mass. line . 



Private. ... 
Corp. and 
Sgt.at arms 



'35d Byram, Jonathan. . . Mass. line . 
'35c Byram, Melzar Mass. line. 



Private. . . . 
Drummer. 
Private.. . . 

Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 



Remarks. 



78 Hancock. . . 

90 Cumberland |Died May 21, 1824. 

76 York i 

75 Lincoln 020). 

82 Lincoln Res. Thomaston. 



78 Penobscot . 
82 Kennebec. 



020) 035d). 



88 Franklin Res. Farmington. 

71 Cumberland I 



76 York 

79 Kennebec. . 

SO Cumberland . 

61 Cumberland !('20). 



ir31b) d. 
| 1833. 
020). 



Nov. 27, 









g&^^S^ 






Maine's Montpelier. 



MAINE'S MONTPELIER. 

In the village of Thomaston, Maine, near the Maine Central 
railroad station stands a large boulder, one side of which has been 
hewn to a smooth surface and bears this inscription: — 

Montpelier. The home of Gen. Henry Knox, first secretary of war, stood 
on the brow of this hill overlooking - the bay, from 1793 to 1871. 

It is the last memento of a once magnificent mansion. It was 
the home of one of the famous generals of the American Revolution. 

This, the most precious relic of that revolution, or of any historic 
period that Maine ever had was sacrificed to commercial interests. 
Its destruction was a shame. It was a disgrace to her fair name. 
It was an outrage upon her highest ideals and a crime against 
patriotism. 



AUGUSTINE SIMMONS 25 

Augustine Simmons 

By Elmer W. Sawyer. 

Judge Augustine Simmons was born at Topsham, Maine, Feb- 
ruary 20, 1849. His parents were James D. and Ann C. (Rogers) 
Simmons. James D. Simmons was a lawyer and practiced in 
Brunswick and Bath. It is probably due to this early environment 
that Judge Simmons also selected the law as his profession. 

James Simmons moved his family to Brunswick in 1852. From 
that time until his death Judge Simmons considered Brunswick his 
"home town." It was there that he spent his boyhood. It was 
there that he received his early education. All through his life he 
kept up his intimate acquaintance with Brunswick people. 

In 1866 he left the public schools of Brunswick and under the 
instruction of Rev. A. D. Wheeler began to prepare himself for 
college. In 1867 he entered Bowdoin College. In 1869 he was 
compelled to leave Bowdoin in order to earn money to complete his 
education. It was not until 1881 that he was graduated from col- 
lege. In the meantime he had studied a short time at Bates College 
and had completed the work required at Bowdoin. In 188 1 he was 
given a diploma which made him a graduate of Bowdoin with the 
class in which he commenced the course. 

When he was compelled to suspend his studies at college he took 
up .teaching, not only because it offered the best solution of 'his 
problem, but because teaching appealed to him. His first school 
was Anson Academy at North Anson. He was principal of that 
institution four consecutive years, beginning in 1870, except for 
one term which he taught at Derby Academy, in Hingham, Massa- 
chusetts. 

On August 7, 1877, he was admitted to the Kennebec County Bar 
after having completed his studies with E. W. & F. E. McFadden, 
a law firm in Fairfield. After his admission to the bar he was 
editor of the Fairfield Journal for nearly a year. He resumed 
teaching for a short period before he began actual law r practice. 
Twelve years of his life he spent teaching. He taught thirteen 
different schools among which were Anson Academy, Derby Acad- 
emy, Fryeburg Academy, Oak Grove Seminary and Fairfield High 
School. 



26 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

His actual practice of law began on November 24, 1880, when 
he opened a law office at North New Portland. From his first 
visit to North Anson in 1870 he had been strongly attracted to the 
little village. There were four lawyers in active practice at North 
Anson in 1870, which induced him to open an office at North New 
Portland. North New Portland was as near North Anson as he 
could practice without competing with the North Anson attorneys. 

However, in the following May he gave up his office at North 
New Portland and opened an office at North Anson. The com- 
petition was keen as his office was the fifth law office in the small 
village. For several years his practice was the old story of the 
young lawyer — a living. But as the years went by his practice 
increased. One by one the other offices were discontinued until he, 
alone, remained. He had practiced in North Anson village nearly 
thirty-eight years, when his work was finished on October 24, 191 7. 

During his years of practice Judge Simmons attained distinction 
in his profession. He was Judge of the Probate Court of S'omerset 
County eight years, from 1904 to 19 12. The vote he received in 
each election was a personal tribute to his ability, and the manner 
in which he ran ahead of his ticket demonstrated the esteem in 
which he was held even in the rank of the opposition. This is the 
only public office ever held by Judge Simmons, although he was 
frequently urged to become a candidate for the office of attorney 
general, and once at least was selected for nomination as a Justice 
of the Supreme Judicial Court when the next vacancy should occur. 
Judge Simmons did not desire office. It was a common saying of 
his when urged to become a candidate : — "The only office I want is 
law office." 

In religious belief Judge Simmons was a Unitarian. In politics 
he began life a Democrat. He remained a Democrat until Cleve- 
land was refused the nomination of his party for a second term. 
He then became a Republican and remained a Republican as long 
as he lived. It required courage to make the change, because like 
all men in prominent positions in life who do likewise, he was not 
free from accusation of ulterior purpose. As a Republican he 
served as a member of the Republican County Committee for 
Somerset County, and for four years was a member of the Re- 
publican State Committee. 

Judge Simmons was made a Mason May 11, 1871. He was a 
member of Northern Star Lodge, F. and A. M., No. 28, of North 



AUGUSTINE SIMMONS 27 

Anson, and in 1882 was Master of that Lodge. He was also a 
member of Somerset Chapter Royal Arch Masons, Mount Moriah 
Council and of De Molay Commandery, K. T., all of Skowhegan. 
He was also a member of Kora Temple, Mystic Shrine. 

He was a direct descendant of John and Priscilla Alden and was, 
for several years, a member of Alden Kindred of America. He 
was also a descendant of Philippe Delanois, a French Huguenot, 
who came to this country on the Fortune. For several years Judge 
Simmons had been a member of the Society of Mayflower De- 
scendants of Maine, and on November 21, 191 3, was elected Gov- 
ernor of the Society, which office he held one year. 

Comm. Franklin Simmons, of Rome, Italy, the well known Amer- 
ican sculptor, who created the Logan Equestrian Monument and 
the Peace Monument which now stand on Pennsylvania Avenue 
in Washington, D. C, was a cousin of Judge Simmons. Although 
ten years separated their ages, Judge Simmons and Franklin Sim- 
mons were very intimate, an intimacy which began when they 
were boys and lasted until the sculptor's death in 19 13. 

On November 22, 1872, Judge Simmons was united in marriage 
to Alice Patten Gahan of North Anson, the eldest daughter of 
James S. and Maria (Moore) Gahan. Mrs. Simmons' lovable 
nature and kindly disposition contributed largely to Judge Sim- 
mons' success both as a teacher and in his later life, making pos- 
sible successes which, without her assistance, he could not have 
attained. They had no children but the greater part of their mar- 
ried life was spent in helping the children of others in less happy 
circumstances. 

In Maine Judge Simmons was regarded as one of the strongest 
lawyers. Although he always practiced in a small village, his abil- 
ity was recognized everywhere. He was ever ready to assist the 
young lawyer, and in his office several young men were fitted for 
the bar. His popularity with the profession as well as with every- 
one else was truly remarkable. He was especially a favorite with 
young people, who went to him with their joys and their sorrows. 
Even in his advanced years he was one of them. 

His command of language, coupled with his originality of ex- 
pression and his eccentricities of manner, made him a real char- 
acter, a lawyer of the old school, about whom anecdotes will be 
told as he was wont to tell them about others. 



28 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

About the U. S. Census in Maine 
for the Year 1800 

Dear Editor Sprague: 

I have been trying to snatch time to complete a very interesting 
phase of the U. S. census for 1800, as it pertains to Maine. Have 
copied the details at Washington and put into form for your 
magazine. 

The most remarkable thing in the whole 1800 census of the U. S. 
is the fact that Geo. Halliburton, enumerator for towns on Penob- 
scot Bay and River, had a "tail-end" column put onto his schedules, 
headed "From Whence Emigrant Came." So, in 1800, he got first 
band answers from the pioneers as to where they came from whL'ii 
they settled Fox Islands (Vinalhaven), Deer Isle, Isle au Haut, 
Penobscot, Castine, Islesboro, Orland, Belfast, Prospect, Bucks- 
town (Bucksport), Ducktrap, Canaan, Xorthport, Frankfort, No. 
Harwick, Goose Pond Settlement, Colburnton, Sunkhaaze, Bangor, 
Eddington, Davistown, Quantabacook, Conduskeag, Hampden and 
Nos. 2 & 3 back of Hampden, Ohio, College Town and Xo. 3, 1st 
Range. 

Now that I am at it, Mr. Editor, I think I will add a little more 
so that the public may have this much while awaiting my fuller 
article. I want to say that if we had had more George Hallibur- 
tons during the taking of the 1800 (2nd) census thousands of ques- 
tions that have gone unanswered would have easily been disposed 
of and millions of dollars worth of historic-geneological research 
for origin of pioneers in different parts of the Union would have 
been saved. 

In looking over Halliburton's schedules the thing which impresses 
the reader most is that nearly the whole of the Penobscot River 
territory was settled from Cape Cod, and the wonder is that anyone 
was left on the Cape. Old York and Cape Ann came in frequently, 
and then a list sifts in between these showing stragglers from 
everywhere. For instance : the extensive Grindle family of 
Brooksville (old Penobscot and Castine) spent money and research 
time for years to ascertain where the first Grindle immigrated from 
to the Penobscot. They surrendered the problem as a failure until 
I informed them, this summer, that he was from Dover, N. H. ; a 



" 



THE U. S. CENSUS IN MAINE 29 



place somewhat off the track in the general line of research for 
pioneers to this section. 

In the 1800 census George Halliburton (this the way he spelled 
his name) records himself as in Castine, from Nova Scotia, and 
the checking of his family shows himself and wife to have been 
between the ages of 26 and 45 years; With them were three males; 
one between 1 and 10 years old, one between 16 and 26 years old, 
and one between 26 and 45 years ; plus two females ; one between 16 
and 26 and another between 26 and 45 years of age. 

Biographer A. \V. H. Eaton, in his compilation of "Old Boston 
.Families" says of the "Haliburton Family,'' (p. 66, Jan. 1917, N. E. 
Hist, and Gen. Reg.) that George (George Andrew) Haliburton 
was b. at Horton, N. S., 1767; living in 1843, when he is called 
"of Maine" and practically ends his knowledge of this man here. I 
will leave him, or anyone interested to know more, the above clue 
to further history of this member of the Haliburton family who 
distinguished himself as being sagacious enough to see the need of, 
and to preserve for posterity, the recording of the origin of our 
Penobscot Bay and River families as denoted above. 

Castine records will give further light, no doubt, of the final out- 
come of George and his family. 

B. LAKE NOYES. 



One hundred and fifty-six years ago, Dr. Samuel Johnson, in 
"Rasselas," wrote the following which, in the light of war methods 
of today seem prophetic : 

If men were all virtuous I should with great alacrity teach them to fly- 
But what would be the security of the good if the bad could at pleasure 
invade them from the sky? Against an army sailing through the clouds 
neither walls, mountains nor seas could offer security. A flight of savages 
might hover in the wind and light with irresistible violence upon the capital 
of a fruitful region. 



The Journal is indebted to Mr. Henry M. Packard of Guilford, 
Maine, for gifts of several valuable Maine documents of a century 
ago, for which we extend our sincere thanks. Mr. Packard has 
also contributed a list of officers and members of York county 
teachers institute for 185 1, which will appear in our next issue. 



3<J SPRAGUE'S JOURXAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

More About Rev. Samuel Moody 

Reference in the Journal (Vol. 5, pp. 217-18) was made to Rev- 
erend Samuel Moody locally known as ''Parson" Moody and who 
flourished in York. Maine more than two hundred years ago. 

Laura E. Richards in her latest book "Abagail Adams and her 
Times," quotes the following in a letter from Abigail's husband to 
her. John Adams was the second President of the United States, 
and when a young man made frequent visits to Falmouth and 
York, Maine. 

This town of York is a curiosity, in several views. The people here are 
great idolaters of the memory of their former minister, Mr. Moody. Dr. 
Sayward 1 says and the rest of them generally think, that Mr. Moody was 
one of the greatest men and best sairts who have lived since the days of 
the Apostles. He had an ascendency and authority over the people here, 
as absolute as that of any prince in Europe, no: excepting his holiness. 

This he acquired by a variety of means. In the first place he settled in 
the place without any contract. His professed principle was that no man 
should be hired to preach the Gospel, but that they should depend on the 
charity, generosity and benevolence 01 the people. This was very, flattering 
to their pride, and left room for their ambition to display itself in an 
emulation among them which should be the most oounMrul and ministerial. 
In the next place, he acquired the character of firm trust in Providence. A 
number of ger.tlemen came in one day, when they had nothing in the house. 
His wife was very anxious, they say. and asked him what they should 
do. Oh, never fear, trust Providence, make a fire in the oven and you will 
have something. Very soon, a variety of everything that was good was 
sent in, and by one o'clock they had a splendid dinner. 

He also had the replication of enjoying intimate communication with the 
Deity, and of having a great interest in the Court of Heaven by his prayers. 
He always kept his musket in order and was fond of hunting. On a time, 
they say, he was out of provisions. There came along two wild geese. He 
takes his gun and cries, "If it please God, I will kill both, I will send the 
fattest to the poorest person in the parish." He shot and killed both ; or- 
dered them plucked and then sent the fattest to a poor widow, leaving the 
other, which was a very poor one at home — to the great mortification of 
his lady. But his maxim was. Perform unto the Lord thy vow. 

But the best story I have heard yet was his doctrine in a sermon from this 
text, "Lord, what shall we do?" The doctrine was that when a person or 
people are in perplexity and know not what to do, they ought never to do 
they know not what. This is applicable to the times. 

(- 1 ) See the Journal (vol. 1. pp. 148) for "Notes on Judge Jonathan 
Sayward of York, Maine," by Honorable Frank D. Marshall. Was "Dr." 
Sayward the same person referred to by Mr. Marshall? Will not some one 
of the many who are well versed in the history of the old York families 
inform us? 

(EDITOR.) 






PENOBSCOT COUNTY ORGANIZATION 31 

Referring to the Organization of 
Penobscot County 

Contributed by Honorable Charles W. Stephens, Old Town, Maine. 

Hancock, ss. 

Circuit Court of Common Pleas. 

Nov. Term, A. D., 1816. 
The undersigned, William Abbott, Job Xelson and Bradshaw Hall, ap- 
pointed by the Circuit Court of Common Pleas for the County of Hancock 
a Committee on the part of said County, and Thomas A. Hill, appointed by 
the Circuit Court of Common Pleas for the County of Penobscot on the 
part of that County to settle and adjust in an equitable manner the sub- 
sisting claims of said Counties respectively conformably to the provisions 
of an act entitled "An Act for dividing the County of Hancock and estab- 
lishing a new County by the name of Penobscot," beg leave to report 
That the amount of Cash in the hands of the Treasurer of the 

County of Hancock, April 1, 1816, was "?i,23i «,£ 

That the amount of taxes outstanding at that time for the year 

1814 was 54 2 93 

That the amount of taxes outstanding for 1815 was 2,095 22 

That there has been received by said Treasurer, since the first 

of April aforesaid from Mason Shaw, Esq 26454 

Also from John Wilkins, Esq. for excise 67 31 

And that the amount of taxes assessed upon the Counties of 
Hancock and Penobscot for the year 1816 which is col- 
lectible is 4,839 86 

Making the amount of money & credits $9*041 84 

And they further report: 

That the amount of claims against the County of 
Hancock so far as they were liquidated on 
the 1st of April aforesaid was $307 77 

That the amount of claims against said County 
due on said first day of April and liquidated 
at April Term, (deducting from the same 
for the board of Prisoners 33 weeks at $5 
per week $27.50 was 132 49 

That the amount of Do. allowed at July T. last was 6045 $500 71 

Which leaves a balance of money & credits of $8,541 13 

And the Committees of both Counties agree to de- 
duct from the amount aforesaid, being 8,541 13 

5*/^ as Commission upon the amount of Debts due 

being $500 71 

And also upon said sum of 27 50 

For board of Prisoners being 26 dl 

Which leaves a balance of money & credits of $8,5*4 7 2 

to be divided between said Counties. 



32 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



And as a just rule of apportionment said Committees have taken the last 
County tax of 5,000 dollars of which the several towns & plantations in 
the County of Penobscot pay $1,163.03 and they find that as 5,000:1,163.03:: 
8,514.72:1,980.57 which is the amount belonging to said County of Pe- 
nobscot. But the Committee of the County of Hancock are of opinion that 
from said sum of $1,980.57 there ought to be deducted 5 per cent for the 
Commissions which said County of Hancock will be obliged to pay their 
Treasurer for receiving and paying over said sum and which amounts to 
$99.02 leaving a balance due said County of $1,881.55. 

On the other hand the Committee of Penobscot contends that only $23.03 
is justly chaigeable to that County being a proportion only of the 5 per 
cent aforesaid. 

And the Committee of the County of Hancock is of opinion that if there 
exist any contract made for the sole benefit if the County of Penobscot, 
but which the County of Hancock is bound to fulfil, such sum ought to be 
retained as will be sufficient to indemnify the County of Hancock. 

They further state that the taxes of 1816 are payable one half on the first 
day of November instant and the remainder on the first day of April next, 
and that the Treasurer of the County of Hancock ought not to pay such 
proportion of said sum as arises from the tax of 1816 until the same is 
payable. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

WILLIAM ABBOTT, \ Committee 

JOB NELSON I of 

B. HALL, ) Hancock County. 

THOS. A. HILL, for Penobscot. 

Ordered, That this report be accepted as amended and that the treasurer 
of the County of Hancock pay over to the Treasurer of the County of 
Penobscot said sum of eighteen hundred & eighty-one dollars and fifty- 
five cents in manner following, viz : Eight hundred dollars on demand and 
the residue within the time reported or sooner if convenient, when the 
Treasurer of the County of Penobscot shall give bonds to the Treasurer of 
the County of Hancock with two sufficient sureties in the sum of twelve 
hundred dollars to indemnify the County of Hancock from all claims that 
may hereafter appear against the County of Hancock and due before the 
first day of April next. 

A copy 
Attest : 

MASON SHAW, Clerk. 






. MICHAEL PHILBRICK 33 

Michael Philbrick, Son of Capt. 
Zachariah Philbrick 

(Contributed by Prof. Windsor P. Daggett, U. of M., Orono, Me.) 

Rev. Jacob Chapman's "A Genealogy of the Philbrick and Phil- 
brook Families," page 24, gives an incomplete and an incorrect 
account of the descendants of Michael Philbrick. The following 
record, found among the manuscripts of the late Thomas C. Shaw 
of Standish, is probably a revised account which followed the pub- 
lication of Chapman's book. As Shaw was a descendent of the 
Philbrick family and as the Shaw household was a storehouse of 
family history, this record comes from a reliable source. It is 
probably published here for the first time. 

"Michael Philbrick. — Seventh child of Capt. Zachariah Phil- 
brick; b. in Newbury, Mass., Nov. 10, 1734. Wife, Mary ■. 

lived in Hampton, X. H. Then was an original settler in Parsons- 
field, Me., about 1762; afterwards in Standish. In 1803, he re- 
moved with his family to Thorndike, Me., where he died in 181 3, 
aged about 79. His children were : — 

"1. William, b. in Hampton. Dec. 10. 1759; m. Martha Nick- 
erson of Gorham. He died in Thorndike, 1850, aged 
about 90 years. 
"2. Olive, b. in Hampton, Jan. 6, 1762. 
''3. Gideon, b. in Standish. April 21, 1764; m. May 4, 1793 

Eunice West of Raymond; d. in 1848. 
"4. Michael, Jr., b. June 79, 1766; m. Aug. 9, 1788, Jane Snow 

of Gorham. 
"5. Eunice, b. Mar. 18, 1768: m. Aaron Snow of Gorham. 
''6. Stephen, b. Feb. 2j, 1770; m. March 14, 1793, Betsey 

Nowlen of Hallo well. 
"7. Rhoda, b. Apr. 22, 1772; m. Dec. 25, 1792, Enoch Shaw. 

She died Jan. 3, 1819. 
"8. Samuel, b. Mar. 15, 1777; m. Anna Simonton. Supposed 
to have died at Cape Elizabeth in 1824, leaving children, 
Samuel, Mary, and Ellen. " 
An account of Thomas C. Shaw appears in Mrs. H. F. Farwell's 
"Shaw Records," page 173. These same Records, p. 156, give the 
descendants of Rhoda Philbrick, wife of Enoch Shaw. 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 



Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover, Maine, by John 
Francis Sprague, Editor and Publisher. 

Terms : For all numbers issued during the year, including an index and 
all special issues, $1.00. Single copies, 25 cents. Bound volumes $2.00 each. 

Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 
River. 

Commencing with Vol. 3, the terms will be $1.00 only to subscribers who 
pay in advance, otherwise $1.50. 



The first law of History is not to dare tell a lie, the second 
not to fear to tell the truth; besides let the Historian be beyond 
all suspicion of favoring or hating any whomsoever. 

PONTIFF, LEO XIII. 



BROWSINGS BY THE EDITOR IX HIS OWN LIBRARY. 

Since we began the work of editing the Journal we have received 
scores of letters seeking information as to what books should be 
selected for a course of reading in early Maine History. These 
have come from public school scholars and from teachers and col- 
lege students, from club women, clergymen and Maine people in 
different walks of life. We have cheerfully answered them as 
well as our limited knowledge would permit and have always 
urged that they begin with the first voyagers and explorers of the 
Maine coast : Champlain, de Monts, Martin Pring, Waymouth, 
etc. (1603-5) an d the Popham Colony (1607). 

If one is in the State Library at Augusta, or the library of the 
Maine Historical Society at Portland one can delve more deeply 
in this lore than in the private libraries of the State. 

And yet in browsing in our own little library we find much that 
is authoritative and instructive along these lines. Mrs. H. G. Rowe 
in the preface to her charming book: "Retold Tales of the Hills and 
Shores of Maine," (Bangor 1892) says: 

An Irish matron, one of the honored foremothers of our Pine Tree 
State, when asked by a passing traveller what crops she expected to raise 
upon the sandy, boulder strewn soil of her little sea bordered farm, 
replied: Craps is it? Faith but I'll be after raisen a Governor or two, 
wid maybe a Gineral or a Jedge, an a hanfull o' brave byes thrown in f'r 
ballast, that'll make these woods an' swamps laugh wid a harvest sich as the 
ould worrld niver dramed ov. Thims the craps that wid God's blissin, 
w '11 be after sindin to the worrld's mill one of these days. 



>.'• 



BROWSINGS IX THE EDITOR'S LIBRARY 35 

The woman who uttered these brave words is called by Mrs. 
Rowe "Bridget"' Sullivan, the place Berwick in the historic county 
of York, Maine, and the time subsequent to 1723. For it was in 
the latter year when William Sullivan and his wife migrated to 
Maine from Ireland. 1 

He was a highly educated man, well skilled in classical literature 
and a teacher of the classics. He died in Berwick, in 1796, a 1 : the 
age of 105 years. 

His three sons John, Ebenezer, and James were men of note in 
their day. The former was a lawyer, Major General in the Revo- 
lution, member of the Continental Congress, Attorney General of 
New Hampshire, member of the Federal Constitution Convention, 
and judge of the U. S. District Court. 

James was born in Berwick, in 1774. He was a lawyer com- 
mencing practice in Georgetown, Maine, but two years later he 
removed to Biddeford. Maine, where h? remained for a tew years 
and then located in Massachusetts. Willis 2 savs of him : 

From the commencement of the Revolution to the close of his life, in 
1808, he was constantly in official stations, as member of the legislature, 
commissary of the troops, judge of the Supeiior Court. Attorney General, 
and commissioner of the United States. 

He also engaged largely in literary labors, was the prime mover 
in organizing the Massachusetts Historical Society and was its first 
president. 

He was Maine's first historian. He wrote : 'The History of the 
District of Maine." Printed by I. Thomas and E. T. Andrews, 
Fausts Statue No. 45. Newbury Street, Boston, 1795 " It contains 
421 pages and is today a most valuable work for the student of 
Maine's colonial history. 

The next most important work in the development of history in 
this direction was "The History of the State of Maine ; from its 
First Discovery, A. D. 1602, to The Separation, A. D. 1820." by 
William D. Williamson.' published in 1832, in two volumes contain- 
ing 1,376 pages. 

Mr. Williamson was born in Canterbury, Connecticut, July 31, 
1779, and died May 2y, 1847. He was a lawyer and as soon as he 
was admitted to the bar began practice in 1804, at Bangor, then a 
town in Hancock County. He was a man of great activities as ? 



O WiHiam Willis' History of the Lawyers of Maine( Portland, 1863) 
P 97- 

(')Ibid. p. 95-6. 

(') See Journal, Vol. 3, No. 4. pp. 133-5- 



36 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

publicist and political leader. He held various eminent official 
positions while Maine was under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts., 
and later when Maine became a State. He was the first and sole 
Senator from the new County of Penobscot, became president of the 
Maine Senate and was thus acting Governor of Maine in place of 
Governor King who resigned. He was the first representative in 
Congress from the Bangor congressional district. 

Although his life was a busy one in State and public affairs he 
was a profound student of Maine colonial history and devoted 
much time to research and literary pursuits. If he had never 
achieved any other accomplishment his history of Maine would 
have made his fame secure. 

James Sullivan and William Durkee Williamson were the pion- 
eers in this work. Many others have since done great service but 
Abbot and Varney and all the other writers have built upon the 
solid foundation laid by them in the first days of our republic. 

In exploring the Maine historical field the work and collections 
of the Maine Historical Society is a beacon light whose rays pene- 
trate many nooks and corners overlooked by the founders. 

This society was organized and held its first meeting in the city of 
Portland, April 11. 1822, in accordance with an act of the Maine 
Legislature, passed February 4th of that year. Its first president 
was Albion K. Parris. Governor of Maine, 1822-1827. Its first 
volume of Collections was published in 1831, and was printed by 
Day, Fraser & Co., Exchange St., Portland, Maine. 

The first paper in this book is part one of the History of Portland 
by William Willis, containing 242 pages. Other important items in 
this volume are "Montresor's Journal" and "Arnold's Letters. " 

Colonel Montresor, an officer of Engineers in the British Service 
was employed by his government in 1760, to explore the country 
from Quebec into the interior of Maine and report thereon. This 
is his report in the form of a "journal. " This manuscript together 
with the original letters of Arnold while on his Quebec expedition: - 
were for a time in the possession of Colonel Aaron Burr who was 
one of the most famous and picturesque personages of the revolu- 
tionary period and the last days of the eighteenth and first days of 
the nineteenth centuries. 

He was tried for treason and conspiracy against The American 
government in a Federal court presided over by John Marshall and 
acquitted. His life story is one of the most romantic ones in Ameri- 
can history. 



> 



BROWSINGS IN THE EDITOR'S LIBRARY 37 

William Willis, one of the earliest and most active members and 
officers of the society chanced to have an acquaintance with Burr, 
and was on intimate terms with some of his close friends. It has 
been frequently stated that Colonel Burr having enemies in the 
New York Historical Society did not intend that these valuable 
papers should ever become the property of that society and hence 
it was an easy matter for Mr. W'illis to secure them for the Maine 
society which he did. 

In the introductory to these (page 341) presumably written by 
Mr. Willis, the writer says that it was Montresor's Journal that 
first suggested to Arnold the route to be pursued through Maine. 
' It was perhaps unfortunate for the success of this expedition 
that he did not follow in the footsteps of Joseph Chadwick, who, 
in 1764, was employed by the Massachusetts Colony to explore the 
country from the Penobscot to Quebec. 

By his report and its accompanying map it appears that he went 
first to Fort Pownal, thence up the Penobscot to Old Town, there 
employing Indian guides who led him up the Piscataquis to Moose- 
head Lake and thence to Quebec by a very safe and comfortable 
route.* 

This society has published twenty-two volumes of Collections and 
twenty-four volumes of a "Documentary History of Maine." The 
first volume of this series is devoted to a ''History of the Discovery 
of Maine," by J. H. Kohl with an appendix on the voyages of 
the Cabots, by M. D. Avezac, of Paris. It was edited by William 
Willis and published in 1869. 

The work of publishing a documentary history of Maine had its 
inception in the Maine Historical Society as early as 1863, when thr 
Maine legislature passed the following resolve which was approved 
March 17, 1863: 

Resolved, That the governor be hereby authorized to procure copies of 
original documents in the British State paper office in regard to the early- 
history of Maine, the same to be deposited in the state library ; and the 
sum of four hundred dollars is hereby appropriated for this purpose out of 
any money not otherwise appropriated; the governor to appoint, if need be, 
at his discretion an agent for the purpose of accomplishing the objects of 
this resolve; provided, that the entire expenditure shall not exceed, the 
amount of the above appropriation. 

In view of the fact that since then some Maine legislatures, ; n- 
cluding that of 1917, have ruthlessly slaughtered these and similar 
appropriations, and adopted a parsimonious and antagonistic policy 



C) Bangor Hist. Mag., vol. 4, p. 141. 



3S SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



regarding them it would be well to bear in mind that this first be- 
ginning was made when Maine and the whole country were in 
the throes of the Civil War. 

This appropriation was used chiefly as Mr. Willis says in making 
"a preliminary investigation'* of the subject. 

In 1867 the governor and council were authorized ro contract 
with the society for the publication, annually, of a volume contain- 
ing the earliest documents, charters, and other state papers "illus- 
trating the history of Maine." 

The first result of this wise and liberal attitude by the state to- 
wards historical research was the volume under consideration. 

At this time the reverend Dr. Leonard Woods had resigned the 
presidency of Bowdoin College and was commissioned by the gov 
ernor as agent to attend to the duties above mentioned and there 
upon visited Europe for that purpose. 

The fruits of his efforts appear in the first two volumes. 

While in Germany he met Dr. Kohl, who reputation as a traveler, 
author, and cartographer, was eminent in this country as well as 
Piurope. 

In 1854, he came to America, where he traveled four years, dur- 
ing which time he prepared for the government of the United States 
a series of maps relating to the early voyagers and explorers of 
America. Thus Dr. Woods fortunately secured his services i;. 
building a great foundation for Maine historical research. 

At this time Dr. Woods discovered the original manuscript ot 
Hakluyt's "Discourse on western planting" which had been lost to 
the world for three hundred years. This valuable document edited 
and arranged by him constitutes the second volume* of this series. 

The "Baxter Manuscripts'' begin with the fourth volume. 
Twenty-one volumes have thus far been published. It would not 
be easy to estimate the historical value of this collection. They 
contain charters, grants, letters, contracts, petitions, and every piece 
of writing relating directly or collaterally to the history of Maine, 
that the Honorable James Phinney Baxter was able to discover in 
State archives in London, Paris, Boston, Canada, Washington, etc. 
In fact he made a world wide search for this material which will be 
preserved for all times in these and two or three other forth-com- 
ing volumes. 

Mr. Baxter has long been Maine's leading historical writer. But 
if he had never done else than this work it would ever have been 
*n enduring monument to his memory. 



SAYINGS OF SUBSCRIBERS 



39 



I 



Correction 



A most regretable blunder occurred in the last issue of the Jour- 
nal when (p. 284) the death of Mr. Otis G. Hammond. Superin- 
tendent of" the New Hampshire Historical Society was reported. 

The fact is that Mr. Hammond is not dead very much alive. 

Upon learning of this error, too late to make the proper change, 
we wrote Mr. Hammond expressing our chagrin and sorrow for it 
and immediately received the following kind and gentlemanly reply : 

Air. John F. Sprague, 

Foxcroft, Maine, 
My Dear Sir:— 

While I regret the error which occurred in the recent issue of your mag- 
ainze in relation to myself, as it may possibly cause unnecessary sorrow to: 
some of my friends, yet I can easily forgive you as I know how often those 
things occur. It is not of great consequence, and a note of correction in 
your next issue will be acceptable. 

The error which you made was in stating that I died on the 10th of 
February last. It was Mrs. Hammond and not myself. The fact in 
regard to date and place were correct. 

Yours very truly, 

OTIS G. HAMMOND, 

Superintendent. 



Sayings of Subscribers 

William P. Marden, Recorder of Municipal Court, Miliinocket: 

"Hope you will meet with prompt" response from all your subscribers to 
your Journal which I greatly esteem." 



Nina L. Davee, So. Portland: 

"I am sending check for the 'Journal' for another year. We consider it 
too valuable a periodical to be without." 



Colonel Fred H. Parkhurst. Bangor, Maine: 

_ "I have enjoyed the Journal very much although in these strenuous times 

it is not easy to find opportunity to read.' 



40 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Mr. James Lewis, Boston, Mass. : 

"I read your editorial in the last Journal 'As it appears to the Editor' 
with much interest. You are right. This world war is only a continuation 
of the great fight begun at Runnymede. 

I pray God that it may be the last battle against despotism." 



Mr. Lucius M. Perkins, Alfred, Maine. Who has always taken a 
deep interest in all Maine historical matters : 
"I intend to send you an article on the distribution of the surplus in 
1836. The town of Alfred has preserved the original receipts, signed by 
the citizens, and bound in book form in the public library." 








A Fisherman of Casco Bav 



CONTEXTS 



4* 



O. R. Emerson, M. D. 



J. J. McVtty. M. D. 










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..n-n-n-fn 




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The E. & M. Hospital 

Newport, Maine 
Admits all medical and surgical cases except conta- 
gious and mental diseases 
For information, rates, etc., address: 

OLGA J. HANSON, Supt., Newport, Me. 



CONTEXTS 



Sketch of Bangor, Earlier Days 

Captain Benjamin Burton 

Officers and Members of York County Teachers' Institute 

Grave of Mary Chauncy 

Browsings by the Editor in his Own Library 

How Our State Educators Aid Study of Maine History 

Pharmacy of the Red Man 

Sayings of Subscribers 

Town of Alfred 



PACE 

43 
48 

55 
57 
61 

67 
69 

7i 

72 



52 



YEARS the Insurance Man of Somerset Co. 

Never a Failure— Never a Law Suit— What more do you want? 
CHARLES FOLSOM-JONES, Skowh^gan Maine 

We have positive evidence of the reliability of the advertisers on these pages 



.VI 










*tJ 



Spr ague's Journal of Maine History 

Vol. VI AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER 1918 No. 2 



Sketch of Bangor, Maine, in the 
Early Days 

Written by Charles Oilman of Bangor for th? American 
Magazine published in Boston, and republished in the 
Maine Monthly Magazine, edited by Mr. Gilman, in its 
issue of June 183J. 

Bangor is pleasantly situated on the western bank of the Penob- 
scot river, at the head of the tide and navigation, thirty miles from 
its mouth. The Kenduskeag Stream, which here enters the main 
river at right angles, divides the compact part of the city into nearly 
equal parts. The land on each side of the stream rises to a consider- 
able height, and the village, which stretches from it and the Penob- 
scot in every direction, presents a beautiful and picturesque appear- 
ance, particularly on approaching it from down the river, when it 
is gradually disclosed to the view. The scenery viewed from the 
height of land on the north-west side of the village is delightful. 
From this point on a clear day, the Katahdin mountain, with its 
snow-white summit, at a distance of more than seventy miles, can 
be distinctly seen. 

Bangor, originally called the Kenduskeag plantation, from the 
Stream above alluded to. now extends about six miles on the river. 
It formerly included a considerate portion of what is now Orono, 
situated above, and Hampden, below, and in 1790. contained 567 
inhabitants. It then probably contained double the extent of terri- 
tory now comprised within its limits. According to Judge William- 
son's valuable History of Maine, published about five years since, 
the first settler came to this plantation with his family in the lattef 
part of 1769. 

In the ensuing year, several families came to the place ; and. in 
I77 2 the settlement contained twelve families. In March. 1787. a 

2 



44 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

public meeting was held for the purpose of taking measures to build 
a house of public worship, the records of which are said to be the 
earliest extant. The first clergyman, the Rev. Seth Noble, a whig 
.refugee from the Province of Nova Scotia, who had resided in the 
plantation about one year, was engaged by the people living on each 
side of the Penobscot, to officiate for them, and he agreed to remain 
their pastor so long as they would pay him a salary of four hundred 
dollars. He continued with them about twelve years. His installa- 
tion took place under an oak tree. To him was committed the 
agency of procuring an act of incorporation for the town, which 
was obtained in February, 1791. The inhabitants of the plantation 
in public meeting instructed him to have it called Sunbury. which 
r.ame was probably suggested by the pleasant appearance of the 
place. Perhaps the reverend gentleman did not coincide with his 
constituents as regards the doctrine of instruction, and not manifest- 
ing a disposition to "obey or resign." he assumed the responsibility 
of substituting the name of Bangor. Some supposed the name 
might have escaped his recollection, and having a strong partiality 
for the good old psalm tune, he caused the name to be placed in the 
act of incorporation. We do not learn that this departure from 
'democratic usage' occasioned any unp 1 easant feelings on the part 
of his constituents towards him. 

The first public building in Bangor, the Court House, now the 
City Hall, was erected in 1812, and occupied by the courts, and 
for religious and other public meetings till 1822. During the latter 
year, the first meeting-house was built for the only religious society 
then existing in Bangor, over which the Rev. Harvey Loomis was 
settled, who was ordained in 181 1. This excellent and universaHv 
beloved man preached to this society till January 2d. 1825. when he 
died suddenly in his pulpit before the commencement of the fore- 
noon services. Singular as the fact may appear, he had se'ected for 
his text the following passage of scripture — 'This year thou shalt 
sure 1 y die.' This meeting-house was consumed by fire five years 
afterwards, and in 183 1 its p ] ace was supplied by a very handsome 
edifice of brick. The Unitarian. Baptist, and Methodist houses of 
worship were commenced in 1828. and completed in that and the 
succeeding year. The Hammond Street Church, built by a portion 
of the Calvinistic society, was completed in 1834. St. John's Church. 
a beautiful edifice intended for the Episcopa'ian order, was erected 
during the last season, but has not yet been occupied. At the same 



SKETCH OF BAXGOR. MAINE 45 

time, a large brick church for the Methodist society, and a small 
one of wood for the Catholics, were commenced, and will probably 
be completed during the present season. The whole number of 
churches will then be eight. A large and commodious Court House 
of brick, containing the several County offices, and a stone jail were 
erected in 1832. The Maine Charity School, or Theological Semi- 
nary, incorporated in 1814, and opened in Hampden in 1816, was 
afterwards removed to Bangor, and a classical school connected 
with it. The principal building of brick, four stories high and simi- 
lar to the usual college edifice, is situated on a commanding emi- 
nence, on a tract of seven acres, the donation of the late Isaac D. 
Davenport, of Milton, Massachusetts. Another of the same size 
is in contemplation, as also a large and elegant chapel, and residences 
for the professors connected with the seminary. There are four 
professorships, and the funds of the institution amount to about one 
hundred and twenty thousand dollars. It is under the direction of 
trustees of the Calvinistic denomination. The Bangor House, a 
more particular description of which may be given hereafter, is a 
large and splendid hotel, very similar to the Tremont House, in 
Boston. It was first opened for the reception of company on the 
first day of January, 1835. It is a building which reflects great 
credit upon the enterprise of its projectors and proprietors. There 
are several other large and commodious public houses in the city. 
There are three bridges across the Kenduskeag stream, two of which 
are the result of individual enterprise. A large covered bridge is 
extended across the Penobscot. 

The first printing office was established in the autumn of 181 5, by 
Peter Edes, now the oldest printer in the Union, who, after an ab- 
sence of a few years, has returned to Bangor to pass the eve of life 
in the family of one of his children. He immediately established a 
weekly newspaper. At the present time, there are five printing 
offices from which are issued five weekly papers, to which number 
a\other is soon to be added, two dailies, and the only monthly peri- 
odical in the State. The first bank was incorporated in 18 18. There 
are now nine whose aggregate capital is $900,000. These do not 
fully supply the wants of the community, a circumstance tending 
somewhat to show the extent of the business operations. The 
chief business is the traffic in lumber, which gives rise to 
a large amount of other business. Intimately connected 
with it is that of navigation, in which many are exten- 



46 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



sively engaged. This would have been more extended, did not 
the severity of the winter season occasion obstruction by the ice., 
between four and five months of the year. During this portion of 
the year, however, vessels can reach Frankfort, twelve miles below, 
with perfect safety. A remedy for this interruption is being sought 
out by means of a railroad between the two places, which will 
greatly facilitate operations. In this matter of railroads, the Ban- 
goreans have outdone other citizens of their State. The first rail- 
road in Maine, from Bangor to Oldtown in Orono, about twelve 
miles in length, built at an expense of about $250,000, was opened 
in November last, and has not been obstructed but for a single day, 
during the interim. It reflects great credit upon the enterprise and 
public spirit of Messrs. Edward and Samuel Smith, its projectors, 
who have, in several other instances done much to benefit the city. 
Bangor was incorporated as a city in the winter of 1833-4, and 
the charter being accepted in the spring of the latter year, Allen 
Oilman, Esq., who had resided in the town about thirty-five years, 
was elected Mayor, and held the office for the term of two years. 
He was succeeded by Edward Kent. Esq., the present incumbent. 
Both of these gentlemen are natives of New Hampshire, and mem- 
bers of the legal profession. The want of a City form of govern- 
ment had been sensibly felt, and the result has shown that its adop- 
tion has been a very important measure in facilitating the progress 
cf public improvement. Its march has been onward, and it appears 
to have been the watchword of every citizen. A city market of 
ample dimensions has been commenced and will probably be com- 
pleted in the course of this or the coming year. It will be an orna- 
ment to the city, and another strong proof of the enterprise? an-t 
public spirit of its citizens. While their attention has been so 
strongly fixed upon the welfare and interests of their fellow beings, 
they have not been unmindful of those who have passed, and are 
continually passing from among them. A public cemetery at Mount 
Hope, ort the plan of Mount Auburn, was consecrated in July last, 
in the usual manner. The grounds comprise about thirty acres. 
twenty of which belong to the city, and the remainder to individuals. 
having been put into lots and sold. The location is very fine about 
two miles from the compact part of the city, and is said to be in- 
ferior to no other p^ce of the kind. Mount Auburn excepted, for 
the advantages of sbil. situation, and shrubbery. Connected with it 
are a beautiful green-house and garden, Under the care of a gmtle- 



SKETCH OF BANGOR, MAINE 47 



man who devotes his whoie attention to it, and whose labors already 
have done much to beautify and adorn the place. It will be niacis 
one of the most beautiful spots on the Penobscot, and is likeiy to 
become, comparatively speaking, a place of quite as much resort as 
Mount Auburn. 

On the outskirts of the city, and within its limits, two or three 
villages are rapidly springing up. Owing to their peculiarly excel- 
lent location for the purposes of milling and manufacturing, they 
have fallen into the hands of capitalists, who have a fair prospect 
of reaping a rich reward for their investments. The principal of 
these is the village of North Bangor, where are situated the exten- 
sive works of the Penobscot Mill Dam Company. Thirty saws have 
already been in operation and their charter allows of a great in- 
crease, giving, as it does, the privilege of erecting their works for a 
considerable distance on the banks and falls of the Penobscot. This 
village is about four miles from the center of business, on the main 
road to Orono. and three from the Lower Stillwater village, where 
very extensive operations of a similar character are contemplated. 
'I he Kenduskeag Stream, on which one of these villages is situated, 
has ample advantages for manufacturing purposes ; to further which 
a company has recently been incorporated. 

The population of Bangor, within the few last years, has increased 
with great rapidity. In 1800 the whole number of inhabitants was 
2~J. Seven years previous, the rateable polls were 45 ; and sixteen 
years afterwards, 252. In 1810 the whole population amounted to 
850; in 1820, 1,221; in 1830, 2,828. At the present time the whole 
number, including foreigners, is estimated at 9,500. This astonish- 
ing increase is almost without a parallel in this county. Whether it 
will continue to grow in a corresponding ratio, is very difficult to 
determine, so fluctuating is the general state of business. One 
thing however, is certain. Bangor will inevitably "go-ahead'' with a 
strong hand, and if it does not increase for the same length of time 
to come in a like ratio, its advance will be strong and steady. 

The following comprehensive extract may well conclude this 
sketch of the history and progress of Bangor. 'The rapid and unex- 
^mn'ed increase of the city of Bangor in wealth, popu 1 ation. and 
business, within the short period of three years — its facilities and 
resources for still further increase, warrant us in saving, that at no 
distant period of time, it is destined to become one of the first cities 
within the Union. Its local situation is unrivalled in the New Eng- 



48 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

land States — at the head of navigation, on one of the finest rivers m 
the United States, near the centre of the territory of Maine, sur- 
rounded by a superior country, rapidly improving, and commanding 
all the resources of lumber from the head waters of the Penobscot 
and its tributaries, it presents such encouragement to the farmer, 
mechanic, and the merchant as perhaps cannot be found in any 
other place. In the centre of a basin of nearly 10,000 square miles, 
of a soil unsurpassed in fertility — which must eventually become 
the great depot of its produce, and the great mart of exchange for 
the eastern portion of the State. The immense tracts of timber 
lands and the fast settling towns and villages of the interior, to say 
nothing of our commercial resources, promise an exhaustless supply 
of material upon which our enterprise may work. Water privileges, 
unrivalled in power and extent, are within the reach of the city, and 
to the eye of the experienced observer present the germs of many 
a manufacturing establishment, and the means of employment to 
thousands. Wherever we look, we find something to aid us in our 
advance to prosperity, and with these advantages, what shall put us 
back? Fifty years ago, and this was a wilderness. Fifty years 
hence, and what will then be? Yet the example of the few past 
years, and the well known and acknowledged enterprise of our 
citizens answer.' 



Captain Benjamin Burton 

By Charles M. Starbird 
The St. Georges Region 

The territory bordering on the St. Georges River has a history of 
particular interest. No evidence of an Indian settlement has ever 
been found, but the country belonged to the Wawenocks until con- 
quered by the Tarratines in 161 5. 1 The Indian name for the St. 
Georges was "Secohquet", for Pleasant Point in Cushing "Saw- 
quid"/ 
. The fact of George Weymouth's visit to these shores has been 
generally accepted. Some historians have attempted to place his 



'Cyrus Eaton: Annals of Warren, p. 10. 

2 Maine Historical Collections, Series I, Vol. 4. p. no. 



CAPTAIN BENJAMIN BURTON 49 



landing on the Penobscot or Kennebec rivers. However the major- 
ity and perhaps the most authentic agree on the St. Georges. 3 

The Plymouth Company came into possession of this territory 
in 1616, when the English possessions in America were dividec! be- 
tween the Plymouth and London Companies. On March 23, 1630, 
the company granted to John Beauchamp of Boston, England, that 
strip of land extending from the seaboard between the Penobscot 
and Muscongus river so far north as would, not interfering with any 
other patent, embrace a strip equal to 30 miles square. The pro- 
prietors established a truckhouse on the eastern bank of the St. 
Georges. 

Nearly a hundred years later the grant came into the hands of 
General Samuel Waldo and is henceforth known as the "Waldo 
Patent." The Waldo grant is too well known to require any atten- 
tion here. 

Several attempts at settlement were made during the next few 
years but no permanent settlement was made until about 1719. 4 In 
1719-20, the Waldo proprietors had a fort erected and a garrison 
of 20 men under Capt. Westbrook was placed in charge. 5 At the 
same time the proprietors built a sawmill and about 30 frame-houses. 

On June 15, 1722, a party of 200 Indians burned the proprietor's 
sloop, killed one man and took six prisoners. The sawmill was 
burned as were also some of the houses. An attack was made upon 
the garrison but the resistance was so determined that the Indians 
were forced to withdraw ; on the 24th of the following August an- 
other attack was made. A large body of savages commenced to 
undermine the fort but the earth, made soft by heavy rain, caved in 
and the siege was abandoned. Several white men were killed and 
five were taken prisoners but were released. 

The next attack came on Dec. 25, 1723, when the savages laid 
siege to the fort and persisted with desperate resolution for thirty 
days. Col. Westbrook finally arrived and put the red skins to 
flight. 

Again, in 1724. minor attacks were made at different times with 
no serious results. Peaceful times followed and in 1730 ''there 
were between Muscongus and Kennebec about 150 families, pro- 
bably 900 or 1,000 inhabitants". 6 The territory was divided into 



3 See Henry S. Burragre : Beginnings of Colonial Maine, pp. 45-47. 

'Cyrus Eaton : Annals of Warren, pp. 20-32. 

"Ib-'d. p. 33. 

'Annals of Warren p. 4". 



SO SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



two townships. The lower part which was known as the "Lower 
Township of St. Georges", later became the town of Cushing. The 
greater part of the settlers were Scotch emigrants from the north 
of Ireland. 7 

Between 1725 and 1745, the settlers were at peace with the east- 
ern Indians and advantage was taken of this time to build up and 
strengthen the settlement. Truck-houses were built for trade with 
the Indians. Sawmills were also constructed. The tireless efforts 
of General Waldo brought 40 German families from Brunswick 
and Saxony. Beginning with the war with France in 1745 the his- 
tory of this region is, for the next few years, the history of one 
man — Captain Burton. 

'George J. Varney : A Gazetteer of Maine p. 189. 



THE BURTON ANCESTRY 

The Burton family originated in old Wales. The father of the 
subject of this sketch was born in that part of the British Is.es and 
served in Cromwell's army when he reduced the Irish to obedience 
under the Commonwealth. He embarked for America in 1736 with 
his son Benjamin, induced to migrate here by General Waldo's 
Proclamation. The father never reached this state, dying on the 
passage. 9 

BENJAMIN BURTON 

Benjamin Burton was born in WVes about 1715- Early in his youth he 
went to Ireland where he married Alice Lewis.' 1 Coming to this country in 
1636, he landed in Boston where he remained for some years. Little can 
be found of his stop there. Captain Burton had e!even children. 10 

1. Rebecca reared and died in Boston. 

2. Agnes died in Boston in 1829. 

3. Mary reared in Halifax. Nova Scotia and married Capt. Thomas 

Carey. 

4. Alice reared and died in Boston. 

5. Ben : arpin born in the b 1 ockhouse at Th^mnsttv. Dec. Q. 1740. He 

wrt f o Boston and took par- 1 : i*i the famous "Boston Tea Part}'-" 
Beni?min en'isted in the Continental Army and was commis- 
sioned lieutenant in Sert. 1776 and captain in Col. Thurburn's 
Regt. in Rhode Island in 1777- He was taken prisoner in 1781 



"Maine Historical Collections Series I, Vol. VII. p. 327. 

"Annals of Warren, p. 381. 

,r) The genealogical notes are found in Annals of Warren, p. 381. 



CAPTAIN BENJAMIN BURTON 51 



and was held in compar.y with General Peleg Wadsworth who 
had also been made prisoner. Burton finally escaped. When the 
militia was reorganized he was chosen a Lieutenant-Colonel. 
Benjamin married Hannah Church of Bristol, R. I. They had 
seven children. Mrs. Burton died Aug. 21, 1834, an d the Colonel 
died in Warren, Me., May 24, 1835. A memoir of Col. Burton 
is published in the Maine Historical collections series I, Vol. 
VII, pp. 325-335- 

6. John died at the age of about 19. 

7. Sarah born in 1753; married Xehemiah Eastman of Gilmantown, 

N. H., and died at Montpelier in June, 1835. 

8. Elizabeth married Hon. Edward Killeran of Cushing. 

9. Thomas reared in Calais. He married ist, Betsey Barber, and 

2d, Susan McCobb. He died at Calais in 1837 ° r 1838. 

10. William reared in Cushing. He married ist, Jane Robinson, and 

2d, Chloe Bradford. 

11. Jane married Moses Robinson of Cushing and died in Feb., 1803. 
Captain Burton enlisted and took part in the famous expedition against 

Louisburg. He was made a lieutenant and served with considerable distinc- 
tion." 

After returning from Louisburg, Burton was p'aced in charge 
of the block-house in the present town of Thomaston. At this time 
Capt. Jabez Bradbury was in command of the fort and acted as 
truck-master. In August, 1745. war was declared against all the 
Indian tribes. In Sept. of the same year, a large party of Tarratines 
encamped in the vicinity of the fort and sent four of their principal 
sagamores to procure ammunition. Captain Bradbury gave them 
ammunition and ordered them to return to their party immediately 
or they would be shot. The men left, but either because of fatigue 
or the intemperate use of intoxicants, they lingered on the way, en- 
camping on the bank of Mill River. Captain Burton learned of 
their position and, with Lieut. Proctor and a band of men set out in 
pursuit. The party came upon the Indians in their camp. Burton 
severed the head of Captain Morris, one of the sagamores, from his 
body with a single blow of his sword. Captain Sam. another chief, 
was killed and Col. Job was taken to Boston where he died in con- 
finement. The fourth chief happened to be down at the river 
at the time and escaped. Some people criticised Capt. Burton for 
the deed but more praised him. It is certain that the death of 
Morris brought great relief to the settlers for "he had been a great 



'Maine Historical Collections Series I. Vol. VII. n 12$. 

! H. M. Sylvester; Indian Wars of New England, Vol. 3. p. 355. 

3 



52 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

In 1750 or 1751, Burton moved to the present town of Gushing 
but did not bund the block-house, which he occupied, until 1753. 13 
r J he b.ock-house was known as '* Burton's Fort." While in Gushing, 
Gaptain Burton gained his livelihood by tiding the soil. Gam-flats 
w-ere near at hand and the river furnished an abundance of fish. 
. At the outbreak of the French and Indian War in 1754, a large 
pack of Newfoundland dogs was secured. These dogs were trained 
to keep the distance of a gun shot from parties going out from the 
fort and the savages were thus unable to ambush the defenders. No 
party left the blockhouse without taking some half-dozen dogs with 
them. 

There are many stories told of Burton's courage and resourceful- 
ness. Many of these, no doubt, are mere legends, but the following 
is reasonably true. At one time. Burton together with his wife and 
four children were some distance from the fort when one of the 
dogs gave an alarm. Taking one child on his back and one under 
each arm, while his wife carried the fourth, the fort was reached in 
safety. • i I 

On June 10, 1755, the General Court declared war on all the east- 
ern Indian tribes except the Tarratines. The Tarratines continued 
to come to the fort and Capt. Bradbury showed them all kindness. 
But the settlers made little discrimination between the tribes. A 
r^d-man was to be hated and killed wherever found and to whatever 
tribe he might belong. The attitude of Bradbury toward the Tarra- 
tines gave rise to many suspicions and rumors that he was carrying 
c negotiations with them. Captain Burton was among the number 
disturbed by his conduct. The following letter of Burton is found 
in the Massachusetts Archives. 14 

"To Capt. Thomas Proctor Jr. Boston neer the Orange tree." 
"St. Georges June. 6th, 1755 - ., .,/... 

'Dr. Brother 

"Yesterday about nine of the Clock we heard about 15 guns fired, and 
after that Capt Bradbury fired an alarm; upon which three men went up 
to the fort to hear what was Doing — 

'^nd there is two Scotch Lads Killed or taken : but we supose Kiled — 
they were Brothers. — there Sir names is Brown — there was three more up 
thi river the same Time ; but at Sum Distance from them — viz. Mr. 
Lamond, Archbald Gamble & Son, but got safe home — those are our good 
friends the penobscots, So Ezstold by our B : the Commander here I hope 



"W. D. Williamson; History of the State of Maine, Vol. 2, p. 306. 
"Vol. 54, p. 453. 



CAPTAIN BENJAMIN BURTON 53 



the Government will now Doo Sumthing to prevent Ruin by a Savage 
Enemy. I remain your Loveing Brother till Death 

r, Benja Burton." 

In June, 1756, war was formally declared against France. The 
St. Georges district was especially hated by the Indians. On March 
24, 1756 15 a large company attacked Burton's fort killing two of his 
Men and scalping a third. The exact number of men in the fort at 
that time is not known but certainly must have been small. The at- 
tacking party was finally beaten off. There were scattering depre- 
dations made afterward. 

At the beginning of the year 1757, the garrison consisted of Capt. 
Pradbury at £4 per month; T. Fletcher, Ueut., at £3 and Benja- 
min Burton ditto, with 36 other men. No action of importance 
took place this year. 18 

The year 1758 found six men stationed at Burton's block-house. 
They were: Benjamin Burton Sergeant, at £1 10s per Mo. Thomas 
Carney, Christian Power, Joseph Andrews, John Burton, Cornelius 
Thornton and John Greene, centinals at 24s per Mo." In August, 
the last stand of the Maine Indian tribes was made when with their 
French allies, forming a party of 400 men, the fort at St. Georges 
v as attacked. The arrival of Governor Pownal about 36 hours be- 
fore the attack, with a powerful company of defenders, probably 
saved the St. Georges settlements from complete destruction. 

The war was soon over but Burton remained at his garrison tilling 
the soil until his death. 

There is some dispute over the date of Burton's death. Those au- 
thorities that place the date as March 21, 1763, rather than March 
21. T762, appear to be mistaken. Such authorities as Williamson. 
Sylvester. Me. Historical Collections series I. Vol. VII. say 1762. 
Eaton in Annals of Warren, p. 123, says. "On March 20th of this 
year (1763) Capt. Benjamin Burton, who ten years before erected 
the stone b'ock-house and commanded the garrison there died in his 
float on the river. He had been up at the fort, but having some dis- 
pute with Capt. North, refused to stay there, and set off for home in 



"Pardon Thomas Smith wrote in his Journal under date of March. 26. 
17=6, "We have news from St. Georges that a nartv of Indians the day 
before yesterday killed two young men and seabed a third." 

Smith & Deane's Journals p. 165. 

"Annals of Warren, p. 98. 

"Ibid, p. 107. 



54 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

a very cold night. The recently formed ice prevented his landing; 
he was seen next morning opposite McCarter's and people went to 
his assistance but found him froze to death." 

The loss of Captain Burton was great to the community. He had 
proved himself a worthy, upright man, honest in his dealings with 
his fellow men and sound in judgment. He had been of great assist- 
ance in defeating the savages in Eastern Maine. Although not a 
professional Indian killer, he was feared by the Penobscots as per- 
haps no other man was feared. To him went the honor of having 
killed a chief, an awestriking feat in the eyes of the savages. 
Maine may well cherish the memory of this mighty defender of her 
early eastern settlements. 



SUMMER STREAMS 

(From April Airs, by Bliss Carman.) 
All day long beneath the sun 
Shining through the fields they run, 

Singing in a cadence known 
To the seraphs round the throne. 

And the traveller drawing near 
Through the meadow, halts to hear 

Anthems of a natural joy 
No disaster can destroy. 

All night long from set of sun 
Through the starry woods they run, 

Singing through the purple dark 
Songs to make a traveller hark. 

All night long, when winds are low, 
Underneath my window go 

The immortal happy streams, 
Making music through my dreams. 



YORK COUNTY TEACHERS' INSTITUTE 



oo 



Officers and Members of York 
County Teachers' Institute 

(Contributed by Henry M. Packard) 

President, Richard M. Giapman, M. B. E., Biddeford ; secretaries, Abner 
Mitchell, Esq., Alfred, and Charles H. Milliken, Saco; principals. William 
B. Fowle, Esq., Newton, Mass.. and Cyrus Peirce, Newton^ Mass., asso- 
ciates, Calvin Cutter, M. D.. Warren, Mass., Benjamin F. Rowe. Merri- 
mack, N. H. y and Miss Emily Shaw, Xantucket, Mass., lecturers, Hon. Elisha 
M. Thurs'ton, Charlestown, William B. Fowle, Esq., Newton. Mass., Calvin 
Cutter, M. D., Warren, Mass.. Cyrus Peirce, Newton, M>ass., and Benjamin 
F. Rowe, Merrimack, N. H., Committee on resolutions and publication, 
Horace Piper, Biddeford, Abner Mitchell, Alfred, William Allen. Alfred, 
William H. Wiggin, Sanford, and Isaac M. Trafton, Newfield. 



MEMBERS. 



Jordan H. Abbott, Shapleigh 

Charles Bean, Limington 

W'illiam E. Bowker, Biddeford 

Arthur C. Burbank, Limerick 

Albert L. Cleaves, Kennebunkport 

Frederick Cole, Cornish 

John A. Dennett, South Berwick 

Thomas H. Emery, Buxton 

Walter Haines, Saco 

John Hanscom, Saco 

Oliver S. Hasty, Limerick 

Georee Hurd. Oothcaloga, Geo. 

M. W. Leavitt. Biddeford 

Albert Leavitt, Waterboro' 

Ivory E. Libby, Saco 

John B. Lowell, Biddeford 

John D. Marston, Saco 

Frank Mellen, Saco 

Harrson T. McKusick. Cornish 

Char'es H Milliken. Biddeford 

Joseph H. Moody. York 

D. S. Parker. Biddeford 

David W. Pendev-er. Cornish 

Horace Piner. BHdeford 

Joseph A. ^ewall. Biddeford 

Poscoe G. Smith. Saro 

T. F. Stearns. Biddeford 

John A. Swett, York 

J. W. Towne, Kennebunkport 



William Allen, Alfred 

Alvah H. Bedell, Biddeford 

Oliver M. Boynton, Buxton 

John L. Burnham, Alfred 

Osmon H. Cobb, Buxton 

Frederick A. Day, Biddeford 

George B. Elden, Buxton 

Albion Gile, Alfred 

Charles S. Haley, Hollis 

Henri B. Haskell, Biddeford 

Charles E. Hill, Limerick 

William Leavitt, Jr., Buxton 

C. F. Leavitt, Waterboro' 

Asa Libby, Limerick 

Ivory Lord, Saco 

Sylvester Marr, Limington 

Willis Mason, Saco 

James Meserve, Hollis 

Hiram Milliken, Saco 

Abner Mithell, Alfred 

David O Mou'ton, Parsonsfield 

B. F. Peirce, Waterboro' 

Simon G. Philbrook, Biddeford 

Frar»k W. Prav, Shap'eigh 

T. F. Skee'e, Saco 

Loring T. Staples, Limington 

Horace Stuart. Saco 

Benjamin N. Towle, Freedom, N. H. 

Isaac M. Trafton, Newfield 



5,6 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



John B. Varney, South Berwick 
William H. Wiggin, San ford 
Lucinda R. Allen, Springvale 
Nancy Bailey, Parsonsfield 
Delia Bradbury, Buxton 
Abby Brown, Baldwin 
Harriet M. Chase, York 
Abby H. Deering, Waterboro' 
Sarah Elden, Buxton 
Elizabeth C. Goodsoe. Kittery 
Maria C. Grey, Biddeford 
Frances Hasty, Hollis 
Esther P. Hayes, Limerick 
Charlotte Hern, Saco 
Lucinda Leavitt, Waterboro' 
Violette W. Littlefield, Biddeford 
Mary Littlefield. Wells 
Sarah L. Low, Springvale 
Martha J. Miles, Newmarket, N. H. 
Ann Louisa Mitchell. Alfred 
M. E. Morse, Biddeford 
Catherine Parcher, Saco 
Almira Raynes, York 
Triphena Remick, York 
Elizabeth H. Rounds, Buxton 
Harriet H. Shapleigh, Kittery 
Catharine Simpson, York 
Mary L. Staples, Newfield 
Philenia A. Stephens, Shapleigh 
Mariam Stimson, Limerick 
Mary A. Talpey, York 
C. P. Tatterson, South Berwick 
Caroline A. Tatterson. So. Berwick 
Lois A. Tuck. Biddeford 
Mary A. Walker, Lyman 
Maria L. Witham, San ford 



Ebenezer Wentworth, Buxton 
Sarah J. Allen, San ford 
Sarah L. Ayer, Newfield 
Nancy P. Bedell, Biddeford 
Abby M. Bragdon, York 
Sarah Brown, Ea:t Baldwin 
Frances M. Curtis, Biddeford 
Asenath P. Dyke. Sebago 
A'lma A. Everett, Biddeford 
Sarah A. Goodwin, Shapleigh 
Susan E. Hasty, Portland 
L. Frances Hayes, Limerick 
Deborah R. Hayes, Limerick 
Abby T. Hill, Hollis 
Julia A. Lindsey, Shapleigh 
Amanda M. Littlefield, Biddeford 
Frances F. Lord, Parsonsfield 
Betsey L. Mar'ston, Erhngham, N. H. 
Sarah M. Mitchell, Alfred 
Mary A. Moody, York 
Lucy A. Murch, Hollis 
Angeline Parcher, Biddeford 
Mary Jane Reed, Biddeford 
Abby A. Rogers, Saco 
Mary E. Sawyer, Hollis 
Hannah Simpson, Eliot 
Abba Sparrow, Biddeford 
Olivia Stearns, Lovell 
Anna Stimpson, Saco 
Lydia Stone, Kenrebunkport 
Mary Tatterson, South Berwick 
Lucy A. Tatterson, South Berwick 
Joanna Thompson, Biddeford 
Caroline Tuck, Biddeford 
Mary J. Windship, Philips 



From Reverend Melvin Sherburne Hutchins, pastor of the Congre- 
gational Church, Phillips, Maine : 
"My Dear Mr. Sprague : — 

Just a word to tell you that I thoroughly enjoy your Journal, and consider 
your work in publishing and editing such a periodical ti be most important 
for our State. 

I was very much disappointed not to be able to attend the Congregational 
Conference at Dover and Foxcroft this week, T had hoped to look you up 
nnd make your personal acquaintance. My vocation is preaching the Gospel 
hut T mtend mv avocation to be Maine Historical research. 

If I can ever be of any assistance to you please consider me at yo*»r 
service." 



GRAVE OF MARY CHAUXCY 



57 



The Fascinating Grave of Mary 

Chauncy 18 

~ (By Justin Henry Shaw) -«-r* 

And all about the wild birds flit and call. 
And but a stone's throw southward, the blue sea 
Rolls sparklirg in and sings incessantly. 
Lovely as any dream the peaceful place. 

— Celia Thaxter, "In KJttery Churchyard". 19 









mxsn 







Picture of the Old Stone 
THE EPITAPH: 

In this dark, silent Mansion of the Dead, 

A lovely Mother, and sweet Babe, are laid. 

Of ev'ry Virtue of her Sex possest, 

She charm'd the World, and made a Husband blest. 

Of such a Wife, O righteous Heaven, bereft. 

What Joy for me, what Joy on Earth, is left? 

Still, from my inmost Soul, the Groans arise, 



*The presert spelling of the family name is Chauncey. 
'From The Poems of Celia Thaxter, page 59. 



:-;d 
r.'j 



riKf 



58 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Still flow the Sorrows, ceaseless from my Eyes. 
But why these Sorrows, so profuse'y shed? 
They may add to but ne'er can raise the Dead. 
I soon shall follow the same dreary Way, 
That leads, and opens, -to the Coasts of Day, 
There clasp them both, upon the happy Shore, 
] : And Bliss shall join, nor Death shall part us more. 

Mary Chauncy, Wife of Charles Chaurcy, and Daughter to the Honble. 
Richard Cutt Esqr. died April 23d. 175S, in the 24th. Year of her Age, with 
her Infant Son Charles Chauncy. 

The quiet isolated old Cutts 1 ' cemetery in Kittery Point is a part 
cf the large, coast-bound farm of Mr. John Thaxter, on Cutts- 
Dartington. improperly and commonly called Cutts Island ; and the 
farm of Mr. Thaxter is a part of the valuable estate that has come 
down from Captain Francis Champernowne, through the Cutts. 

Captain Francis Champernowne married the widow of Robert 
Cutt of Kittery, sometime subsequent to 1675. By his will. Captain 
Champernowne left the greater part of his estate in Kittery to 
her, and her children. Mary. Bridget, Sarah, Elizabeth and Robert 
Cutt. Cutt, also had left a considerable fortune for those days, 
inventoried at £890. Mr. Thaxter's farm residence is on the exact 
site of Captain Champernowne's "Upper House/' 

Stackpole (page 334) says that Richard Cutt (brother to Robert) 
v/as 

a major, justice, councillor, se'ectman. and deacon, one of the most promi- 
nent men of his time and place. He had a luxurious and hospitable resi- 
dence on Cutts Island 

On a stone that forms a part of the right gateway wall of this 

ancient resting place, is the following inscription : 

Capt. Francis Champernowne 

Born 1614 

Died T6S7 

Many of the CuUs Family 

1687— 1873 

Captain Champernowne's grave is covered by a cairn, perhaps the 
on'y memorial or distinguished feature of this kind in Kittery. The 
poet, John Albee, has written of the spot, and his verse was included 
bv Longfellow in the second volume of "Poems and Places — New 
Er.gland." John Elwyn of Portsmouth has also contributed lines 
on this grave. Mrs. Thaxter's verses are of course much better 
known. 



The origiral form of the family name was Cutt. 



GRAVE OF MARY CHAUNCY 59 

An article in "The New England Genealogical and Antiquarian 
Register" (July 1848) Vol. II, page 276, entitled Notices of the 
Cutts Family, says : "Hon. Richard Cutts, Esq., and twenty-one 
others are buried in this 'cemetery/' But the abominable way in 
which the Chauncy epitaph has been given in that article makes one 
hesitate to quote any particular part of what has been printed under 
that head. 

Close by the grave of Champernowne, and within a few feet of 
his historic cairn, is undoubtedly the most interesting memorial in 
the town. It marks the grave of Mary Chauncy, pictured herewith. 
Mary Chauncy's stone is the only one that stands of all that have 
been put up ; some of them were standing within the recollections 
of the present generation. But for a number of years the trees 
and vines were thick, and the place was quite forgot, and the fallen 
stones have now entirely disappeared. Once, this stone had also 
fallen over, but it was erected again by Mr. Thaxter. There are 
touches of moss and lichens and rust on it, but the old slate is in a 
very fine state of preservation. Every letter of the verse is care- 
fully carved, and the italics are perfectly formed and legible. One 
wonders who the ancient artist was. He followed well the copy 
for the lines. The words given here are an actual copy of the stone, 
carefully made and verified in every respect to preserve their great 
literary beauty. 

The verse tells by natural inference the story of a maternal trage- 
dy on that long past April day. It was here on Cutts-Dartingron 
that Chauncy probably met the beautiful Mary and lived with her. 
and it was here also at the "luxurious and hospitable" Cutt home 
that she probab'y died. One can only imagine the possibilities that 
may have been the cause of her suffering and death, at her early 
age. with her child, and we deplore the lack of saving medical skill. 

One cannot doubt that the lines are the composition of the hus- 
band, Charles Chauncy. They are unmistakably also a part of the 
sad story of his own life, one of the strange biographies in the town. 
He was perhaps the most scholarly man in Kittery at that time. 
Mr. Brewster (in his "Ramb'es") has given us the substantial and 
interesting facts of the family, and recollections of Charles in Ports- 
mouth, where he later lived, and died. 

He was the great-grandson of Charles Chauncy, second president 
of Harvard College, and after studying theology and breaking 
down in mental health, he came to Kitterv Point and entered the 



6c SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



office of his uncie, Sir Wiiiiam PepperreJ. He was a graduate or 
Harvard himself; but more than this, he was evidently a scho.a; 
by nature. In spite of the malady which seems to have lurkea 
within him and to have been transmitted, the man himself was ap- 
parently of the finer sort, and had made the most of the better 
thoughts of his time, and he had probably struggled to keep his ow: 
mental health. 

He survived Alary by fifty-one years, (almost a lifetime) and 
became the father of thirteen children, having married Joanna 
Gerrish of Gerrish-Dartington only two years after Mary's untimely 
death. Mrs. Thaxter understood the possibility of this, for in he~ 
pi em she also said : 

Doubtless he found another mate before 
He followed Mary to the happy shore. 

The first son of this second union was also called Charles, who 
a; sixteen years of age became insane and continued so until a week 
before his death at twenty-eight. This boy is buried in another 
cemetery at Kittery Point. The lines on this boy's stone show also 
that in spite of what must have been a great grief to his father, it 
was splendidly overcome by the finer considerations of an affection- 
ate fatherly nature. 21 Their fourth son. Samuel, who became a sea 
captain, committed suicide ; and the son of this captain, who was 
also named Charles, died in the insane retreat of that time at Con- 
cord, N. H. 

But one never tires of the changeless, quiet features of that little 
round face, carved so many years ago out of the cold, blue slate. 
The classic braid and circle of cherubic hair, and the academic 
spread of the little wings that brood above the words, secluded and 
still, compete an epitaph which one may visit again and again, and 
each time find something of fresh interest to interpret or only 
wonder at. in the history of Kittery. 

And Charles Chauncy does not even rest beside her in this quiet 
old p'ace. but is buried in Cotton's cemetery in Portsmouth. 



"This other o!d cemetery is at the junction of the old and new Harbor 
Foad=. a'o'.ip Chatmry's Creek. 



n 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 



Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover, Maine, by John 
Francis Sprague, Editor and Publisher. 

Terms : For all numbers issued during the year, including an index and 
all special issues, $1.00. Single copies, 25 cents. Bound volumes $2.00 each. 

Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 
River. 

Commencing with Vol. 3, the terms will be $1.00 only to subscribers who 
pay in advance, otherwise $1.50. 



The first law of History is not to dare tell a lie, the second 
not to fear to tell the truth; besides let the Historian be beyond 
all suspicion of favoring or hating any whomsoever. 

PONTIFF, LEO XIII. 



BROWSINGS BY THE EDITOR IN HIS OWN LIBRARY 

II. 

Both the Massachusetts and New Hampshire historical societies 
have assembled in their volumes of collections, proceedings and 
other books issued by them, a mass of literature relating to Maine': 
colonial period. 

We do not have these in our private collection on Maine, but the 
student working in the State Library at Augusta has them always 
a* hand to guide him in his searchings. 

The late Charles Francis Adams, Jr., contributed to the Massa- 
chusetts Society an historical monograph published in Vol. 22 of 
its proceedings, and reprinted by the University Press, Cambridge. 
1^83. This relates to "Sir Christopher Gardiner Knight'' who ap- 
peared in Boston in 1630. 

This we find on our shelves and it is a strange ta'e of a remarka- 
ble character who appeared in New England in April, 1630. His 
career c'ose'y identified with Maine, is intertwined with romance 
and adventure. 

It is the pecuhar privilege of the American historian to be able 
to trace his narrative to its origin by means of documentary evi- 
dence, and thus relate facts rather than fable or tradition. 

Mr. Adams in introducing his subject to the reader says: 
Such melodramatic personnges are' not corrmon in Massachusetts his- 
tory, ard according 1 }- Sir Christopher long since attracted t^e notice of the 



62 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



New England poets and writers of fiction. Here were great possibilities. 
Miss Sedgwick was the first to avail herself of them, for as early as 1827 
she introduced the knight, under the name of Sir Philip Gardiner, into her 
novel of Hope Leslie. He is the walking vil'ain of that now forgotten tale. 
The historian Motley next tried his hand upon him in his story of Merry- 
mount, published in 1849. The same year Whiitier incidentally touched 
upon him in Margaret Smith's Journal ; and then Mr. John T. Adams, in 
1856, went over the ground once more in his Knight of the Golden Melice. 
Finally, in 1873. Longfellow put the Rhyme of Sir Christopher Gardiner 
in the mouth of the Landlord as the last of the Ta'es of a Wayside Inn. 
Both Motley and Adams, as well as Whittier and Longfellow, present the 
knight under his own name, and. so to speak, in his proper person. They 
adhere more or less to the record. Miss Sedgwick does not. But they have 
all made somewhat droll work with the facts of history; and, the historians 
themselves have ir this respect not greatly bettered matters. 

Gardiner's origin and family history- are rather obscure. He 
claimed descent from Stephen Gardyner, Bishop of Winchester and 
Lord Chancellor of Queen Mary, yet it has never been established 
with accuracy. 

Although born a protestant, Bradford and others assert that he 
renounced this faith and became a member of the church of Rome. 
This however is in question and was never fully settled. 

Regarding his claim to knighthood Adams believes that: 

His title was of a doubtful character, for in one place he is spoken of as 
a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre, having received the honor at Jerusalem; 
while in another it is as a Knight of the Golden Melice. But that he had a 
right to some title would seem to be estab'ifhed by the fact that at a later 
day he was referred to in official proceedings in England as Sir Christopher 
Gardiner, Knight. 

It "seems to be very well settled by those who have written of that 
period that Sir Christopher visited New England as a duly accred- 
ited, though secret agent of Gorges. 

Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason obtained their 
charter or grant from James I. to the most of the Province of 
Maine west of the Kennebec, and a part of New Hampshire, in 1622. 

In 1623, Gorges had sent his son. Captain Robert Gorges, out to 
Massachusetts Bay in charge of a company who was to settle there. 
He had secured for Captain Robert the grant of a domain. Adams 
says : 

It covered, as nearly as its limits can now be fixed, a tract just north of 
Boston, including: the whole shore from the mouth of the Charles to Lynn, 
and interior as far back as Concord and Sudbury. 

Robert Gorges did not take actual possession of this domain, but 
never abandoned his claim to it. Subsequently, in 1628. the Coun- 



BROWSINGS IN THE EDITOR'S LIBRARY 63 



cil for New England, with the assent of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, 
granted to the Massachusetts Company a large tract which included 
this. But Gorges contended that the subsequent grant was made 
reserving all vested rights under the first one. Robert Gorges die J 
and whatever rights he had passed to his brother John, who con- 
veyed portions of it to Sir William Brereton and John Oldham. 
The Massachusetts Company denied the validity of these convey- 
ances; and besides this claimed that the great charter of 1629, set- 
tled it against Gorges beyond all dispute. It then became a matter 
of actual possession. Gorges claimed that he already had i: by the 
settlement there of several inhabitants, in 1624, under the direction 
of Captain Robert. The Massachusetts Company immediately pro- 
ceeded to circumvent all of this by hurrying out instructions to 
Endicott, who was at Salem, to forthwith "send forty or fifty per- 
sons to Massachusetts Bay to inhabit there." This he did in June, 
1629, which was the beginning of the settlement of Charlestown. 
Under these circumstances it is evident that Gorges deemed it wise 
tc have someone on the ground to represent him and protect his 
interests. From letters and documents found among Sir Christo- 
pher Gardiner's belongings it seems clear that he was selected for 
this purpose. 

It is well known that the Massachusetts leaders regarded Gorges 
as their rival and possible enemy. He was of the Church of Eng- 
land which fact undoubtedly intensified their feelings against him. 

When' Sir Christopher came and was in the company of the 
Gorges settlers and known to have visited Thomas Morton, well 
known as an agent for Gorges, their suspicions were instantly 
aroused. 

That Governor Bradford conceived it his duty to interview the 
stranger is apparent for he records the fact that he was accom- 
panied by servants, and : 

A comly yonge woman, whom he caled his cousin, but it was suspected 
that she ( after the Italian maner) was his concubine. 

In other words, as Mr. Adams observes. "Sir Christopher com- 
mitted the folly of bringing a mistress out into the wilderness with 
him." Naturally the Puritan magistrates became inquisitorial as to 
his antecedents and object in visiting Boston. 

They could not hale him into their courts for acting in behalf 
cf Gorges. 

But it was not long before they were informed that he had left 
behind two wives in England. 



64 b^KAGLEb JULKAAL Ub MAliNU hLlblUKl 

The name of the young woman who accompanied him from the 
North of Eng.and to America was Mary Grove. She has attracted 
much attention among historical writers, poets and novelists. It i., 
quite certain that she lived with him while he was living near Boston. 

Ihe authorities did not attempt any legal proceedings against 
him regarding his relations with Mary Grove, but they did make 
some move towards prosecuting him for the crime of bigamy in 
Eng.and. Sir Christopher learning of this instead of remaining 
and facing his adversaries made his escape into the wilderness in- 
tending, as it is supposed to reach the Dutch settlement at Manhat- 
tan. He never succeeded in doing this. Soon after his departure 
some Indians informed the governor of his whereabouts and were 
authorized to take him and bring him before the magistrates which 
they did. After thus having him in their possession they were at a 
loss to know just what disposition to make of him, for in order to 
fasten any crime upon him. they wou!d have to send to England for 
evidence. It was not long before they concluded to allow him to 
go on his way. 

Thomas Purchase was the first settler on the Androscoggin within 
the limits of what is now the town of Brunswick, Maine. There 
he had cleared up quite a large farm and also dealt extensively with 
the Indians buying furs and peltry of them ; and was also a packer 
and shipper of salmon from the Androscoggin to Boston. At «il>ottt 
this time he made a trip to Boston to transact business and. inci- 
dentally to find himself a wife of which he stood in much need. 
While there he fell in with Sir Christopher and Mary Grove. It wa> 
a case of ''love at first sight," with he and Mary and after a short 
courtship they were married there and she returned with him to his 
home in Maine; and odd 1 }- enough Sir Christopher went a^ng with 
them and had a home with them for some months. Tust what activ- 
ities he was en^a^ed in whi ] e a sojourner in Maine is not quite 
c 1 ear. On'y one record has been found relating to him at that time 
and is in the records of the first General Court of the Province of 
Maine. be 1 d at Saco, by "the Worshipful Thomas Gorges.'* in 1640. 
The record reads as follows : - 

Richard Tucker cometh into this Court and declareth that nine years 
since, or thereabouts, there came one Sir Christopher Gardiner to the nlain- 
tiff in the name of the defendant. Thomas Purchase, and borrowed of him a 
warming-pan. which co=t here in this country 12s 6d.. which t^e defendant 
hath all this time and sti 1 l doth wrongfully detain from the nlaintiff. And 
also the said Sir Chriptopher did six months after, or thereabouts, buy of 
the plaintiff a new fow'insrn'ece for 40s.. which he promised to pay within 



EDITORIAL 65 



a month after, which money both for the warming-pan and the piece the 
plaintiff hath oftentimes demanded of the defendant, who doth still refuse 
to pay the same, to the damage of the plaintiff at least £5 sterling, for 
which the plaintiff commenceth his action of trespass in the case, against 
the defendant in this court, and humbly desireth a legal hearing according 
to law. T. Purchase denies ever authorizing Sir C. Gardiner to buy any 
v. arming-pan or fowlingpiece for him, etc. Verdict for the plaintiff, £>2 t 
12s. 6d. for the two articles, 2d damages. 12s. 6d costs of the court. 

It appears that he remained at Brunswick all through the winter 
cv 1631-32 and far into the succeeding summer. He arrived in 
England from Maine on the 15th day of August, 1632. 

At this time a formidable attack was made on the Massachusetts 
Bay Company. That he entered into it with much energy appears 
from the records. He denounced Governor Winthrop, the magis- 
trates, and the people generally of Massachusetts. He declared that 
they were "traitors and rebels against his majesty, with divers 
o.her most scandalous and opprobrious speeches, " dilating freely on 
the wrongs he had suffered at their hands. 

The managers of the company about this time learned of the 
story of his two wives and attempted to retaliate by proceeding 
against him for this. Whatever investigation they made was not 
fruitful of results. Adams says: . 

Either the women had never existed, or they could no longer be found, 
or the evidence somehow broke down. 

The assau't made upon the company did not prevail and it came 
off victorious. After this all trace of him was lost in Eng'and. 

From all that can be learned Mary Grove outlived her youthful 
indiscretions, and she and her husband Thomas Purchase live! hap- 
pily together on the banks of the River Androscoggin unti 1 the 
t ; me of her death which occurred in Boston, June 7th, 1656. 



Mr. Arthur G. Staples, managing editor of the Lewiston Journal, 
wields a facile and versatile pen and is one of Maine's ablest news- 
paper writers of today. He is also a public speaker of note and 
always welcomed upon every forum. Whether speaking or writing 
he ever displays sparkling bits of charming humor, and makes 
thrusts of wit that are keen and yet gentle. 

He is just now doing one of the most interesting literary stunts 
that we have seen in any of the Maine papers for many a day. At 
the top of the editorial page of the Journal, is every day a little 
double column screed of about 6oo words signed " A. G. S." and 
entitled: " Just Talks — On Common Themes." We have perused 



66 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



nearly every one and regard them as real classics. They are full 
of more or less great thoughts and philosophy. In speaking of 
philosophical writers, the regular stock phrase is to call their say- 
ings " quaint." Arthur's stuff is quaint all right, and it is also 
worth while. It is good, every day philosophy that constantly 
touches a responsive chord. 



The Maine Library Bulletin, published quarterly at Augusta,. 
Maine, " in the interests of the libraries of the State, by the Maine 
Library Commission " is always a welcome visitor. 

Its last issue is the first number of its seventh volume and con- 
tains 20 pages of excellent reading pertaining to Maine Libraries 
and Maine literary and historical subjects. 

Since Hon. Henry E. Dunnack became State Librarian this pub- 
lication has been constantly improving. 



Hon. Harold M. Sewall has been presented with an unusuallv 
unique and valuable gift, especially appreciated by the recipient 
as it was prompted by the generosity and affection of Dr. G. .Lang- 
try Crockett of Thomaston. When Major General Henry Knox,. 
the artillery commander in the Revolutionary War and friend of 
Washington, took possession of the land granted him in the Waldo 
patent for his services during the war, he was desirous of obtaining- 
an accurate understanding of the resources of the region and he 
secured the services of a young Frenchman, Monsieur Monvel to 
make a survey. The gift to Mr. Sewall is the journal containing 
the results of this survey by the French engineer and is entitled 
" Journey of Observation of the Waldo Patent, 1792." Beneath 
the title in the handwriting of General Knox and signed by him is 
the explanatory paragraph : 

" By Mr. Montvel, a judicious young French gentleman, who 
was educated at the Royal academy in Paris." The booklet is 
bound in brown leather and the clear and scholarly handwriting of 
the young Frenchman is still legible and is filled with valuable 
information. No duplicate is in existence and it is not only a trib- 
ute of friendship for Mr. Sewall from Dr. Crockett, but is also- 
a tribute to Mr. Se wall's library, which is filled with literary works- 
of high value and on the shelves of which this gift will be given 
honorable place. 



STATE EDUCATORS 67 



How Our State Educators Aid the 
Study of Maine History 

Recently we have had our attention called to a pamphlet issued 
by the State of Maine Educational Department in 1916. It is 
entitled " High School Libraries and Book List." It states that it 
is " A pamphlet describing the scope of High School libraries 
together with a suggested list of books." 

It does not profess to suggest a line of text-books, only books of 
(reference and books that will be of material benefit to the youth 
in such reading as they ought to pursue as scholars in the high 
schools. 

Some of the books listed may now be rare, yet they are all acces- 
sible in the State library at Augusta and in all of our larger public 
libraries in the State. 

And the authors of this pamphlet truly say, " The State Library 
Commission places at the disposal of schools a large amount of 
material," and they inform them of the traveling libraries available 
for all of the towns in the state, etc. 

We turned to its lists of books recommended for the study of 
history. They embraced many authors on Ancient, European and 
American history. In all about one hundred and thirteen. And 
forty-eight books on American history were approved. 

Yet, in all those lists, not a single one of the hundreds of volumes 
which have been published relating to the history of Maine was 
referred to or mentioned directly or indirectly. And this from the 
" State of Maine Educational Department." 

In the language of the man of the street, " can you beat it? " 
We are not criticizing their recommendations so far as they go. 
They include some of the very best authors on American history, 
such as Parkman, Fiske, Lodge, Channing, Halsey, etc. 

The contention of the Journal is — has been from the first and 
will be as long as its life is spared — that this studied and deter- 
mined policy of our school authorities at Augusta, of ignoring and 
passing by Maine history with every appearance of contempt is 
fundamentally and absolutely wrong. 

The influence of this reactionary and retrogressive view point of 
our State school directors has evidently extended in other direc- 
tions. 



68 SFRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



In the "State budgett'' for 191 7. everything in the way of slight 
appropriations along this line which with one or two exceptions 
had formerly been the policy of the State since 1863 was ruthlessly 
slaughtered and the legislature followed its edict. 

The Journal's motto, platform or battle cry — whatever you may 
be pleased to call it, is now and ever will be: FIRST TEACH 
THE BOY AND GIRL TO KNOW AND LOVE THEIR OWN 
TOWN, COUNTY, AND STATE AND YOU HAVE GONE 
A LONG WAY TOWARDS TEACHING THEM TO KNOW 
AND LOVE THEIR COUNTRY. 

We are not advising against the scholars of our public schools 
reading any of the books approved by this pamphlet. 

We only desire and insist that these mental advisers of what the 
scholars of Maine should read shall themselves sometime, compre- 
hend the fact that from 1603 to this hour the history of Maine is 
rich in subjects that are fascinating and invigorating food for the 
child's imagination and for the development of what is spiritual 
and artistic. 

It is not necessary to cite Macaulay's renowned essay on Mit ford's 
history of Greece, to demonstrate the value of the Greek and fable 
stuff. 

All the books in this pamphlet should be read and studied by 
high school scholars. All that these savants need is a broadening 
of their vision. 

It should become large enough to understand that 'Maine has a 
distinct history all its own, which should be known and studied 
as such. 

To revert to our first thought it seems to us that the designers 
of this pamphlet could at least have called attention to the 46 vol- 
umes issued by the Maine Historical Society, and to scores of other 
works on Maine history to be found in our public and private 
libraries. 



MR. FLAGG'S INDEX OF MAINE REVOLUTIONARY 
PENSIONERS 

Owing to an unavoidable delay by the printing establishment 
which does the Journal's work, the Revolutionary Index was left 
out of this issue. It will be continued in our next number when all 
of the names under "C" and all or a part of "D" will appear. 

This valuable series will continue until the entire list is published. 



PHARMACY OF THE RED MEN 69. 



Pharmacy of the Red Man 

By Horace M. Burn ham, Ph. G., Old Town, Maine 

Read before the Maine Pharmaceutical Association, June 28, 
1916. 

It has been suggested that an article on The Pharmacy of the 
Red Man might, in a general way, be of interest to the members 
of the Association, not that there is anything to learn which would 
advance our art but that it is no doubt similar to the birth of Phar- 
macy among other races. In the case of the Indian the Physician 
and Pharmacist are one as prescribing and preparing medicine are 
done by the medicine man or medicine woman. The Indian believes 
that certain ones are endowed by nature with qualities not possessed 
by all which enable them to diagnose and treat disease with greater 
success than their fellows. There is a tradition that in early days 
before the coming of the white man it was necessary for the would 
be medicine man to undergo some trying ordeal to prove his fitness 
for the office. As a general thing I have found it impossible to 
learn the diseases for which the drugs are used as the Indians do 
not know the English name of the complaints they treat. To illus- 
trate, Dr. Sockalixis once told me in answer to an inquiry regard- 
ing ladies' slipper ( Cypripedium). That is woman medicine. This 
is used by them as a sedative in nervous conditions and one might 
infer that the men are not troubled with complaints of this kind 
nor do I believe the average Indian is. I have not learned that 
they used anything from the mineral kingdom and but one animal 
substance, Castor, given as an Indian woman told me, mostly to 
young women from fifteen to eighteen years of age. An emmena- 
gogue. They had infusions, decoctions, poultices, ointments and 
plasters. Oils and fats were also used as liniments. Boiling was 
done in dishes of birch bark placed on coals, hot ashes or stones 
heated by fire beneath or heated stones were dropped into the 
liquid. In the case of infusions and decoctions the drugs were 
steeped singly or in combination. S'uch quantities to a given 
volume of water as in the judgment of the dispenser was necessary. 
When ready it was decanted and given the patient as needed. To 
relieve and to prevent chafing fas of infants) finely powdered 
hemlock bark was used. Plasters were made by evaporating a 
decoction of the barks of beech (Fugus grandifolia) and hackma- 



jo SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

tack {Larix laricina) to the consistency of an extract and incorpo- 
rating with pitch of the spruce obtained by stripping the bark from 
the trunk of the standing tree and scorching the wood, reminding 
one of the method used by the natives of Central America to obtain 
Balsam of Peru. An ointment was made of fir balsam and animal 
fat. In making poultices various things were used among these, 
the rootstock of the white pond lily ( Castalia odorata ). For years 
I sold two old Indians butternut bark used by them as a laxative; 
in early days this must have been obtained elsewhere than on the 
Fenobscot as the tree is not indigenous to that river though com- 
mon on the Kennebec and, I am told, on the St. John. I have 
been assured by the Indians that no one would take any contagious 
disease if he kept in his mouth and chewed the rhizome of the sweet 
flag. Today both male and female attend and prepare medicine 
for the sick but the campfire has given way to the cook stove and 
the bark dish to those of earthern and metal. In the early days 
if an acceptable and satisfactory gift did not accompany the call 
for his services the medicine man demanded and received as a 
preliminary, his fee from the patient or his family. It might be 
wampum, the best bow, a quantity of arrows, moccasins, furs, veni- 
son or other food, but now when employed by the Indian agent 
to attend the sick the usual fee with medicine is one dollar. If 
additional medicine is needed the price is fifty cents a quart. 

The following is a list of the drugs used by the Penobscot Indians 
today: Castor Castoreum ; Cleavers Galium Aparine; Black Cohosh 
Cimicifuga racemosa; Blackberry root Ritbus; Butternut Bark 
Juglans cinerea; Bloodroot Sanguinaria; Rockbrake Pollvpodium 
vulgarc; Crawley Root Corallorrhiza odontorhiza; Red Cohosh 
Actca rubra: White Cohosh Actca alba; Sweet Flag Acoris Cala- 
mus; Gravel Plant Epigaea rcpens; Hair Cap Moss Polysticum 
aero stic ho ides; Hemlock Bark Tsuga canadensis; Juniper Berries 
Juniperus depressa; Ladies' Slipper Cypripedium hirsutum ; Spike- 
nard Aralia racemosa; Pennyroyal Hedeoma pulegioides; Winter- 
green Chimiphila umbellata; Blue Cohosh Caulophxllum thalic- 
troides; Pleurisy Root Ascelepias tuberosa: Scullcap Scutellaria 
lateriflora; Squaw Vine Mitchella rcpens; Canada Snakeroot Asa- 
rum canadeiise; Yellow Dock Root Rumex crispus. 

Xo doubt other plants, roots and barks were employed but the 
foregoing is a fairly complete list used during the past forty years. 
From the Indians was learned the medicinal uses of many of our 



SAYINGS OF SUBSCRIBERS 7* 



indigenous drugs. Although at the present time the treatment of 
disease among the Indians is largely in the hands of regular prac- 
titioners and medicines of the white man are generally used, there 
are those of the -tribe who prefer and employ the native doctors 
and their old time remedies. 



Sayings of Subscribers 

Mr. Don C. Seitz of New York, Manager of the New York World 
and a native of Maine, referring to the Journal says : 
"You are performing a valuable service indeed." 



Hon. Stanley Plummer, Dexter, Maine : 

No. 1, Vol. 6, of the Journal has been received and read with the usual 
full measure of appreciation. While I am giving up many things for the 
sake of war economy I cannot afford to give up the Journal, and am pleased 
to enclose my check to pay for next Vol. in advance. With the hope that 
your life and health may be spared many years to continue the good and 
necessary work you are now doirg"' 



William G. Gark, Attorney at Law, Des Moines, Iowa : 

"I am glad to receive your interesting volume and enclose draft therefor. 
"I note that our old friend. G. V. Edes, was re 1 ated to the publisher of 
the famous Boston Gazette. I had often wondered about that Have you 
ever examined josiah Quincey's volume of Massachusetts Reports? It 
covers the Revolutionary Period and is called "Vo'ume i" but is not, I think. 
usually included in the reports of that state. It is of very frreat interets 
from a historic standpoint and contains the language of the tory chief 
justice in chargirg the grand jury in an endeavor to have Benjamin Edes 
indicted for sedition. Also contains, at first hand t a very vivid description 
of the current events of that dav." 



The following list of Revolutionary Soldiers buried in Bridgton. 
Maine, cemeteries was published in the Bridgton News some years 
ago: 

Joseph Brocklebank Asa Barker Ebenezer Choate 

Capt. John Kilborn Asael Foster Dudley Perkins 

Joshua Douglass Dariel Barnard Nathaniel Jacobs 

Nathaniel Hale Tohn Chaplin Joshua Whitney 

Nathaniel Martin Phineas Ingalls John Kimball 

Cant. John Hay ward Tohn Peabody 

Robert Andrews Daniel Per'ey 



72 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

How the Town of Alfred Disposed 

of Its Share of the U. S. 

Revenue Surplus, 1836-7 

By Lucius M. Perkins 

At the close of the war of 1812 with England the United States 
had a debt of upwards of 127,000,000 dollars. After the return 
of peace the debt was rapidly reduced, and in 1836 it had all been 
paid. It had been computed January 1st, 1836, that there would 
remain in the United States treasury a surplus revenue of 27,000,- 
000 dollars. 

In 1836 Congress passed an act for the distribution of the sur- 
plus ; loaning it to the several states in proportion to their popula- 
tion without interest: and " to be called for by the government in 
an emergency," reserving 5,000,000 dollars. This was to be paid 
in four quarterly installments. Three of the payments were made, 
the fourth not made. 

September fourth, 1836, Congress passed an act postponing the 
payment of the fourth installment to January, 1839. 

The financial panic of 1837 (no doubt) so affected the revenue, 
that in 1839 the United States found itself with a debt of about 
12.000,000. The change in tariff and the Seminole war apparently 
rendered it impracticable to meet this fourth quarter's payment. 
It has never been paid. So much for the origin of the surplus. 

The State of Maine in 1837, by its Legislature passed three sep- 
arate acts regarding the receiving and disposition of the same. 
See Laws of 1837, chapters 252-265-287. The substance of which 
is to loan it to the several towns " to be by them accounted for," 
as the state was to account for it to the United States. 

Alfred, in anticipation of this distribution of money, took action 
and called a town meeting December 10th, 1836, to petition the 
Legislature that " the money to be received from the L'nited States, 
or a part thereof, may be appropriated for railroads or other inter- 
nal improvements." Also to petition the Legislature " for a por- 
tion of said money for the railroad from Portland through this 
place to the Xew Hampshire line." 

This meeting was called on petition of X. D. Appleton, J. Holmes, 
D. Goodenow, John Conant. Lyman Littlefield and John Hayward, 



TOWN OF ALFRED 73 



and was held at the court house. Wm. C. Allen, Xathan D. Apple- 
ton and Archabald Smith were chosen a committee to prepare " said 
petition.'' 

The act of the Legislature of 1837, made necessary the calling 
•of a town meeting, which was done March 20, 1837. Geo. W. 
Came was moderator. 

The town voted " to accept the town's apportionment of the 
money which is or may be deposited with the state by the L nited 
States. John Holmes, Esq., be appointed to act as agent of the 
town to demand, receive, and receipt for this town's share of the 
money. Also voted Jeremiah Bradbury, Wm. C. Allen, Xathan 
D. Appleton, act as a committee to report at next meeting the best 
method of investing said money." 

The committee chosen at the former meeting reported, but their 
report was " rejected " and it was voted " That the whole of the 
money be apportioned by the treasurer of the town among all the 
inhabitants thereof, residing therein, etc., on loan until payment 
thereof shall be demanded by the state treasurer." 

The town treasurer, Lyman Littlefield, was to have one-half of 
one per cent for handling the money. The two installments already 
in possession of the treasurer, he cashed and paid out. Paul Web- 
ber received $15, for taking the census of town and making a return 
to the Secretary of State, and a copy to the town treasurer. 
Lyman Littlefield was paid $10 for his expense for a journey to 
Portland,. $3.00 for printing receipts, and a commission of one- 
lialf of one per cent on $1856.80 — $9.28. Geo. W. Came and John 
L. Grant were allowed two dollars for their trouble in April, 1837. 

In October, 1837. Lyman Littlefield was paid for distribution of 
the third installment of $863.20 — $5 for " Procuring" $4.32 com- 
mission, the selectmen 5 2 -CO, and John Holmes S537.50 for services 
and postage. 

The receipts are two to the page of six by eight and one-half 
inches, with stub attached showing that it was Si. 33 each for the 
first payment and $.62 1-2 each for the 2nd payment. The receipts 
were kept in the old chest with lots of other papers, but now are 
bound in a book and are in the Parsons Memorial Library. They 
furnish a reliable list of the heads of families in 1837, and also an 
insight of the times and the different way we look at millions now. 

I think most towns handled this matter in a similar way. If other 
towns have their receipts, they should be carefully preserved. We 
"have been too careless in these matters. 



74 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



GRANDMOTHER'S GRANDMOTHER 

By Louise Helen Coburn 
Grandmother's grandmother, through the woods 

Moose and red man were wont to roam, 
Brought her babes and her household goods 

To make in the wilderness a home. 

The Kennebec rippled beside her door, 

Or laid a crystal roadway there: 
The shadow of pines on her cabin floor 

Took shape of Indian and bear. 

No woman for feminine service made, 

Shut from the work of the world was she; — 

Home was a factory, life a trade, 
And Mother a captain of industry. 

She was tailor, milliner, mantua-maker, 
Upholsterer, weaver of carpet and rug, 

Chandler, soapmaker. dairy-maid, baker, 
Knitter of hose and mittens snug. 

Weaver of wool for blanket and gown, 
Weaver of linen for bed and table, 

Dyer of crimson and purple and brown. 
Spinner and broiderer as she was able. 

Twenty trades were hers to command, 
A dozen professions were hers to rill ; 

Doctor and dentist always at hand, 

Trained nurse and kindergartner at will. 

Grandmother's grandmother's sons were bold, 

Steady of arm and keen of eye, 
Skilled to fell the white pine old, 

Taught to fear God and to scorn a lie. 

Grandmother's grandmother's girls were fair* 
Patient to take up her task again, 

Swift to labor and strong to bear. 

Makers of homes and mothers of men. 

Peacefully by the river side 

Grandmother's grandmother lies at rest; 
The tall pines whisper to the tide, 

And drop their needles upon her breast. 



GRANDMOTHER'S GRANDMOTHER 



75 



Where cities welcome or deserts wait, 
Or prairies their yellow bounty tell, — 

Where the new West looks through the Golden Gate, 
Grandmother's grandmother's children dwell. 

Where commerce wheels his dizzy round. 
Where glitters the gold in mountain mine, 

Where orange orchards smile, are found 
The sons and daughters of her line. 

Their names are writ on the honor roll 
Of every battle for freedom and right : 

Their feet have been swift in the race wh?se goal 
Is the wider look from the fairer heig'ir. 

The torch of truth and the flag of the fr:e 
They have borne from ocean tide to tide; 

They have planted hemes from sea to sea. 
Whose fruitage ripe is the nation's pride. 

Poorer the world were, you may know, — 
Poorer and leaner and sadder the land, — 

Had grandmother's grandmother, long ago, 
To lover and husband denied her hand. 



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Block House, Fort Kent 



76 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



We regret that for various reasons this number of the Jour- 
nal contains less reading matter than usual. The remaining issues 
of this volume will assuredly be at least equal in size to any former 
ones and probably larger. 



Mr. Fred YV. Sanborn, the genial editor and publisher of the 
Norway (Maine) Advertiser, one of the live local weeklies of our 
state, during the month of June last past, made his annual fishing 
trip to Moose Head Lake. He autoed from Norway to the Piscat- 
aquis Exchange at Greenville Junction, and stopped over night at 
the Pdethen House in Dover. 

He furnished the Advertiser with an interesting account of his 
journey, and the points of interest that attracted his attention along 
the way. We take therefrom the following: 

John F. Sprague. lawyer, historian and author, was found reading and 
marking proof sheets of Sprague's Journal of Maine History. It is printed 
at the Sentinel Office in Waterville and 1,600 copies are issued quarterly 
with some i,4<X> annual subscribers and is on its sixth year. It has lived 
•to complete five volumes containing about 300 pages each. The volumes are 
carefully indexed and nicely bound and sell for $2.03 each. They are highly 
prized by those interested in the history of the State of Maine. I have a 
complete set. Volume one is difficult to get and sells for five dollars. I 
had four volumes sent to Don Seitz of Xew York and the first will go when 
it can be found. 

Judge Edgar C. Smith, former Judge of the Dover Municipal Court and 
collector of tombstone inscriptions and compiler of a bibliography of Maine 
maps, and Moses Greenleaf's papers and letters, was present. Ex-Congress- 
man Frank E. Guernsey dropped in and joined in a discussion of history, 
literature, politics and war, not omitting the recent postoffice upheaval at 
Dover and Foxcroft. 



From the Massachusetts Register for the year 1804 (page 99) we 
learn that the justices of the Circuit Court of Common Pleas for 
Cumberland County were William Gorham of Gorham, Chief Jus- 
tice. Stephen Longfellow of Gorham. Robert Southgate of Scar- 
borough and John Frothingham of Portland were the justices. 
Special justices were William Thompson of Scarborough and Isaac 
Parsons of Xew Gloucester. Samuel Freeman of Portland was 
clerk of the common pleas and also the Register of Probate and 
William Gorham besides holding down the Chief Justiceship, was 
also the Judge of F J robate. 



CONTENTS 77 



O. R. Emerson, M. D. J. J. McVetv, M. D. 



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The E. & M. Hospital 

Newport, Maine 
Admits all medical and surgical cases except conta- 
gious and mental diseases 
For information, rates, etc., address: 

OLGA J. HANSON, Supt.. Newport, Me. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Biographic Glimpses of some Maine Men 79 

Regarding Soldiers of American Revolution ". . . 105 

Revolutionary Records of Descendants of Nathaniel Oak 112 

Alphabetical Index of Maine Revolutionary Pensioners 117 

Relating to the War of 1812 125 

Editorial 129 

Notes and Fragments 132 

Sayings of Subscribers 134 



52 



YEARS the Insurance Man of Somerset Co. 

Never a Failure— Never a Law Suit—What more do you want? 
CHARLES FOLSOM-JONES, Skowhegan Maine 

We have positive evidence of the reliability of the advertisers on these pages 



7f. 



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John Andrew Peters 



Vi 



Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

Vol. VI NOV. DEC. 1918, JAN. 1919 No. 3 

Biographic Glimpses of Some 
Maine Men 

JOHN ANDREW PETERS 

Bom in Ellsworth, Maine, Oct. g, 1822. Died in Bangor, 
Maine, April 2. 1904. 

Graduate of Yale College; studied law, was admitted to the bar. 
and had a large practice; member of the Maine legislature 1862- 
1864; Attorney-General of Maine 1864-1866; elected as a republican 
to the fortieth, forty-first, and forty-second congresses ; appointed a 
judge of the Supreme Court of Maine, in 1872; chief justice in 
1883; resigned from the bench in 1901. 

Some years ago Maine's great statesman, James G. Blaine was 
in social converse with some trusted friends when one of them 
asked him, "whom do you regard as the greatest man in Maine?" 
Quickly and with much emphasis he answered: "J onn Peters of 
Bangor is by far the biggest man in our state today." 

His name was then a household word all over Maine. When 
spoken it was a token for thought and speech in a brilliant and hu- 
morous vein. One who did not have readily at hand a new and 
original "John Peters story" was of doubtful standing as lawyer, 
politician or publicist. And yet a new generation of bright young 
lawyers are coming to the front who know him only as they study 
his sound, clear and logical legal opinions handed down in the Maine 
"law reports. 

As a man they have no knowledge of him other than is tradi- 
tional. They have heard their older associates in speaking of him. 
sigh, and utter the echo of a former chorus of thousands of Main<? 
peop!e. "well there never was but one John Peters : there can never 
be another." 



8o SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



In the history of Maine's jurisprudence this just judge has a 
high place that time can never obliterate. Yet his name lingers in 
our memory as a man among men, beloved by all. He was great 
intellectually. His instinctive knowledge and understanding of hu- 
man nature was amazing. He detested hypocrisy. He hated shams. 
He loved humanity and his vision of men and things was big and 
broad. He was a true type of real manhood. 



THE EDES FAMILY OF DOYER-FOXCROFT, MAINE 

George V. Edes was the first printer in Piscataquis County. 
He was born in Boston, Feb. 14, 1797 and died in Foxcroft, Maine. 
Nov. 26, 1875. He learned his trade with his uncle, Peter Edes. 
who was the first printer in Augusta and Bangor. He commenced 
with his uncle when a youth, being an apprentice when Peter war» 
located at Augusta. He came to Bangor and worked for his uncla 
while he published the Bangor Weekly Register, which was from 
November, 181 5 to August. 18 17. 

In 1823 he located in Norridgewock, and formed a partnership 
with Thomas J. Copeland under the firm name of Edes & Copeland. 
for the publication of the Somerset Journal, the first newspaper 
published in Somerset County. This partnership continued for 
about a year and a half when Mr. Copeland purchased Mr. Edes' 
interest in the paper and the partnership was dissolved. Mr. Ede?i 
however, continued to print the paper until December, 1836. He 
located in Dover in 1838 and commenced the publication of the 
Piscataquis Herald. 

On October 13, 1825, Mr. Edes married Susan Witherell of 
Norridgewock. Their children were Augusta, Marcia, Caroline. 
F.dward, Charles, Wm. Henry, George and Samuel D. 

The Piscataquis Herald was a four-page paper 12x18 in size, 
and the office of publication was as stated in the first number, "in 
the second story of the store occupied by A. S. Patten, Esq.'' 

This was on Merrick Square in the Village of Dover. The 
paper advocated the Whig cause in politics. In those days country 
editors engaged in partisan discussions more than to day. 

Mr. Edes was a man of strong convictions and fearless in his 
advocacy of them. Political feeling ran so high that some of hi? 
enemies in 1838 made an assault upon his office by throwing stone9 
through the window. 



THE EDES FAMILY 



81 



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13 




.,28 i*&^U&iatic*kA> '£.- *,-:***■ *;■ - 



George V. Edes 



In 1842 the name of the paper was changed to Piscataquis 
Farmer with the intention of remaining neutral in politics but when 
the presidential campaign of 1844 was in full swing it entered into 
it with its usual vigor. 

In 1847 tne name was changed to Piscataquis Observer and 
has retained that name ever since. 

In the early seventies he formed a co-partnership with his 
younger son Samuel D. Edes and they continued the business as. 



82 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

G. V. Edes and Son until 1875 when Fred D. Barrows became a 
partner of the firm and the name changed to Edes and Barrows. 
This partnership was continued until 1888 when the plant was 
purchased by citizens of Dover-Foxcroft who formed a corporation 
known as the Observer Publishing Co. Later Liston P. Evans of 
Dover became sole owner of this corporation. 

Samuel D. Edes continued as its editor until this time. Mr. 
Evans is now and has ever since then been its editor. 

Mr. Samuel D. Edes is a resident of Foxcroft where he was 
born. Since leaving the newspaper work he has been actively 
engaged much of the time in real estate business. 

Edes avenue in Foxcroft Village is the result of his activities 
along this line. He has always been prominent in public affairs in 
the town, a Republican in politics, a member of the Congregational 
Church and Kineo lodoge. I. O. O. F. 



VIRGIL G. EATON 



Virgil G. Eaton, one of the ablest newspaper men that Maine 
has ever produced, li'as born in Prospect, Maine, June 25, 1S50, 
and died in Scuth Brewer, Maine, July 13, igij- 

For many years the writer enjoyed his friendship and was sad- 
dened by his departure from this life. His character was unique in 
many ways but admirable and lovable in every way. His writings 
charmed and interested all. His delightful descriptions of birds and 
bird life will long be remembered by many Maine people. 

The following tribute to his memory is from the pen of Sam E. 
Conner, himself one of the bright and well known writers in Maine 
newspaper circles today. It is a true and beautiful picture of the 

man : 

To most of the telegraph editors who read the brief Associated Press 
dispatch out of Bangor, Friday, announcing the death of Virgil G. Eaton 
at his home in South Brewer it meant simply the passing of another old- 
timer of the newspaper game. To a few of the men now helping to make 
newspapers and to a great many others who are no longer at the work it 
caused a tightening sensation around the heart and in not a few cases, I 
am proud to say, tears welled up to the eyes, for "Virg" Eaton was one of 
those who when he made friends— which he did wherever he went— made 
them for life and held them by the subtle, indescribable something that 
makes true friendship; the thing that holds regardless of the number of 
miles and years which have separated the personal association. 



VIRGIL G. EATON 83 



Virgil G. Eaton, and I do not say "Mr. Virgil G. Eaton," for if there 
was one thing he detested it was that little two-letter prefix, is the last of 
a galaxy of writers which made the old Boston Globe famous ; one of the 
last of a band of newspaper men who made the Globe a producer of men 
who could both get news and then write it. But two of these are left in 
active service in Maine today ; they are Lawrence T. Smyth of the Bangor 
Daily News and our own Arthur G. Staples of the Journal. Holman Day, 
you know, has quit the ranks of the reporter. These men do not write 
the choppy, brief statement of facts which is the present day vogue in 
newspaper writing; they tell the story, but paint a picture of it. That 
was what Eaton always did. There was nothing matter-of-fact or com- 
monplace in what he wrote. He sparkled and glowed and stuck out either 
with humor or pathos. He never was dull : he couldn't be if he tried. 

* * * 

For the past dozen years Virgil Eaton had not been active in newspaper 
work and the last half dozen had lived in retirement at his farm in South 
Brewer, writing occasional articles for Boston, Xew York papers, the 
Lewiston Journal and for magazines. His health has been constantly failing 
and his friends have, for the past year, realized that his time here was limited. 

Before going into the newspaper business he had a varied career. He 
went abroad for a bit and some of his experiences there would make interest- 
ing copy. He never wrote of them ; never used them as the foundation for a 
story. That was one of his peculiarities, he never drew on his own experi- 
ences to furnish material for his pen, depending entirely upon observations 
of what others did for his plots and ideas. 

He gathered his education, or rather the foundation for it, for his great 
education was obtained in the school of experience and travel, in the public 
schools of Prospect and at the Eastern Maine seminary at Bucksport. In 
those student days he attracted attention. He was both the pride and 
despair of the seminary authorities. This information I obtained not from 
him, but from the late Henry E. Wing of Lewiston, who was a schoolmate 
of his there. Eaton's ability to assimilate lessons and to think up practical 
jokes kept the teachers busy. After leaving the seminary he taught school 
for a while and then decided to go into newspaper work— he did not call it 
journalism. Nothing aroused his ire quicker than to refer to him as a jour- 
nalist. He never cared for the title "editor." To be a good reporter was 
the one thing he aspired to and in this, tho he never admitted it, he succeeded. 
His first job was with the Globe in Boston. At that time the Globe was 
not the great newspaper it is today. Col. Taylor was building it up. For a 
time Eaton was assigned to district work. His efforts there attracted atten- 
tion, but it was not until one day when he was sent out to do a story on a 
storm that his reputation was established. That storm story was different. 
Boston had never read anything like it. It started talk and Virgil Eaton 
ceased duty as a district man. 

From that time on his rise was rapid. It would be impossible to tell 
even half the big stories which he did. The stunts which he put thru were 
astonishing, especially when it is recalled that the telephone was not used 
as it is today. 



84 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Sporting men of the old, old days will recall the great battle between 
Ike Weir, the Belfast Spider, and Heverland, but they never knew how close 
the Globe came to being beaten on that yarn. The fight was pulled off in 
secret and a rival paper was in on the proposition. The Globe got a tip but 
too late to rush men to the fight. Eaton was assigned to get the story. In 
company with a stenographer he haunted the railroad station where those 
returning from the bout must arrive in Boston. When the fight crowd came 
in he got one of them, a veteran authority on boxing, took him to a cafe 
and while they ate the sporting man described the fight, round by round 
and blow by blow. This was taken down by the stenographer, who rushed 
back to the office, transcribed it and it went into the paper that morning. 
While the stenographer was doing his work, Eaton wrote a picturesque lead 
describing the scenes of the battle. The story could have been but little 
better had the Globe been able to get a man to the bout. At that time Eaton 
was. doing special work for the Xew York Herald in Boston. He wired them 
a story of the fight. The Herald's appreciation took the form of a personal 
compliment from James Gordon Bennett, the gift of a diamond stick pin 
and a substantial bonus in cash. It also brought Eaton the offer of one of 
the biggest assignments which the Herald ever gave a man. He declined to 
accept it because he believed it belonged to another man. That shows his 
sense of fair play. 

I note that the story sent out of Bangor says that Eaton toured the 
World with General Grant. He may have : but for twelve years I was closely 
associated with him and for the last dozen years have seen him frequently. 
He never boasted or bragged of his work, the things he told came out in 
the course of conversation and what I am writing today is the putting to- 
gether of fragments of conversation covering a period from 1892 to last 
November. In that time I never heard of his going with Grant. He did 
tour Europe with Blaine. That, I think, was what was meant. 

* * * 

.Probably the biggest job Eaton ever did in Maine was, many years ago, 
when he came down into York County from the Globe and exposed the 
tramp scandal. This was where certain officials were in a deal with tramps 
to arrest them, send them to jail for brief terms, dividing the fees with the 
tramps. It was a gold mine while it lasted, but Eaton, disguised as a hobo, 
got the yarn and the jig was up. 

His sense of humor was as large as he and he was a veritable giant. 
His black eyes would twinkle at anything on that line even tho a joke be 
on himself. Probably no story which he ever wrote gave him so much satis- 
faction as one telling of the devastation of Maine forests by the cutting of 
fir for use at Christmas. The Department of Agriculture took it up and 
got very excited before the absurdity of the thing was really discovered. 

For many years he wrote regulaly for the Sunday Xew York Sun. His 
stories were fiction, but in the form of news. There were tales of bears 
and of fish and of all sorts of things. He it was who originated the story 
of bears in northern Maine climbing telegraph poles and pulling down the 
wires in their efforts to find the honey in the poles, the buzz of the wire 
causing them to think a hive of wild bees were in the poles. An English 
magazine took this up and illustrated the article. 



VIRGIL G. EATON 8=5 



In 1889, when the electric railroad was put in operation in Bangor Eaton 
wrote a story for the Daily Xews which created great excitement. He 
related the dangers and benefits of riding on the cars. As a result of it 
every sufferer from rheumatics and other diseases who could do so piled on 
the cars and rode to be cured by the wonderful electricity which escaped 
from the motors. At the same time everybody who had a watch was greatly 
disturbed as to the effect of this escaping current on the time pieces. 

He wrote for many of the leading magazines articles of a scientific 
nature, as well as fiction. His grasp of affairs and of general knowledge was 
wonderful. He never forgot a thing once he read it. 

His political foresight was wonderful and his judgment of men could 
not have been exceeded. His style of writing was peculiar, yet charming. 
It ought to have reminded one of Dickens, yet it was only at times that it 
did. It should have for Dickens was his favorite author. He made a rule 
to the very last to read Dickens thru and thru once each year. 

At the cheerful old farmhouse in South Brewer where he lived Eaton 
had a collection of gifts, from desks to binoculars which he had received 
as tokens of appreciation from newspapers and others for service rendered. 

He loved books and yet not in the way that others do. He loved them as 
books, not as a show, and had hundreds of them. In no way can I better 
illustrate what I mean than by the following incident : Some years ago I 
was looking up a matter and it became necessary to secure certain informa- 
tion, which it seemed only Eaton could provide. I drove down to his farm 
and stated my case. He listened and then said : "Why, I've got just the book 
you want, come up to my library and I'll get it for you." With that he led 
the way up Into the attic, where stood great numbers of flour barrels, each 
one filled with books. Walking to one of them he dug down and drew forth 
the volume he wanted. All his books were stored that way, instead of on 
shelves, yet he know in exactly which barrel each book was. He needed no 
index to find the volume desired on any subject or at any time. 

Of Virgil G. Eaton it can be said: He was one of the most delightful of 
men, absolutely loyal to his paper and his friends, who forgot his enemies 
and remembered only those he loved. 



PAN 

In Memoriam, Virgil G. Eaton 

Stalwart and massive, so ruggedly strong 

His proportions suggested a big native pine, 

Towering through cycles, impressively long, 

Above all his fellows, this great Pan of mine. 

Sterling and orthodox, sound to the core, 
His reeds never piped a demagogue lay, 

And nothing, I think, ever tickled him more 
Than to startle a dreamer out of his way. 



SO bFKAUU.b/b JULKiNAL, Ut MAWNh, JrilSlOKY 



Conservative? Yes, a trifle, perhaps; 

You see, old things always suited him best, 
Old friends and old inns, old roads and old maps, 

Penobscot better than anywhere West. 

The hollyhocks there by the old cottage door, 

The bluets and buttercups down by the spring 

Will miss their companion and lover of yore, 
And so will each bird he ever heard sing. 

This is the reason we liked him so well, 

He was real as the turf upon which we tread. 

He knew every herb, every sprig in the dell, 

The haunts by the wood-folk most frequented. 

The vain and the heedless, who care not for rhyme, 

For Nature's sweet lessons may scoff at them still, 

But some of us yet love posies and thyme — 
In "Poordock" and "over to Perkins' mill." 
Portland. Eugene Edzvards. 



GEORGE C. WING 



It is not often that a man in the full vigor of his life work is 
publicly honored in quite a remarkable manner by his friends and 
fellow citizens. Yet this is just what happened to Judge George C. 
Wing of Auburn, Maine at the DeWitt hotel in Lewiston, Maine, 
April 23, 1918. The occasion was the fiftieth anniversary of his 
life as a lawyer and member of the Androscoggin bar. 

Dana S. Williams was toastmaster, and congratulatory addresses 
were delivered by George McCarthy, Judge Newall, Judge Manson. 
Hon. F. A. Morey, Joseph G. Chabot and Justice Dunn of the 
Supreme Judicial Court of Maine. Among the letters and tele- 
grams received from absent friends were those from Congressman 
Wallace H. White, Forest E. Ludden, John A. Morrill (now Judge 
of the Supreme Court), Justices George E. Bird, Warren C. Phil- 
brook, Arno W. King and Chief Justice Leslie C. Cornish. Judge 
Wing's response was a happy one from which we make the follow- 
ing excerpts : 

There are in this world things that money cannot buy, for which terms 
of commercial value are inappropriate, and which language fails to describe 
Iheir worth. And there are debts incurred that nothing known to the human 



GEORGE C. WING 87 



mind can repay, satisfy or cancel. Your confidence, your manifestations of 
respect, your great kindness to me have touched me tenderly, and I am re- 
warded over and over again for every effort I have made during the struggle 
cf life covering a half century, and for whatever of success I have attained. 
And I here and now confess judgment in your favor for all my indebtedness 
to you which covers all my belongings, mental and material. 

My appreciation of you and each of you is most sincere and while I 
make no clamor of expression I assure you that the depth of my feeling of 
gratitude is beyond my power of embodying in utterance. From the bottom 

of my full heart I sincerely thank you. 

* * * 

Fifty years — a half century — what does it mean when we consider the 
changes wrought during that time in every department of life and effort? 
It means everything that we now regard as of value or of practical utility, 
but it seems like a "watch in the night" when it is past, and as yesterday. 

Fifty years ago yesterday I left my home in Livermore and came to 
Auburn, a lonely passenger on a stage coach that at that time made the trip 
every other day from Livermore Falls to x\uburn on the west side of the 
river. I had taught school a part of every year after I was sixteen and had 
earned a reputation as a capable manager of surly boys, or young men, and 
a good teacher. I had read and studied law in a country- office and had 
devoured the contents of all the text books it contained, but knew very' little 
of the practical application of that with which my memory was stored. I 
was familiar with Blackstone and to this day have derived pleasing and con- 
vincing proof of the dignity of the common law from the writings of the 
greatest lawyer of his time. I had read the cases in the Maine reports where 
subjects of the greatest interest to me had been determined by our own court, 
but T was a good deal of a boy, without the benefit of attendance at jury 
trials in court, and it is needless to say that when I sought out the examining 
committee and presented my certificates of character and of the time I had 
spent in study, there was a very large and very hot lump in my throat. 

The examining committee was composed of Judge Enos T. Luce, John 
W. May and Augustus M. Pulsifer. 

Judge Wing is one of the best known lawyers and publicists of 
Maine. At this time the Lewiston Journal summed up his past 
activities as follows : 

He was actively engaged in obtaining the conveyance to the city of Au- 
burn by the owners of the Edward Little institute of the land forming the 
Edward Little park, and establishing the Edward Little high school The 
conveyance was made on his birthday, April 16, 1874. 

In March, 1876, with Ara Cushman, John T. Randall, Henry Willis. 
Moses Crafts, Francis M. 'Jordan and John F. Cobb, all of whom are now 
dead, the National Shoe & Leather bank was incorporated, and from the date 
of its incorporation until now he has been a director. 

For several years he was director of the Auburn Horse Railroad 
company, formed in 1881. 

In 1884 he formed the Lewiston & Auburn Electric Light company, and 
was its first president. 



OO OJrJXr\V_rL..Cv O JULR.N^L. VJ r -Vl.fA±i.\H, ELlOlwai 



Actively engaged in the location and erection of the Soldiers' monument. 
The inscription on the monument is of his own composition. 

Was largely instrumental in obtaining a government post office in Auburn, 
and it was thru his personal effort that the gift of the library was obtained 
from Andrew Carnegie. 

Has been a member of the Auburn school board for several years and 
several times has been elected city solicitor. 

Was for a great many years a trustee and treasurer of the Mount Auburn 
Cemetery corporation. 

A member of all the Masonic bodies, the Mystic Shrine, the Knights of 
Pythias, a member of the Maine Historical society and of the Sons of the 
American Revolution. He was a member of the Senate of Maine in 1903. 

President of the Androscoggin Bar association since February, 1902, and 
from 1913 to 19T5 was president of the Maine State Bar association. Is now 
a member of the American Bar association. 

A trustee of Colby college since 1901, and in 1909 the college conferred 
upon him the degree of Doctor of Laws. 

Director of the Portland & Rumford Falls railway from the date 
of its organization until it was leased to the Maine Central railroad. 

The first president of the Auburn board of trade as now constituted. 

Organized in 1886, the Auburn Home for Aged Women, and since that 
date has been an officer of the corporation, and for many recent years its 
president. The present spacious Home was built under his administration. 



JOSIAH BACON MAYO 

Born in Freeport, Maine, Feb. 19, 1826 — Died in Foxcroft, 
Maine, Sept. 17, 19 18. 

Among the pioneers in the woolen manufacturing industry in 
eastern Maine, was John Gould Mayo. He was of English descent 
and his ancestors were among the first settlers of Ackworth, in 
Sullivan County, New Hampshire. He moved to the State of 
Maine about 1820 and resided in Freeport, Denny sville and other 
places in this state until about 1846 when he located in Foxcroft 
and established a small woolen mill, the firm being Mayo, Bush and 
Hale. 

In 1853 having purchased his partners' interests he with his 
son Josiah reorganized under the firm name of Mayo & Son. It 
developed into a large business and retained this name as a partner- 
ship and later as a corporation until it was recently purchased by 
the American Woolen Company. 



JOSIAH BACON MAYO 



89 



m'.#ys&tw& 8Pg 




Ql 



&&*kc 



L; \»g t 



€1 



Josiah Bacon Mayo 

Josiah Bacon Mayo attended the village schools of Kennebunk 
and the private school of Dr. Patten in Edmunds, and graduated 
from the Foxcroft Academy. John G. Mayo died December 9, 1879 
after which the business was conducted by Josiah B. and his brother 
John G. Mayo. Jr. In 1895 ne retired from the business and was 
succeeded by his son. Co'. Edward J. Mayo. He and Maj. Walter 
J. Mayo carried it on until the sale to the American Woolen Co. 
He married, Sept. 5. 1848, Eliza Ann Sprague of Pembroke, Maine, 
whose death occurred at Foxcroft Jan. 10. 1909. Their children 
have been Eliza M., now Mrs. Eliza M. Chase, of Portland and 
Edward J., now living, and George Frederick and Mary Ellen, both 
deceased. 

Mrs. Mayo was a descendant of Col. John Allan 1 of revolution- 
ary fame and whom Gen. Washington appointed Superintendent of 
the Maine Indians during the Revolution. 



i 



(*) See Journal Vol. 2, pp. 233-257. 



90 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY - 

Mr. Mayo held interests in other woolen mills in Maine and 
Massachusetts and other states and was well and favorably known 
among his associates throughout New England for his integrity and 
upright dealings. 

He was director in the old Bangor and Piscataquis R. R. now a 
part of the Bangor and Aroostook system, and in 1889 was one of 
the principal promoters of the Dexter and Piscataquis R. R. and 
its president until the time of his death. He was deeply interested 
in the Foxcroft Academy, and from the first a liberal supporter of 
the Good Will Home, for many years one of its trustees. He was 
a member of the Foxcroft Congregational Church; Mosaic Lodge 
F. & A. M. ; Maine Piscataquis R. A. C. ; Kineo Lodge I. O. O. F. 
and El Dorado encampment, and of the Piscataquis club. While 
declining to hold any political offices he was always an active mem- 
ber of the republican party and a delegate from Maine to its national 
convention in Cincinnati in 1876. 

Broad and liberal in his views of men and things, ever unassum- 
ing, kind and polite to all, he was in every sense a real gentleman and 
his friends were many and from every walk in life. 

At the funeral services his pastor the Reverend John H. Wilkins 
was the officiating clergyman and his life long friend Reverend 
George W. Hinckley of Good Will Home spoke in eulogy of his 
life career which was a beautiful and eloquent tribute to his memory. 

He was a good citizen, a good man, a true friend. His methods 
in life helped to promote happiness and not despair among his 
fellow men. 



GEORGE E. MAYO 



The sudden death by pneumonia of George E. Mayo at Foxcroft 
September 27, 1918, son of Colonel Mayo and grandson of Josiah 
B. Mayo was a sad occurrence. He was born in Foxcroft and was 
33 years of age. His home had been in that town until about two 
years ago when he removed to Pittsfield, Maine and was General 
Manager of woolen mills there. He was a director in the Lock- 
wood Co. of Waterville, Maine and a capable and energetic business 
man. He was a member of Mosaic Lodge F. & A. M., of Piscata- 
quis R. A. C. and a member of the Piscataquis Club. 



ALBERT RUSSELL SAVAGE 91 

JOHN H. DANFORTH 

The community of Dover-Foxcroft on Sept. 30, 1918 sustained 
another severe loss in the death of John H. Danforth, son of Dana 
H. and Margaret (Clark) Danforth. He was born in La Grange, 
Maine, July 26. 1892 and had for several years resided in Foxcroft. 
Business and social circles and two homes were saddened by the 
untimely death of this young man. He was a member of Mosaic 
Lodge, F. & A. M.. of Foxcroft Chapter R. A. M., and the Piscata- 
quis Club. 



ALBERT RUSSELL SAVAGE 

It is not fulsome praise to say that the late Albert Russell Savage, 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Maine, was one of 
the greatest of Maine's able and honored men who have held that 
high position and was everywhere recognized as one of the most 
notable jurists of Xew England. 

We herewith append the following response of the Court de- 
livered by Chief Justice Cornish of the Supreme Judicial Court of 
Maine at the special session of the Law Court held in honor of his 
memory : 

Chief Justice Savage, in whose loved memory we are met today, stepped 
so suddenly from the chamber we call life into the chamber we call death, 
which we believe is but another room in the house of the good Father, that 
he almost seems not to have left us, and it fs with difficulty that we can 
realize his departure He had returned to his home in Auburn on Monday. 
June nth, from the law court in Bangor, where he had seemed as well as at 
any time during the past three years, and had presided over the session of 
that court with his accustomed grace and dignity. On Tuesday and Wednes- 
day he was busy with his judicial work, hearing causes in chambers, and 
preparing an extended note in a case pending the law court where there had 
been a divergence of views. On the day before he passed away he wrote out 
in his own clear and beautiful hand a decision in a matter that he had 
recently heard, dated it the following day, Thursday, June 14, 1917, and left 
it on his desk awaiting his return next morning. But next morning, instead 
of returning to the courthouse and to his chambers, which by long association 
had become so dear to him, without warning, without pain his spirit took 
its flight from the burdening body, and after many years of honorable and 
honored labor he was at rest. 

Chief Justice Savage was truly a product of northern \ T ew England, 
born in Vermont, educated in Xew Hamp-hire, his life work developed and 



92 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



completed in Maine, he was the very embodiment of the characteristics of 
our northern country. Towering and majestic like its mountains, placid 
and equable like its lakes, with a depth of reserved power like its noble 
•rivers, his nature could and did drink in the joys and the pleasures of a 
verdured June, or submit in silent strength and resignation to the sorrows 
and disappointments of a bleak and drear November. His birth place was 
Ryegate, Vermont. 

Judge Savage was born en December 8, 1847. His father was a farmer, 
and there, in that remote rural community the boy grew up amid all those 
typic surroundings, which may then have seemed to him like privations, but 
which in reality were rich blessings. Industry, prudence, thrift, rational 
ambition, and patience, these constituted the environment. He was fond of 
recounting his early days upon the farm and looked back upon them with 
appreciation of their formative value. His college was Dartmouth, an insti- 
tution which has given three chief justices to Maine. 

During his college course and after graduation he taught in northern 
New Hampshire and northern Vermont: and as we jouneyed together from 
Montreal to Portland a few years ago, he pointed out to me in a reminiscent 
mood, one of the districts in which he had taught while in college. He then 
studied law and was admitted to the bar of Androscoggin county at the 
April term, 1875, ar, d for more than forty-two years he upheld the best 
traditions of that bar and of the profession. As a practising attorney from 
1875 to 1897, a period of twenty-two years, his rise from rather small be- 
ginnings was constant, until he was recognized as one of the leaders of the 
bar in the state. Those present here today who were his associates or his 
adversaries in many a hard-fought battle know full well the strength of his 
honorable warfare. Amid his many professional cares, however, he found 
time to serve in varied positions of public trust, in all of which he proved 
his capacity for administrative and judicial labor, while at the same time 
his own experience was broadening and his intellectual equipment was devel- 
oping. 

During this period, too. he prepared, and, on January 1, 1897, he pub- 
lished, the first volume of his Index Digest of the Maine Reports, a task 
that consumed the hours which others were devoting to rest or recreation, 
and thereby he made the profession his acknowledged debtor. It was a 
work which proved the analytical qualities of his mind, and greatly enhanced 
his legal reputation 

The dominant element in Judge Savage's character was untiring indus- 
try. Voltaire's motto, "Always at work," was his. He had the capacity 
for unremitting mental labor, and he exercised that capacity to the full. 
"Nulla dies sine linea." Physically he was inclined to be indolent, mentally he 
was ever active, and herein lay the source of his strength. Each year brought 
growth in legal knowledge and intellectual power, as the giant oak acquires 
each twelve months its circle of added fibre. In his chambers, he was always 
busy, and when the day's work was finished and his books and his pen laid 
aside, he would devote hours to the solution of an intricate picture puzzle. 
or commit to memory a page of his favorite, Shakespeare. During the last 
years of his life he mastered several of the plays of the great dramatist, and 



ALiSJLKl KUbMiLL bAVAUk . 93 



could recite them verbatim, a task of magnitude. On his desk, right at hand, 
he always kept the well-thumbed volume. 

In 1909 he brought out his supplemental index digest, finding time 
therefor amid his exacting judicial labors. 

To this talent for work, which is but another name for genius, we must 
add an open mind and an innate love of justice. If he had prejudices, he 
concealed them. I doubt if he possessed any. His single thought was to dis- 
cover the way the light of legal truth leadeth. And so, with this legal mind 
constantly in training, his strength waxed with the years, and he advanced 
by steady strides into the ranks of Maine's great judges. 

At nisi prius he was welcome in every county. He was popular in the 
only true and desirable sense, in that popularity with him was a result and 
not a motive. He presided over the trial of a cause before a jury with ease 
and grace and dignity. He spoke infrequently. His words had therefore 
the greater weight. With his full mind he was able to rule promptly and 
squarely, thus expediting the cause, while always giving the aggrieved party 
his right of exception. He never feared exceptions. I have often heard 
him say that he was glad when exceptions were taken to a doubtful ruling, 
because if it was wrong he wished it to be made right. His charges to the 
jury were simple, clear, informing, not essays on abstract law, but plain 
talks to plain men on the issues before them. He was master of the situa- 
tion. He looked the part and he acted the part. He was free from all 
exhibitions of temper. He never seemed to be irritated himself, and he 
never irritated others. I never in my life saw any signs of anger in him. 
He was patient, kindly, courteous; yet there was an underlying firmness 
which, though not obtrusive, was silently manifest. It was felt, rather than 
seen. In his personal relations the same was true. There was a feeling of 
friendship, but somehow, except to a chosen few, it stopped just short of 
familiarity. 

He sat with nineteen different judges in the law court, beginning as a 
junior with Chief Justice Peters. His first published opinion was Rhoades 
v. Cotton, announced only one month after his appointment, and appearing 
in 90 Me., 453, 38 Atl., 367. His last was State v. Jenness, announced only 
a week before his death. This will appear in 116 Me., 100, Atl., 933. Twenty- 
seven volumes therefore contain the result of his appellate work. They 
aggregate 434 full opinions, in addition to 63 per curiam rescripts, a total 
of nearly five hundred decisions, representing his contribution to the juris- 
prudence of our state. 

Judge Savage had a singularly happy style. He developed his opinions 
so logically and so lucidly that they marched straight on to the conclusion, 
and they were easy reading even for a layman. His pen ran smoothly. He 
sought no display of learning, but the learning was disguised in terms of every- 
day understanding. He often made his points in sharp succession. He hit 
the nail with every blow and the wood was left unscarred. This was espe- 
cially true of his later opinions, in some of which the use of conjunctions is 
almost dispensed with, and no verb is far separated from its nominative. 
He did not seek the startling expression, and yet, sometimes he bordered on 
the epigrammatic. In one of his last opinions, Bixler v. Wright, 116 Me., 
133, ico Atl., 467. a case involving fraud in the sale of goods, we find these 



94 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



words, which are characteristic not only of his literary style, but of the 
man himself; "The law dislikes negligence. It seeks properly to make the 
enforcement of men's rights depend in very considerable degree upon whether 
they have been negligent in conserving and protecting their rights. But the 
law abhors fraud. And when it comes to an issue whether fraud shall pre- 
vail or negligence, it would seem that a court of justice is quite as much 
bound to stamp out fraud, as it is to foster reasonable care." 

I cannot close without a brief reference to the personal appearance of 
Judge Savage, so familiar to us, but unknown to those who may read these 
words in after years. Of commanding height, with a fully developed and 
well-rounded figure, and an upright carriage, he was indeed a king among 
men. Whenever and wherever he represented the court we were proud of 
him. His figure was imposing and his countenance strong and fine. He was 
moderate in movement, moderate, too, in speech. His voice was deep and 
rich as a cathedral bell with a peculiarly sympathetic quality that was most 
charming. It attracted and held attention. Usually reserved and dignified, 
yet when that kindly smile illumined his face you were made an instant 
friend. He loved companionship and the society of congenial associates. 
He was a welcome visitor at the fireside, and after an evening's talk before 
the open fire one was impressed with the sweetness as well as the strength 
of his character. He was singularly modest. Publicity he disliked and 
avoided. He met with personal bereavements in the loss of family far beyond 
the lot of any man within my acquaintance, but no one ever heard him 
utter a word of complaint. With him tribulation indeed worked patience. 
It softened him and made him tender. 



DAVID DINSMORE STEWART 

David Dinsmore Stewart who died at his home in St. Albans. 
Maine, December 3, 191 7, was for a quarter of a century regarded 
as the nestor of the Maine bar and was in many ways a remarkable 
man. He retained his mental vigor until the hour of his death, being 
then in the ninety-fifth year of his age, having been born in Corinna, 
Maine, Oct. 22, 1823. 

He attended the common schools of his native town and later 
was a student in Colby and Bowdoin colleges. He commenced the 
practice of law in that village in 1847 and continued it there for 
seventy years. 

St. Albans is one of Maine's thrifty farming towns but in those 
days and for many years later it was a stage coach and tote team 
centre, hence a desirable location at that time for a young lawyer 
beginning his career. He was a great lawyer in every sense of that 
term. 



JOHN B. MADIGAN 95 

He acquired such an extensive practice in that little country vil- 
lage that he amassed a fortune large for any lawyer in either city 
or country town practice, and what was an amazing one for a coun- 
try lawyer. 

With him it never was a case of Mohammed going to the moun- 
tain, the mountain always went to him. It had to. His ability and 
integrity as an attorney were fully understood all over Maine and 
his clientage extended into all parts of the state. 

And yet in the early days of his busy life he found time to at- 
tend to republican politics, was a member of the Maine legislature. 
and in 1864 president of the Senate. He had however little taste 
for the life of a politician. The law was his mistress and he was 
faithful to her demands for a period that covers life's allotted span. 



JOHN B. MADIGAN 

Judge Madigan was born in Haul ton, Maine, January 4, 
1863 and died there Jan. 19, I9l8> 

As a boy he attended the public school of Houlton and graduated 
from Ricker Classical Institute. He also attended St. Joseph's Col- 
lege, a preparatory school in New Brunswick. He then attended 
Georgetown University and upon graduating entered Boston 
University, completing the course there in 1886. He first com- 
menced practise with his brother Albert Madigan forming a part- 
nership with him as Madigan and Madigan. Upon the death of 
his brother he formed a partnership with Hon. Leonard Pierce, and 
was a member of the legislature in 1889. He was one of the most 
forceful and eloquent public speakers in this state. 

He served for a time on the International Commission on the St. 
John River. He was appointed a member of the Supreme Judi- 
cial Court of Maine by Gov. Curtis, March 15, 1916. 

He was a highly esteemed citizen not only in his own town but 
in all parts of Maine as well. 

When his death occurred Honorable Leslie C. Cornish of Au- 
gusta. Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Maine, paid 
him the following tribute : 

Judge Madigan was one of the strongest men of Maine. With sound 
legal learning, broad experience in business affairs, accurate judgment, with 
a well poised, judicial mind and love of justice, he came to the bench admira- 



96 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



bly equipped for the work. In his less than two years of service he proved 
his faculties for the position in every way and acquired a firm place in 
respect and admiration of the legal profession of this state, a respect and 
admiration which the years would have increased. 

His lovable personality won deep affection with the associates of the 
bench and we al! are stunned by the blow. 

A beautiful tribute was paid him in the sermon of Rt. Rev. Louis 
S. Walsh, D. D., Bishop of Portland, at the funeral mass held at St. 
Mary's church, Houlton, Jan. 24, 1918. 



SETH M. CARTER 



Bom in lVatcrz<Ulc. Maine, July 23, 1834, and died in Auburn, 
Maine, Jan. =,, igiS. 

He was the son of A. Warren and Ada May Carter. He was 
graduated from Bowdoin in 1875 and received the degree of A. M. 
from Bowdoin in 1878. 

Immediately following his graduation he commenced the study 
of law, and was admitted to the Androscoggin bar in 1877. He 
became a member of the firm of Frye. Cotton and White, of which 
the senior member was U. S. Senator William P. Frye. Hon. 
John B. Cotton, former assistant attorney general of the L^nited 
States and Wallace H. White were the other members with Mr. 
Carter. Upon Mr. Cotton's removal to Washington, Senator Frye 
withdrew from the firm which has since been continued as White 
and Carter. 

Mr. Carter was city solicitor of Auburn and has been a member 
of the Governor's Council of Maine. He was chairman of the Re- 
publican State committee for a number of years and was a trustee 
of the Androscoggin County Savings bank and a director of the 
Somerset railroad. Mr. Carter made a specialty of corporation law. 
For a great many sessions of the legislature he represented the 
Maine Central Railroad Co. at Augusta. He was appointed receiver 
of the Rangeley Lakes and Sandy River railroad and was promi- 
nent in its reorganization. Since 1912, Mr. Carter has been general 
counsel of the Maine Central Railroad. He was a member of the 
county, state and national bar associations and was one of the 
tncorporators of the Maine Bar association. 

He was a man of high character and unquestioned integrity. 



WAINWRIGHT CUSHING 97 



WAINWRIGHT CUSHING 

By Edgar Crosby Smith 

Hon. Wainwright dishing of Foxcroft, one of the notable men 
of Maine passed to the higher life June 19 at 11.50 o'clock P. M. 
In his death the community and state suffers a great loss. Such 
men as Mr. Cushing can ill be spared and his passing is deeply 
deplored. 

Wainwright Cushing was the eldest child of Joseph W. and Anna 
■(Morrill) Cushing, and was born in Sebec, August 12, 1841. He 
was educated in the town schools and Foxcroft Academy and as a 
young man worked in his father's cloth mill at Sebec. In 1861 he 
enlisted in the Sixth Maine Regiment, Company A, and later re- 
enlisted in the First Maine Veterans, a company made up of the 
fifth, sixth and seventh Maine regiments. He served under Burn- 
side and Hooker at Williamsburgh, in front of Richmond, at the 
second battle of Bull Run, at Antietam and Fredericksburg and 
campaigned with Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley. He enlisted 
as a private, was twice wounded and was discharged as a lieutenant, 
July 5, 1865. At the conclusion of the war Mr. Cushing returned 
to Sebec and again took up work in the woolen mill as a dyer. In 
1869 he came to Dover where he was employed by the Brown 
Woolen company, having charge of the dye-house for 13 years. 

It was while engaged in this work that he conceived the idea of 
deve'oping a business entirely new to the world by perfecting house- 
hold dyes to take the place of the old family dye-pot. In this he 
was successful after experimenting for many years. In 1880 he 
commenced in a small way to put his product on the market under 
the name of Cushing's Perfection Dyes. For a few years they were 
known and used only locally, but every spare dollar was placed in 
judicious advertising and in about ten years after his modest be- 
ginning he was the possessor of a large and still growing business 
to which he devoted his entire time. 

Mr. Cushing was a valued and public spirited citizen and every 
worthy undertaking received his cordial support. He was a Repub- 
lican in politics and for six years, 1884-1890, was register of probate 
for Piscataquis county ; in 1895-6 he was a member of Governor 
Henry B. Cleaves' council. He was a 32d degree Mason and had 
served as worshipful master of Mosaic lodge and high priest of 
Piscataquis Royal Arch chapter. 



9« SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



He was always prominent and active in everything that related 
to the Grand Army of the Republic and in 1893 was department 
commander of the Department of Maine. At the time of his death 
he was state commander of the Loyal Legion. He had also held 
the office of commander of C. S. Douty post. No. 23. G. A. R. 
and colonel of Custer command, U. V. U. He was a member of 
the Sons of the American Revolution and in 1916 was president of 
the Maine society. 

Like all veterans of the Civil War. he was a great admirer of 
Abraham Lincoln, and one incident in his life was highly treasured 
and which he often related. It had to do with one of President 
Lincoln's visits to the wounded soldiers, and occurred while Mr.. 
Cushing was an inmate of a Washington hospital recovering from 
wounds received on the battlefield. The President came along 
beside his cot, inquired as to his condition and chatted with the 
wounded soldier for some minutes and left him with words of en- 
couragement and hope. 

Mr. Cushing took his recreation in travelling. This he thor- 
oughly enjoyed, and as his material wealth increased he satisfied thi » 
inclination. He had visited nearly every part of the LViited State:* 
and taken trips abroad. 

On October 20, 1866, Mr. Cushing was united in marriage with 
Flora A. Mclntyre of Scbec. He is survived by a son Caleb H. 
Cushing of Dover, and a daughter. Mrs. Walter J. Mayo of Fox- 
croft ; two sisters Mrs. Celia A. Prentiss and Mrs. Francis A. Ellis, 
both of Brighton, Mass., and a brother, William E. Cushing of 
Allston, Mass. 

For the past fifteen years Mr. Cushing had been affiliated with 
the Christian Science church. 

Funeral services were held at his late residence on Lincoln street. 
C. S. Douty post, G. A. R. conducted their service which was fol- 
lowed by the Christian Science service, conducted by Gorham H. 
Wood, Esq., of Bangor. 



EUGENE HALE— FRANK LAMBERT DINGLEY, LITT. D. 

Within the short period of 36 days of each other two of Maine's 
great men departed this life. Frank Lambert Dingley of Auburn 
died at his home in that city. September 21, 1918, and Eugene Hale 
of Ellsworth died in Washington, D. C, Oct. 27, 1918. 



EUGENE HALE— FRANK L. DINGLEY 99 

Mr. Dingley was born in Unity, Maine, Feb. 7, 1840, and Mr. 
Hale was born in Turner, Maine, June 9, 1836. Frank Dingley was 
a graduate of Bowdoin, was strictly a newspaper man and among 
the greatest of American editors and publicists of nation-wide fame. 

Eugene Hale was not a college graduate but from the public 
schools and Hebron Academy passed to the study of the law and 
became a lawyer of ability in his day and when a young man entered 
the political field and for 30 years as United States Senator from his 
state held a high place among the American statesmen of his time. 

We couple their names together for they belonged for a life 
time to the same political organization ; each loved and strove for 
what he conceived to be for the best interests of his state and his 
country and ec.ch had high ideals and were fearless in following and 
defending them. And yet they were often at variance in their dis- 
cussion of public questions of the day. 

Certainly no man in Maine and but few in the country was ever 
a nobler type of the radical than Mr. Dingley, and Eugene Hale's 
name will ever be a shining example among conservatives. 

As time passes and adjusts the problems which vexed them it 
may disclose that their differences were not as fundamental as they 
themselves believed, when in the heat of battle. Probably it will be 
seen that they arose from each standing at widely separated view 
points. 

The noble character and impregnable integrity of each as pub- 
licists was never assailed nor even suspected by their bitterest foes. 

In the history of the advancement of civilization we see stalwart 
leaders like these two Maine men upon its every page and they are 
immortals. It is such strong, positive characters as these, who, 
standing fearlessly in the ranks of both the conservatives and the 
radicals for many centuries in the past have been the impelling force 
in the progress of the Anglo Saxon race. 

There never has been and never can be but one test for true man- 
hood ; to dare to follow ones own honest convictions and dare to 
change when one is convinced that he is wrong. 

Dingley and Hale both loved the state of Maine, and wrought 
for her welfare and the people of Maine loved them and will ever 
cherish and revere their memory. 

Frank Lambert Dingley and Eugene Hale were noble sons of 
Maine. 



ioo SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



• On October 30. 1918, the following message of condolence was 
sent to U. S. Senator Frederick Hale, son of the deceased : 

In this, your hour of sorrow, as you mourn the death of your revered 
father, the late Senator Eugene Hale, who was so widely known and hon- 
ored, Governor Milliken and the members of the Executive Council desire 
to express to ycu and your mother not only their sincere sympathy, but the 
sympathy of the entire State as well. 



JOHN APPLETON, LL. D. 

Bom in Ipsnnch, N. H., July 12, 1804 — Died in Bangor, 
Maine, Feb. 7, 1S91. 

Another of Maine's eminent and really great jurists was John 
Appleton. He was admitted to the bar in 1826 and first commenced 
the practice of law in the village of Sebec in Piscataquis County, 
Maine. He was appointed to a seat on the bench in 1852, chief 
justice in 1862, and retired in 1883. 

He was a profound student of the world's best literature and 
during all of his busy life was as familiar with the classics, and with 
English, European and American works on these subjects as they 
were published as with those of his own profession. 

He was one. if not the very earliest, of law writers to agitate 
against the then existing evil in English jurisprudence in not allow- 
ing parties in criminal prosecutions to testify in their own behalf 
By incessant and persistent efforts as a writer he succeeded in this 
&nd lived to see his views adopted throughout his own country and 
other nations of the world. 

Another prominent Maine lawyer who also early espoused this 
cause and who was a co-laborer with Judge Appleton for the 
teform was the late Honorable Albert \V. Paine of Bangor. 

From Bibliography of Maine, by Joseph Williamson (Vol. 1. 
p 45) we append the following relative to his authorship as a writer 
upon legal subjects: Appleton, John, LL. D. 

Usury Laws. Am. Jur. 6:282. (1831). 

— Reports of cases determined in the Supreme Judicial Court of the 
State of Maine. By John Appleton. 

Maine Reports. Volume XIX. Hallowell: Glazier, Masters and Smith. 

1842. 8 vo. pp. 409, (1). 

' Maine Reports. Volume XX. Hallowell : Glazier, Masters and Smith. 

1843. 8 vo. pp. viii. (5), 10-511, (1). 

From pp. 1 to 256. by John Appleton, Volume VI. From pp. 257 to 511, 
by John Shepley, Volume VII. 



JOHN APPLETOX 



IOI 



The same. Second edition. Portland : Dresser, McLellan and Co. 1878. 

— Law of Evidence. Mass. Quar. Rev. 2:39. (1848). 

Review of Greenleafs Law of Evidence. 

— Judicial Oaths. Mass. Quar. Rev. 3:161. (1850). 

Review of "Bentham on Oaths," and "The Oath," by D. X. Junkin. 

— The Rules of Evidence Stated and Discussed. By John Appleton. jus- 
tice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Maine. Philadelphia: T. and W. 
Johnson & Co., law booksellers and publishers, 525 Chestnut Street, i860. 
8vo. pp. 284. 

Review by George S Hillard, Xo. Am. Rev. 92:515. (1861). The most 
remarkable thing about Chief Justice Appleton is his early adoption of the 
views of Jeremy Bentham and that school in regard to legal reform. He 
entered into this discussion with the greatest enthusiasm half a century ago. 




The D. L. Annis building in Sebec Village, Maine in which 
was the first law office of Chief Justice Appleton, indicated by X. 



and has never ceased with tongue and pen to advocate these doctrines. When 
he began this labor, it required no small courage to meet the scorn, contempt 
and even abuse of the legal profession. Such radical doctrines the lawyers 
all thought were worthy of a mad-house, and they were denounced with vigor 
and not seldom with venom. Xow all is changed. In every state of the 
Union, as well as in England, ancient and absurd rules of evidence have 
been altered, and common sense has full sway in the most important branch 
of jurisprudence. To no man living is the crelit due more than to John 
Appleton. Every Other Sat., Jan. 1884. 

— Testimony of parties in criminal prosecution. Letters in American 
Law Register, X. S., 4:577, (1865). 5:129, (1886). 

Reviewed and criticised, Am. Law. Reg. 6:385. (1867). 



102 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



The late General Charles Hamlin of Bangor in writing of Judge 
Appleton in the Green Bag (Vol. 7, p 513, 1895) says: 

The two fundamental reforms which he assisted in bringing about are 
those relating to the abolition of the District Court in Maine and the removal 
of the disability of parties as witnesses in their own behalf. 

In 1833 he began writing upon this subject to the "Jurist" and his 
articles were collected and published in i860 in Appleton on Evidence. In 
it will be found the arguments and discussions which finally led to the 
change by which parties to causes both civil and criminal are admitted to 
testify in their own behalf. This rule now prevails, with some modifications, 
in all the courts of the country, both State and National; and the credit of 
the same is due to Chief Justice Appleton, more than any other one man. 






VICTOR WELLS MACFARLANE. 

Sometime back in the late seventies the writer first met Major 
Macfarlane, at one of the hotels around Moosehead Lake, and the 
fact that he had previously written something for the Forest and 
Stream pertaining to the charms and attractions of the Moosehead, 
Monson and Elliottsville regions as a summer resort for tired city 
people led to our acquaintance. He was then a resident of either 
New York or Chicago and was spending his summer in Maine aa 
a "summer visitor.'" His love for Maine never grew less but 
increased as the years passed. He finally became a permanent 
resident of Greenville and was the first to establish the manufacture 
of veneer in eastern Maine. He was a man of great force and 
energy and abundant enthusiasm about whatever engaged his atten-. 
tion. Belonging to the same political organization and viewing many 
: pir^Hc questions from similar angles our relations were intimate and 
re! 1 1 . ined so until his death. 

We shall always cherish most agreeable memories of him. 

The following was prepared for the Maine Commandery of the 
Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States and read 
at the meeting held in Portland, Dec. 5th, 1917: 

Companion Victor Wells Macfarlane died in Reading, Mass., October 
!5» r 9 x 7- Living remote from headquarters of the Commandery he was 
able only occasionally to have a share in our meetings ; but his presence, when 
it was possible for him to be with us, was always welcome, and his fellow- 
ship in the order was loyally cherished by him to the last. 

He was born in Yonkers, Westchester county, N. Y., August 27, 1844. 
Both of his parents, Duncan and Mary Ann Macfarlane, were natives of 



- «r.r: 



VICTOR WELLS MACFARLANE 103 



Paisley, Scotland. From them he inherited those sturdy thrifty qualities 
which his father anl mother brought with them to this country when they 
sought for themselves a home on this side of the sea, settling at Yonkers. 
Here the son spent his early years. From the public schools in Yonkers he 
at length passed to the Peekskill Military Academy at Peekskill, N. Y. Here 
the opening of the Civil war found him receiving thorough military training, a 
litting preparation for such patriotic service as at that time comparatively 
few among us had. He was then, however, seventeen years of age. But a 
year later, on graduating from the academy, he at once sought active service, 
enlisting as a private in the well-known Seventh Regiment of the National 
Guard of Xew York. This was a three months' regiment; but at the end 
of this period the value of his service had been so fully recognized, that on 
being mustered out he was empowered to raise a company of volunteers, 
and was offered a commission as first lieutenant, mustering officer and 
adjutant of th? 172nd Regiment of the Xew York Infantry. He accepted 
the commission, and September 6, 1862, he was transferred to the 165th 
Regiment, Xew York Volunteers. His efficiency as a drill-master was now 
so well known that his services, outside of his regiment, were often sought 
and he was frequently on detached service. January 13, 1863, he was hon- 
orably mustered out; but in July, 1863, on the call of President Lincoln for 
additional troops, he joined the 17th Regiment X'ew York Xational Guard, 
and July 8th was made sergeant major of the regiment and major July 25, 
1863. At the expiration of the service of this regiment he was mustered out 
August 13, 1863. His eligibility to membership in this order was derived from 
his services in the 165th Xew York Volunteers, and he was elected a member 
through this commandery Sept. 3rd, 1902, his insignia number being 13,642. 

Following his war service. Companion Macfarlane engaged in business 
in Xew York City, giving his attention to his various interests there until 
1883. About that time he removed to Giicago, 111., where he enlarged his 
grain business of earlier years and was prominent in other enterprises. 
While in Chicago, he was connected with the Board of Trade. In 1890 on 
account of ill health he came to Maine and established a veneer manufactur- 
ing plant on the shores of Moosehead lake, employing a large number of 
workmen in this plant and in obtaining hardwood lumber in the neighbor- 
ing woods. The plant was destroyed by fire in 1905 but through his activities 
was rebuilt on a much larger scale. In 1910. Companion Macfarlane re- 
turned to Xew York and devoted himself to the sale of the output of sev- 
eral veneer and box factories. He was thus employed when laid aside by 
his late illness. 

In these various enterprises Companion Macfarlane was known as a 
stirring, energetic, progressive business man. He also took an active interest 
in the welfare of the communities in which he made his home. He was 
prominent also in matters pertaining to state and national affairs. In politics 
he was a Republican and in 1899 was elected member of the legislature of 
Maine as the representative from the Greenville class. In 1901 he was 
elected state senator from Piscataquis county. He was a man of genial and 
lovable personality and had a large acquaintance with prominent men in 
many circles in wide sections of our country. He was a member of the 
Army and Xavy club in New York and of the Masonic order. 



104 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Funeral services were held on October 17th at his late residence in 
Reading, Mass., and also on October 18th at St. Johns cemetery, Yoitkers, 
N. Y., where the burial took place. 

Companion Macfarlane was married May 24th, 1865, to Zanina Xelson, 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Xelson. of Peekskill, X. Y. To them one 
child was born, Cornelia Seymour Macfarlane now Mrs. Lyman Blair of 
Greenville, Maine. Mrs. Macfarlane died in April, 1903. On October 30th, 
1 9 I 3> Companion Macfarlane married in Xew York City, Blanche Elizabeth 
Bailey, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Bailey of Medford, Maine. 
who survives him. To her and the surviving daughter this commandery 
desires to make affectionate mention of remembrance and sympathy. 



JOHN E. BUNKER 



Deep regret was felt all over Maine when on Aug. 16, 191 8 the 
sad news was flashed over the wires that John E. Bunker had died 
at the Eastern Maine General Hospital. 

He was born in Trenton, Hancock County, Maine, April 24, 1866 
and received his early education at the East Maine Conference Semi- 
nar}- at Bucksport and the Coburn Classical Institute, YVaterville. 
He read law with Wiswell, King, and Peters at Ellsworth and 
entered Boston University Oct., 1890. 

He was for a time chief librarian of the law school library in 
that University. He was admitted to the bar Oct., 1892, and opened 
an office and practiced for some years in Bar Harbor. He was for 
nine years chairman of the Board of Selectmen of that town and for 
a time was Clerk of Courts for Hancock County. He was formerly 
a Republican in politics but later became a member of the Demo- 
cratic party and was Secretary of State during the administration 
of Governor Curtis. 

In 1916 he was the Democratic candidate for Congress in the 3d 
district. 

When the United States entered war with Germany, Governor 
Milliken appointed him Executive Secretary of the Maine Commit- 
tee of Public Safety and later appointed him chairman of the Public 
Utilities commission. He was active in fraternal orders taking an 
especial interest in Odd Fellowship. He was a Past Grand Master of 
the Grand Lodge (I. O. O. F.) of Maine and Past Grand Repre- 
sentative to the Sovereign Grand Lodge. He had a wide acquaint- 
ance and many friends all over Maine. 



Regarding Soldiers of the Ameri- 
can Revolution 



MAINE INDIANS IN THE REVOLUTION 

The following article signed "N. G." appeared in the Eastport.. 
Maine, Sentinel in its issue of June 2, 1897 : 

Our forefathers of the Revolution cared little for the previous condition 
of their comrades as long as they were fighting for the same independence. 
Shoulder to shoulder stood the white man, the negro, and the "Indian c5n 
many of the battlefields of the war and no American should hesitate for a 
moment from giving all credit for their services. 

Many of our ancestors may have been poor, perhaps rough, homespun 
men, but the results of their lives show that it is true that out of the rough- 
est work-shops of the world came the finest fabrics. The resolutions of their 
meetings prove that they were a type of manhood that our people will always 
delight to honor. Their hearts were right, what care we for their appear- 
ance? We judge them by the fruit of their lives. 

Many negro slaves entered the Revolutionary army with the understand- 
ing that in consideration of half their pay their masters were to give thefn 
their freedom. Parson Smith enlisted his slave under those terms, so did 
Parson Elvins of Scarboro and others. From Windham went the negroes 
Lonon Rhode, Flanders, Romeo, and Peter Smith, who did good service. 
Prince ran away from his master, Lieut. William McLellan. at Gbrham and 
went in Capt. Manley's privateer. He returned voluntarily to slavery, be- 
came a pensioner, and lived until he was a very old man. His old master 
provided for him in his declining years, which was just like the McLellaris. 

My ancestor served with Lonon Rhode, in Capt. Samuel Thomes' Com- 
pany, in Col. Benjamin Tupper's nth Massachusetts Regt. They were in the 
retreat from Fort Ticonderoga in July, 1777, and probably fought together 
in the battles of Hubbardton, Stillwater and Saratoga. On a return made at 
Valley Forge, in January, 1778, the following is the last account of those tw*o 
patriots, "Xathan Xoble, slain in battle Oct. 7, 1777," and Lonon Rhode died 
Dec. 9, 1777. Perhaps they received their death wounds the same day. Both 
of these men's names are on the Roll of Honor of the towns where they 
lived, and who would undertake to '"vdge of their services to their country 
by the standard of the color of their skins. The sacrifices of humble men 
were as noble as any in our country's history ard it is American to honor 
them for it. 

The province of Maine was fortunate in its Indians in the Revolution. 
The three tribes, Penobscots, Passamaquoddys and St. Johns, were true blue 
through it all, and rendered valuable aid to our cause. In the Maine society 
of the Sons of the American Revolution is a member, Sopiel Selmor, Chief 
of the Passamaquoddy Indians, of Pleasant Point, Perry, Me. He is he 



io6 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



son of Capt. Selmor Soctomah and Dennis Molly Selmor, and his father was 
a soldier and scout under Col. Allan at Machias, and rendered other valuable 
assistance in the War of the Revolution. Chief Sopiel Selmor is now a very 
old man, as he must be to be the son of a Revolutionary soldier, but he is the 
patriarch of his tribe yet. In his tribe is preserved an original letter written 
them by Gen. Washington from the banks of the Delaware river, the day 
before that Christmas day that he crossed amid the Moating ice. That day is 
one that old Marblehead is proud of because John Glover and his Cape Ann 
boys carried the army safely over, managing the boats as only Yankee fish- 
ermen can. 

The contents of that letter are as follows, and it reflects credit on the 
tribe that they have preserved it until this time. 

"Brothers of Passamaquodia : I am glad to hear by Major Shaw that 
you accepted the chain of friendship which I sent you last February from 
Cambridge and that you are determined to keep it bright and unbroken. 
When I first heard that you refused to send any of your warriors to my 
assistance when called upon by our brothers of St. John I did not know 
what to think. I was afraid that some enemy had turned your hearts 
against me. But I am since informed that all your young men were em- 
ployed in hunting, which was the reason of their not coming. This has made 
my mind easy and I hope you will always in future join with your brothers 
of St. John and Penobsccot when required. I have desired my brother the 
Governor of Massachusetts Bay to pay you the money which Capt. Smith 
promised you for sending my letters to the Micmack Indians. 

"Brothers : I have a piece of news to tell you which I hope you will 
attend to. Our enemy, the King of Great Britain, endeavored to stir up all 
the Indians from Canada to South Carolina against us. But our brethren of 
the Six Nations and their allies the Shawnees and Delawares. would not 
hearken to the advice of his messengers sent among them, but kept fast 
hold of the ancient covenant chain. The Cherokces and the Southern tribes 
were foolish enough to listen to them and take up the hatchet against us. 
Upon this our warriors went into their country, burned their houses, 
destroyed their corn and obliged them to sue for peace and give hostages 
lor their future good behavior. Now Brothers, never let the King's wicked 
counsellor turn your hearts against me and your brethren of this country but 
hear in mind what I told you last February and what I tell you now. 

"In token of my friendship I send you this from my army on the banks 
of the Great River Delaware, this 24th day of December, 1776. 

"George Washington." 

At the beginning of the war there was great anxiety felt lest the British 
agents should influence the Penobscot Indians against the colonists Steps 
were taken early to secure them to our cause. Capt. John Lane of Buxton, 
was selected as a discreet and suitable man to consult and enlist them in our 
fcehalf. In May. 1775, the Provincial Congress sent the tribe a letter in 
which they said "Our liberty and your liberty are the same, we are brothers. 
and what is for our good is for your good, and we, by standing together, 
shall make those wicked men afraid and overcome them and be all free men. 
Capt. Goldthwait has given up Fort Pownal to our enemies. We are angry 
at it and we hear you are angry with him and we don't wonder at it." 



bULIJI£.Kb Ut I tit AMLK1LAA KfcA ULL HU.\ IOJ 



Four Penobscot chiefs left Fort Pownal with Capt. John Lane June ioth. 
On June 14th, Samuel Freeman wrote from Watertown to his father, Enoch 
Freeman, at Falmouth Xeck, "I can't help thinking but that they (the In- 
dians) should be well treated, justice done them respecting their lands, etc., 
by which they now and forever be secured to the interests of the county." 
Capt. Lane was then here at Falmouth with Chief Orono, Joseph Pease, 
Poveris and one more, bound for Cambridge to the Provincial Congress. 
They were entertained and a chaise was provided to take them to their 
destination. Gen. Jedidiah Preble, chairman of the committee, sent with them 
a letter to Joseph Warren in which he said that he had furnished money to 
pay their expenses and that "Orono. the chief man, seems to be a sensible 
man and hearty in our cause." also, "We gave them assurances that they 
might depend upon being provided for while there as well as on their return 
back again, wished them a pleasant journey and that the event might be 
happy for them and us." In 1778, Joseph McLellan of Falmouth was voted, 
by the General Court, seven pounds for injury done his chaise by Capt. Lane's 
Indians. This damage was no doubt done in 1775. Drake says, "Only two 
days after the battle of Bunker Hill (June 19th ) there arrived in Cambridge, 
a deputation of Penobscot Indians of whom the celebrated Orono was chief." 
They went befDre the Congress and among other things said that they had 
a large tract of land which they had a right to rail their own and had pos- 
sessed it many years. These lands had been encroached upon by the English 
who had for miles, on the ends, cut much of the good timber. They also 
said that they had been much imposed upon by traders, and desired such 
evils be prevented, also requested that provisions, powder, etc., be sent 
among them which they would buy at reasonable prices. 

June 21st, the Congress recognized their claim to the land at the head 
of the tide on the Penobscot, extending six miles on each side of the river. 
Gen. Washington and the Congress both promised them that they should 
"enjoy the country" and told them that if anybody was to take their lands 
from them or if they heard of anything being done against them they would 
let them know of it. 

The following letter was probably written by Andrew Gilman, the inter- 
preter for the four chiefs after their return to Falmouth Xeck from Cam- 
bridge, although their names, as he wrote them, are different from what has 
come down to us. 

"Falmouth, July 4, 1775. 

"Sir: We have been here five days and did expect to go home with the 
supplies for our tribe in a sloop. But we are told Captain John Lane must 
return to Watertown before supply can be sent, we have agreed to go home 
in our canoes, though we should rather go in said sloop. We beg leave to 
let you know it is our desire that Captain Lane be appointed truck-master, 
with full power to redress any insults we may receive from the white people 
when we come in to trade. You may depend on our friendship and assistance 
if required. 

"We are your humble servants. 

"Olenah, 
"Messhall, 
"Josepri, 
"Pooler. 

"Andrew Gilman, Interpreter." 



io8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



The above letter is a testimonial to the patriotism, fidelity and honesty 
of John Lane, through whose efforts much was done that secured the friend- 
ship and aid of the Penobscot tribe to our forefathers in the -Revolutionary 
War. 

The Provincial Congress resolved, July 8th, 1775, to supply the Indians 
of the Penobscot with goods not to exceed in value, three hundred pounds 
and to take furs and skins in exchange. 

In September, 1775, the chiefs of the Penobscots and the St. John 
Indians held a conference and resolved "to stand together with our brethren 
of -Massachusetts and oppose the people of Old England that are endeavoring 
to take our lands and liberties from us." 

Capt. John Lane raised a company for the army and in it enlisted five 
Penobscot Indians, Soncier, Eneas, Sebatis. Metagone and Sewanockett. 
When Arnold's expedition marched up the Kennebec, in the Fall of 1775, 
three of Capt. Lane's Indians went as guides. Encos or Eneas and Sebatis 
went with a Mr. Jaquith on a secret errand, in advance with letters to friends 
of our cause in Canada and were successful, meeting the expedition on their 
return. The expedition, which consisted of about eleven hundred men, left 
Fort Halifax, Sept. 27th, and started on their march to Quebec with Sewan- 
ockett for their guides. In the Dead River region nearly one-third gave 
up in despair and returned to Cambridge. Arnold abandoned his batteaux 
and forced his way through the forests and swamps. The guides could 
not lead them out of the wilderness. They suspected treachery but became 
convinced the guides had lost their way. For thirty-two days no signs of 
human life met their eyes. The men suffered dreadfully from hunger and 
cold. On Xov. 3 they reached the first Canadian settlement on the river 
Chaudiere, and Point Levi, opposite Quebec. Xov. 9th. 

In 1818, Sewanockett applied for a pension and said that he was then 
ninety-five years of age ar.d had always been friendly to the whites, that he 
served in Capt. Lane's Co. and also in the Quebec expedition remaining with 
the army until the assault on the city, being honorably discharged in the 
middle of January. 1776. In 1779, he volunteered in the Bagaduce expedi- 
tion and stated that during the war he was in several skirmishes when several 
of his tribe were killed. 

In 1786, Massachusetts attempted to get some of the Penobscots' land 
from them and at the conference a chief stated that the tribe had been at 
Oldtown island 500 years and then that 350 blankets would give each of 
the tribe one. When an agent presented them a paper to sign relinquishing 
their lands they answered "We don't know anything about writing. All we 
know, we mean to have a right heart and a right tongue." The agents were 
unsuccessful. 

In 1796, the tribe gave up their claim to land on both sides of the river 
from Xichol's rock, in Eddington, the head of the tide, thirty miles up, 
reserving their islands in the river. This was done for a consideration. This 
land consisted of 189,426 acres and it was laid out into nine townships. By 
another treaty, in 1818, with Massachusetts, the tribe conveyed to that 
state all the remainder of their lands except the islands and four townships 
in consideration of a yearly annuity in goods worth about $1,500. Maine at 
the separation from Massachusetts agreed to fulfill the obligations of the 



SOLDIERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 109 



treaty, and, in 1833, purchased their remaining townships for fifty thousand 
dollars. 

The Penobscots were the Tarratines and anciently owned all the terri- 
tory watered by the Penobscot river. In 1625, the tribe were said to have 
numbered about eight thousand. In 1669, they were subdued by the Mo- 
hawks. Their lands have been encroached upon by the land grabber until 
all that remains to them are islands in the Penobscot river including Old- 
town island and all above it and attempts have been made to get those. The 
state holds a fund of theirs amounting to nearly seventy-four thousand 
dollars for which they are paid six per cent interest, which with their shore 
rents, of about three thousand dollars, with the appropriations from the state, 
leaves them in comfortable circumstances, much more so than the Passama- 
quoddys whose lands did not prove as valuable. 

Of chief Orono, Williamson said that he "was white in part" and "Orono 
had not the copper colored countenance, the sparkling eye, the high cheek- 
bones or tawny features of a pristine native. On the contrary, his eyes were 
of a bright blue shade, penetrating and full of intelligence and benignity. In 
his person he was tall, straight and perfectly proportioned; and in his gait 
there was a gracefulness which of itself evinced superiority. He was honesty 
chaste, temperate and industrious. To a remarkable degree he retained h\% 
mental faculties and erect attitude to the last years of his life. As he was 
always abstemious and as his hair was in his last years of a milky whiteness, 
he resembled in appearance a cloistered saint." His wife, who was a full 
blooded native, died several years after him. Orono died, Feb. 5, 1801, aged 
112 years. 

"For whiter Indians, to cur shame we see, 
Are not so virtuous nor humane as he. 
Disdaining all the savage modes of life, 
The tomahawk and bloody scalping knife. 
He sought to civilize his tawny race, 
Till death, great Ximrod of the human race, 
Hit on his track, and gave this hunter chase. 
His belt and wampum now aside he flung, 
His pipe extinguished and his bow unstrung. 
When countless mcon> their destined rounds shall cease, 
He'll spend an endless calumet of peace." 
The Penobscot tribe choose a governor, lieutenant governor and a dele- 
gate to the Legislature, to conduct their business. The state appoints an 
agent who has charge of their affairs and reports to the Legislature. The 
tribe have lived peaceably with their neighbors since the Revolution. They 
were never what could be called savage Indians and the white man has been 
much to blame whenever they have acted in that role. 

Our forefathers pledged their word with the Indian tribes of our state 
for peace, when war meant the destruction of their homes. They promised 
them protection in their lands, and they have but little to show for it today. 
The state and the Indians have suffered together in regard to their lands from 
the avarice of the white men but now there is no hope for either to recover 
them. History can only record the facts. Our ancestors promised little to 



no SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



the Indian considering what peace was worth to them. The Indians were 
faithful through the Revolution, when they had easy access to the enemy. 
now let us be faithful to them. The state should keep its trust with them as 
they did with us, and insist that they must always be honestly dealt with. 
They are not as we are, they are a different people, and we can afford to 
"be patient with them and take no advantage of their weaknesses. 

"The sum of Indian happiness ! — 
A wigwam, when the warm sunshine 
Looks in among the groves of pine, — 
A stream where, round the light canoe, 
The trout and salmon dart in view, 
And the fair girl, before thee now, 
Spreading thy mat with hand of snow, 
Or plying, in the dews of morn, 
Her hoe amidst thy patch of corn 
Or offering up, at eve, to thee. 
Thy birchen dish of hominy I" 

Andrew Gilman, the Penobscots' interpreter, seems to have been a man 
who had the respect and confidence of both the white man and the Indian. 
The following appointment shows in what estimation he was held at that 
time. The commission was given him while he was at Cambridge, as inter- 
preter for the Penobscot chiefs. 
"To Andrew Gilman, Gentleman : 

"We entertaining a good opinion of your prudence, courage, and good 
conduct, do appoint, and you the said Andrew Gilman are hereby appointed 
to the honorary title of Lieutenant ; and you are to be considered of that 
rank not only among the good people of this Province, but among all friends 
and brethren through the Continent; and we confide in your readiness to 
promote the common cause of America among our good brothers, the Indians 
of the several tribes which you may have an opportunity to be acquainted 
with, as well as with the inhabitants of the Province of Canada. 

"By order of the Congress. 
"Watertown, June 25, 1775." 

Lieut. Gilman was ordered by the President of the Congress to use his 
efforts to cultivate a friendly feeling with the Indians of St. Francois and the 
Canada Indians, and told him that he should receive a proper reward. When 
he was at Falmouth Xeck with the Penobscot chiefs on their way to Cam- 
bridge, in 1775, Enoch Freeman said of him, "One Mr. Gilman is their inter- 
preter who speaks their tongue freely and seems to be a clever young man." 
He is noticed as being on guard at Penobscot with ten Indians, Sept. 12th, 
1776. 

The following roll is of a company of Indians under the command of 
Lieut. Gilman in the Bagaduce Expedition of 1779. They were probably all 
Penobscots. They were actively engaged and from a soldier's diary we learn 
that one was killed July 25th, another Aug. 5th, when another was taken 
prisoner and probably there were others. This roll is a novelty in our Revo- 
lutionary history and service to remind us of the Indians' sen-ice in that war. 



- SOLDIERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION in 



"Pay Roll for a number of Indians for their services at Penobscot on 
the late expedition under command of Lieut. Andrew Gilman, made agreeable 
to a Resolve of the Gen'l Court of the 17th, Sept. 1779-" 

Andrew Gilman, Lieut., June 29th to Aug. 21st. 
John Xepron, July 15th to Aug. 21. Wine Meesor, 



French Mesor, 
Xepton Bow it, 
Soviss Molly, 
Soviss Many, 
Soviss Piece, 
Soctoner, 
Solomses, 
Poriss, 
Xatlanis, 
Matignois, 
Little Sabatis, 
Jam Holet, 
Joseph Eneas, 
Sebatis, 
Lonsor, 
Fran sway, 
Leard Osioro, 
Pernewett, 
Sacotiar, 
Peal Tocwaso, 



(1 


Francis Moxes, 


" 


Pearl Sock, 


i( 


Elqr Osson, 


u 


_ Orono, 


« 


Atlean, 


" 


Sowanockeg, 


» 


Pearl Xicholah, 


ft 


Obogan, 


" 


Joseph Cook, 


a 


Tomases, 


" 


Leeve, 


" 


Shannot, 


" 


Francis Joseph, 


" 


Sebatis Junr, 


23 days. 


Cawquish, 


10 " 


Atlianis Junr, 


33 " 


Lewey Venison, 


10 " 


Saocmiek, 


20 " 


Che Osson, 


20 " 





10 

10 

10 

5 

5 

3 

10 

6 

10 

5 
5 
5 
5 
10 

6 

15 
6 

3 



The Indians were paid 14 shillings per day. 

Boston, Oct. 4, 1779. 
"Suffold Ss. 

Personally appeared Lt. Andrew Gilman (the subscriber to this Roll) 
and made Oath that the same is just and true according to the best of his 
knowledge. 

Before 

Jonathan Metcalf, Justice of Peace." 

Massachusetts Archives, Vol. 37, Page 145. 

A monument to the memory of the Revolutionary Soldiers of 
the Penobscot tribe of Indians has been erected on Indian Island. 
Old Town. Maine, by the Bangor Chapter, D. A. R., which bears 
the following inscription : 

In honor of the 

Indian Patriots 

of the Penobscot 

and other tribes of Maine 

for their loyal service 

during the 

Revolutionary War. 

Erected by the Maine Daughters 

of the American Revolution 

1910. 



ii2 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

This monument was dedicated with appropriate exercises by 
the Maine State Council, D. A. R., June 7, 191 2. 



REVOLUTIONARY RECORDS OF DESCENDANTS 

OF 

NATHANIEL OAK, MARLBORO, MASS. 

The early family name in the old records is sometimes spelled 
Oak-Oaks-Oakes, but all had a common origin. 

Nathaniel Oak was the ancestor of the Oak family in Garland 
and the Oaks family in Sangerville, Maine. 

The following has been contributed by Mr. Ora Oak of Colton, 
Cal., which he has compiled from old records and other sources 
lor the Journal : 



GEORGE OAKS 

Private, Capt. David Bents' Co.. Col. Nathan Sparhawk's regt., 
marched from Rutland to Bennington on an alarm, Aug. 20, 1777; 
n days service; travel out and home 226 miles. 

SETH OAK 

Winchendon 

(1) Sergeant, Capt. Moses Hale's Co. of militia, Col. Nathan 
Sparhawk's regt., which marched to Cambridge on alarm of Apr. 
19, 1775; service, 14 days; 

(2) Also, Capt. Abel Wilder's Co., Col. Ephraim Doolittle's 
regt. ; receipt for advance pay, signed by said Oak ; dated June 

26, 1775 ; 

(3) Also, Sergeant, same Co. and regt. ; muster roll dated 
Aug. 1, 1775; engaged Apr. 26, 1775. service 3 mos., 13 days. 

(4) Also, Quartermaster Sergeant, same regt. ; on a return of 
Capt. Adam Wheeler's Co.; dated Winter Hill, Oct. 6, 1775; order 
for bounty coat or money equivalent, dated Camp Winter Hill, 
Dec. 26, 1775. 



DESCEXDAXTS OF NATHANIEL OAK 113 



(5) Also, private. Capt. Josiah Fish's Co., Col. Stephen R. 
Bradley's regt. ; Sept. 16 to Sept 20, 1782. marched from Athens. 
Vt., toward Guilford to assist the sheriff. 



BERIAH OAK 

Bolton 
Private, Capt. Robert Longley's Co., Col. Asa Whitcomb's regt.; 
which marched on the alarm of Apr. 19, 1775 ; left rendezvous Apr. 
2 7> l 775> service 10 days. 



SETH ALEXANDER 

(1) Sergeant, Capt. William Humphrey's Co. in the Northern 
Army, Continental service, 1776. 

(Note — Same Company as Nathaniel Oak) 

(2) Ensign. Capt. Oliver Capron's Co., Col. Samuel Ashley's 
regt. of militia which marched to the relief of Ticonderoga. engaged 
June 29. 1778. discharged July II, 1778 — service 13 days. 



JOHN FOLLETT 

(Second husband of Hannah Oak) 
Private, Capt. Joseph Whitcomb's Co., Col. Samuel Ashley's 
regt., roll dated Apr. 2, 1777. 



NATHANIEL OAKES 

Bolton 
(1) Private, Capt. Benjamin Hasting's Co.; Col. John Whit- 
comb's regt.; which marched to Cambridge on alarm of Apr. 19. 
l 77S'y service 18 davs. 



NATHANIEL OAK 

( 2) Private. Capt. William Humphrey's Cn. in the Northern 
Army, Continental service, 1776. 

(Grandfather of the late Hon. Lyndon Oak of Garland and 
his less known brothers. Lawrence, Lorenzo. Lebbeu'- and Edson). 



ii4 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



EBENEZER CONANT 

(Husband of Lydia Oak — daughter of Jonathan) 
(i) Lieutenant. Capt. Deliverance Davis's Co., Col. Asa Whit- 
comb's regt. which marched on alarm of Apr. 19, 1775; service 10 
days; 

(2) Also, Adjutant, Col. Abijah Steam's regt., on list of offi- 
cers of Mass. Militia, dated Leominster, March 14, 1776; appoint- 
ment concurred in by Council. June 20. 1776; also Col. Converse's 
regt., on list of officers at Dobb's Ferry, Tarryton & North Castle. 
N. Y. in 1776; 

(3) Also, private, Capt. Wm. Thurlo's Co., march on alarm 
at Bennington. Aug. 22, i/JJ. under Major Ebenezer Bridge, by 
order of Col. Warner & Gen. Stark ; dismissed by Gen. Lincoln 
after proceeding 90 miles ; 9 days service ; 

(4) Also. Adjutant, Major Ebenezer Bridge's regt., service 
25 days at Saratoga, agreeable to resolve of Sept. 22. 1777 ; 

(5) Also, on descriptive list of men. enlisted from Worcester 
Co. in 1779, to serve in Continental army, dated Aug. 15. 1779: 
in Capt. Lane's Co.. Col. Rand's regt. : age 36 years, stature 5 feet. 
9 in. ; complexion, dark ; residence, Ashburnham ; enlistment, 9 
months; mustered Aug. 10, 1779; also private. Colonel's Co., Col. 
Shepard's 4th regt., enlisted Aug. 12, 1779. discharged Feb. 6. 1780; 
enlistment 9 months. 



JOHN OAKS. 

Harvard (also Littleton) 

(1) Private, Col. John Bailey's regt.; on Continental pay ac- 
counts for service from Mar. 1. 1777 to Dec. 31, 1779, residence, 
Harvard ; credited to Harvard ; also on roll of Capt. Samuel Darby's 
Co., same regt., dated Camp Valley Forge, Jan. 25, 1778; residence, 
Littleton. 

(2) "John Oakes." Littleton, on descriptive list of men raised 
to reinforce the Continental Army for 6 mos. agreeable to resolve of 
June 5, 1780, dated July 22, 1780, age 22 yrs. ; stature 5 ft. 5 in. ; 
complexion, light ; engaged for Harvard ; also on list of 6 months 
men who passed muster, dated Camp Totaway, Oct. 25, 1780, 
(name, "John Okes'') ; also, Drummer, on pay roll of 6 months 
men raised bv town of Harvard for Continental service in 1780. 



DESCENDANTS Ob .\AlHAMhL UAK n; 



marched July 19. 1780, discharged, Dec. 14, 1780, service, 5 mos. 4 
da., including travel ( 180 mi.) home — (name, "John Oak".) 
("John Oaks, Exeter, Me., aged 84, resides with John, Jr.") 



DANIEL OAKS 

(1) Private, Capt. Joseph Warren's Co., Lt. Col. Wheelock's 
regt., enlisted Sept. 2j, discharged Oct. 23, 1777; service, 1 mo., 3 
da., with northern army, including 8 days (150 miles) travel home: 

(2) Also, on descriptive list of men raised to reinforce the 
Continental Army for 6 months, agreeable to resolve of June 5, 
1780; age 19 years, stature 5 ft. 6 in., complexion, light; engaged 
for Westboro ; marched to camp July 1, 1780, discharged Dec. 19, 
1780, 200 mi. from home ; service 5 mos., 29 da. ; also, on return of 
(y months men who passed muster, dated Camp Totaway, Oct. 25, 
1780 (name "Daniel Oakes," Westboro) ; 

(3) Also. Private. Capt. Nathaniel Wright's Co., Col. Luke 
Drury's regt. ; from Sept. 22 to Dec. 1781 ; service 3 mos., 23 da. 
at West Point including travel (400 mi.) residence. Bolton — (name 
"Daniel Oaks"). 

(4) "Daniel Oak", residence and date not given, member of 
the train band. 



SYLVANUS OAK. 

Princeton — ( probably ) 
Sergeant, Capt. Joseph Sargent's Co. of militia, Col. Sparhawk's 
regt.. which marched to Cambridge on alarm of Apr. 19, 1775 and 
returned May 1, 1775; service 12 days. 



CALVIN OAK. 

Winchendon 

(1) Private, Capt. Moses Hale's Co. of militia, Col. Nathan 

Sparhawk's regt., which marched to Cambridge on alarm of Apr. 

19, 1775, service 6 days; reported "enlisted into the army"; served 

on the main guard. Major Loammi Baldwin, at Cambridge, list 



n6 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



dated May 15, 1775 • a ^ so receipt for advance pay signed by Sd. Oak. 
Capt. Abel Wilder's Co., Col. Ephraim Doolittle's regt., dated 
Charlestown, June 26, 1775; also, on muster roll same Co. and 
regt. dated Aug. I, 1775, enlisted Apr 26. 1775; service 3 mos., 13 
da.; also, on company return dated Oct. 6. 1775. 

(2) Also, Private, Capt. Jotham Houghton's Co., Col. Josiah 
Whitney's regt. from July 31, 1778 to Sept. 14, 1778; 1 mo., 14 da., 
in Rhode Island. 

(3) Also, on descriptive list of men raised for the Continental 
service; in Capt. Boutell's Co., Col. Rand's regt.; age 20 years; 
stature 5 ft., 6 in.; complexion, light; engaged for Leominster, 
marched July 29, 1779; also, in Capt. Warner's Co., 10th Mass. 
regt.; service July 28, 1779 to Apr. 28, 1780; term 9 mos. (name, 
"Calvin Oaks'') ; receipt for bounty, signed by said Oak, dated Aug. 
18, 1780, for 9 mos. service. 



NATHANIEL OAK 

(1) His name on Pay Roll of 6 montths men raised by the 
town of Bolton for service in the Continental Army during 1780; 
marched July 10. 1780, discharged Dec. 16, 1780; service, 5 mos., 
17 days, including travel (220 miles) home ; also, Nathaniel "Oaks", 
Bolton, descriptive list of men raised to reinforce the Continental 
Army for the term of 6 months, agreeable to resolve of June 5, 
1780, returned as received of Justin Ely, Commissioner, by Brig. 
Gen. John Glover, at Springfield, July 13, 1780; age 18 years, 
stature 5 ft. 7 in., complexion, ruddy ; engaged for the town of 
Bolton, marched to camp July 13, 1780. under command of Capt. 
Thomas Pritchard ; also. Private. Lieut-Colonel's Co., 6th Mass. 
Regt. pay roll for July 1780; enlisted July 13, 1780; also Lieut. -Col. 
Whiting's Co., 6th Mass. Regt., pay roll for August and September 
1780; also, list of men raised for 6 months service and returned 
by Brig. Gen. Paterson as having passed muster in return dated 
Camp Totaway, Oct. 25, 1780. 



NATHANIEL OAK 1 

(2) Private, Capt. Josiah Fish's Co., Col. Stephen R. Bradley's 
legt. ; Sept. 16, to Sept. 20, 1782, marched from Athens, Vt., toward 
Guilford to assist the sheriff. 



C) The Published Vital Records of Templeton, Mass., p. 50, say, 
Xathpniel. son nf Serh and Elizabeth Oak. born May 3. 1762." 



DESCENDANTS OF NATHANIEL OAK 117 



NATHANIEL OAK 

(Not identified but probably one of those previously mentioned). 

(1) Private, Capt. Wm. Marean's Co., Col. Jonathan Reed's 
(1st.) regt. of guards; muster roll dated Cambridge, June 1, 1778; 
enlisted Mar. 28, 1778, enlistment, 3 months, from Apr. 2, 1778; 
also, Capt. Wm. Marean's Co., Col. Steam's regt. of guards, service 
from Mar. 2J, ijjS to July 2, 1778. 3 mos.. 6 days, at Cambridge, 
guarding troops of convention. 

(2) Also, Private, Capt. Josiah Winder's Co., Col. Nathan 
Sparhawk's regt., commanded by Major Daniel Clap, enlisted July 
4, 1778; discharged July 15. 1778; service 12 days at Rutland 
Barracks ; company raised for 20 days service. Roll dated Temple- 
ton. 



NATHANIEL OAK 

Private, Capt. Jotham Houghton's Co.. Col. Josiah Whitney's 
regt.. service from July 31. 1778. to date of discharge Sept. 14, 
1778, 1 mo., 15 days, at Rhode Island; company raised for 6 weeks 
service ; roll dated Petersham ; also. Capt. Jotham Houghton's Co., 
Col. Samuel Denny's (2nd) regt.. Gen. Fellow's brigade; service 
from Oct. 24, 1779 to Dec. 12. 1779, 1 mo., 9 days at Claverack. 
roll dated Petersham. 



NATHANIEL OAKES 

Private, Capt. Benj. Edgell's Co., Col. John Jacob's regt., en- 
listed June 30, 1778, service 6 mos., 7 days, including travel (100 
miles) home, enlistment to expire Jan. 1, 1779; also, same Co. 
and Regt. ; muster rolls dated Freetown, Sept. 13 and Oct. 18. 1778. 



The Chief Justices of the Courts of Sessions for the counties in 
the new State of Maine for 1820 were: York, Joseph Thomas, 
Kennebunk ; Cumberland, Ammi R. Mitchell, N. Yarmouth ; Ox- 
ford, Daniel Stowell, Paris ; Lincoln, Ebenezer Clapp. Bath ; Ken- 
nebec, Samuel Wood, Winthrop ; Somerset, Calvin Selden, Nor- 
ridgewock ; Hancock, Phineas Ashman, Brooks ; Penobscot. Enoch 
Brown, Hampden : Stephen Jones. Machias. 



n8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

An Alphabetical Index of Revolu- 
tionary Pensioners Living 
in Maine 

(Compiled by Charles A. Flagg, Librarian Bangor (Maine) 

Public Library.) 

(Continued from page 18, Vol. 6.) 



List. 



Name. 



feeivice. 



Rank. Age. County. 



Remarks. 



'35c Cain, David Mass. line. 

'35e Cain, Nicholas M.-.ss. line 



Private. 
Piivate. 



67) Vork 



"35d Calderwood, John 
"40 



Cont. navy . . . Marine. 

I 
Mass. line ! Private. 



'35c Calderwood, Thoi 

'40 Calvin, Jotham 
'3.5c Cammett, Samuel. X. H. line . . Private 
'35c Campbell. Alexandei Mass. line Private 



72 i Lincoln 



81 Waldo. 

88 Waldo 



('20). d. March 
1825. 

Transf. from Suf- 
folk Co., Mass. 
1820. d. Sept. 4, 
1826. 

Res. Lincolnville. 

81 Lincoln Id. Dec. 12, 1831. 

80 Kennebec. . Res. China. 



'35d Campbell, James. 
'35d Campbell. James 

'40 



Mass. str.te ... Pi; t. of art.i 

N. H. line Pvt. and 

drum maj 



64 Vork 

72 Cumberland 



7f> Lincoln. 



''20. '31b. ) 
(•20) d. Feb. 

I 1827. 



"40 Campbell, Willir.m 

'35c Campernell. William Mass. line 

'40 Campnell. William 

'40 Caiu, Tburstoj 



i '20 as musician). 
Res. Wales. 
Res. Minot. 



Private 



'35d Cares. Luther . 

'35c Carey, Sin. eon . 

Carl, Eoenezei, 

'35c Carl, John 



Mass. state. 

Mass. line. . 

see Carll. 

Mass. line . . 



Musician 
Piivr.te . 



Sergeant 



77 Kennebec . . 

81 Kennebec . 

42 Cumberland 

95 York. 

80J Vork Res. Parsonsfield. 

4S Lincoln R e s. Woolwich, 

Smith or Fair- 
field. 

73 Oxford Same as Cary, L. 

70 Lincoln. . . . ('20) d. May. 1825 



'35d Carl, Joseph Mass. mil Piivate. . 

'35d Caile, John Mass. line .... 'Private. . 

'40 Carle, William 



'40 Car leton, Jonathan 



77 Kennebec 

81 Waldo. . . 

7.5 Vork. 

77 Franklin . . 

79 Kennebec. 



t'20) d. Sept. 
1832. 



17, 



'35c Carleton, Samuel. . . Mass. line.. ..Private. 

'35d Carlisle, James Mass. mil Private. 

35c Carlisle, John X. H. line.. .. Private. 

'35d Carlisle, Joseph. . Ma.-s. mil Private. 

'35c Carll, Ebenezer. .. . Mass. line Private 



Res. Salem; same 
as Carll, W.? 

Res. Vassalboro', 

! same as Carlton 
J. 

Same as Carlton, S 



'40 Carll, Ebenezer | 

*35d Carll, William Mass. mil Private. 

'35c Carlton, Ezra X. H. line ! Private. 

'40 Carlton, Ezra 

'35c Carlton, John. . . . 

'40 Carlton, John, 2d 
'35c Carlton, Jonathan 



Mass. line. 



Mass. line 



'20 Carlton. Samuel. . . . Mass. line. . 
35d Carpenter, Thomas. X. H. state. 
'40 



*35c Carr, William Mass. line. 

'40 

'35d Carrell, Benjamin . . Mass. state 
Carroll, Ebenezer, see Carll. 

'35c Carson, James Del. line 



Private. 

Private. 



Piivate. 
Private. 



Private. 
Private. 
Private. 



80 Lincoln 
76 York. 

78 Vork /20). 

73 Lincoln. 

78 Lincoln ''20 as Carl) all 

given Carroll. 
82 York Res. Hollis. 

70 Somerset .... Ssme as Carle W.? 
69 Oxford ('20). 

76 Franklin. . . . Pes. Letter E. 
73 Kennebec. . . ('20). 

59 Waldo Res. Frankfort. 

73 Kenrebec. . . /'20) Same as 
Carleton J. 
SameasCar leton S 

71 Vork 

76 York Res. Waterboro'. 

78 Waldo -('20). 

84 Waldo Res. Frankfort. 

73 Kennebec. 

79 Washington d. Oct. 28, 1832. 



REVOLUTIONARY PENSIONERS IN MAINE 119 



List. 



Name. 



Seivice. 



Rank. 



Age. Countj. 



Remarks. 



I 1 i ! 

'35d Carter, Abijah Mass. mil Private ' 72 Cumberland. 

*40 Carter, Abijah '' 7fc Oxford 

'35c Carter, Edward. .. . X. H. line Private S4 Hancock... 

'35c Carter, John N. H. line Private. . .". 63 York 

'35c|Carter, Thaddeus . . Mass. line Private | 83. Kennebec . . . 



'40 Carter, Thomas. . 
'35d Carthill, Pelutiah 

'40: Carvill, Mercy 

'40 Car y, Luther. . . . 



Mass. state 



Private. 



'35d : Caryell, David Mass. mil Priv'te and 

1 Sergeant. 
. . : R. I. mil Private .... 



'35d Case, Isaac. . . 

'40 

'35c Casewell, Simeon. . . Mass. line Private. 

'35d Cash, John Mass. line Private. 

'35c Cash, John .Mass. line Private. 

'35c Cash, Sa muel I Mass. line Private . 



*40 

1792 



Cashman, Andrew- 
Cass, Moses 



1794 

'35c Cass, Moses. 
'40 



'40 



Caswell, Simeon . 



3d N. H. line . Private. 
N. H. line Private. 



63 Waldo . 
87 Waldo. 
82 Lincoln. 

79 Oxford . 

80 Waldo. 



74 Kennebec . . 
79 Kennebec . . 
71 Cumberland 
82 Cumberland 

73 York. 

74 Cumberland 

79 Kennebec. . . 



7£ Somerset . . . 
82 Somerset . . . 
77 Cumberland 



66 Oxford 



'35c, Caswell, Squire Mass. line Private. 

j '40 Causland, Robert M j 82 Somerset . . . 

'35i Cay, John Mass. line Private. ... 86 Cumberland. 

1794 Chad bourn, Levi . . Wiggles worth's Private i — York 

j regiment. 
'40. 



'40 Chadbour n, Seam-. 

| mon 
'40!Chaabourn, timeoni 



'35diChacibourne, Cum- 

I mon. 
'35c Chadbourne, Silas . . 



*35d 



Chadbourne, Simeon 



'35c Chadwick, James .. 

'35c Chambeilein, Aaron 
'35c Chamberlain, Eph- 

j raim. 
'35d Chamberlain, Eph- 

! raim. 
35c Chamber lain, Jere- 

I miah. 
'35d Chamberlain, John. 
'40 Chamberlain, John . 

'35c Chamberlain, Moses 



Mass. mil Private. . . . 

Mass. line Lieutenant 

. Mass. mil . . . Sergeant . . 

Mass. line Private 

Mass. line Private. . . . 

Mass. line Private. . . . 

Mass. mil Private. . . . 

Conn, line Private 

Mass. mil Private. . . . 



82 York 
85: York. 

9liYork. 



79' York 



71 Cumberland 

84|York 

71 Kennebec . . 

79 Cumberland. 
71 Oxford 

70 Cumberland 

71 I Lincoln. . . . 



Mass. line 



Private. . , 



84 Cumberland 

90to York 

100 
73 Kennebec . . . 



|40 Chambeiiin. Mary. . . ! 80 York 

'40 Chandler, Hannah. I ! 75 Kennebec 



|R. 1. line Private. 

Mass, line Private. 



'35d Chanuler, John. 
*35d. Chandler, John 

t /40 Chandler, John \'.'. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. '.\'. '.'.'.'.'. '.'.'.'.* 

'35e Chandler, Moses. . . ! Mass. line Corporal . . 

3.5c Chandler, Moses ... I Mass. line Corporal . . 

35c Chandler, Moses ... ! X. H. line Private. . . . i 

'35d Chandler, Nathaniel; Mass. line Private. . .. 

'40 



35c Chaney, John 
'35c Chaney, John 



Mass. line Private. 



Mass. line Private. 



20 j Chaplin, Daniel ... Mass. line Private. 



79 Kennebec . . 

75 Cumberland 
82 Cumbeiland 
78 Kennebec . . 
— Kennebec . . 
70 Kennebec . . 

55 Oxford 

74 Cumberland 

80 Cumbeiland 

76 Lincoln . . . 

61! Kennebec . . 



Res. Waterford. 
('20) d. Apr. 1827. 
d. Mar. 1822. 
('20 as Thadeus) 
d.June 16. 1S2S 
Res. Montville. 

Res. Lewiston. 
Res. Turner ; same 
as Carey, L. 



Res. Readfield. 
Same as Caswell? 
T20). 

('20) d. Aug. 4, 

1818. 
Res. Leeds; same 

as Cushnian.A.? 
Maimed at Valley 

Forge. 
Res. Hallow ell. 
|(*20). 

i Res. Cornville. 
Res. Harrison. 
Same as Casewell 

S? 
C20) d. August 13 

1821. 
Res. Pittsfield. 

; Wounded in R. I., 

i Aug. 1778. 
Res.Paisonsfield 
Res. S. Berwick. 

Res. Lyman; same 
as Chadbourne, 
S. 

Same as Chad- 
bourn, Seamon? 

('20 as C h a d- 
bourn) d. June 
15, 1823. 

Same as Chad- 
hourn, S. 

('20) d. Oct. 25, 
1826. 

d. Sept. 11, 1831 

d.Nov. 1827. 

d. Dec. 23, 1832. 

('20) d. Oct. 26, 
1831. 

Res. Buxton. 

120). 

Res. So. Berwick. 
iRes. Winthrop. 
!i'20) 



• 



Res. Minot. 
iRes. Augusta. 

d. June 1, 1828. 
U20"). 

('20). 

iRes. Minot. 

('20) d. Sept. 11. 
j 1827. 

San.eas Cheney, J. 



i2o SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Lut. 



Name. 



Service. 



Rank. Age. County 

I i 



Remains. 



*35c 



Chaplin, David. 



35d Chaplin, David Mass. line 



35d ^haplin. John Mass. state 



Mass. line 



'40 
'35d 

'40 
'35c 



Chaplin, Lydia 

»J nap man, Benjamin! Mass. mil. 

Chapman, Benjamin 

Chapman, Nathaniel. Mas*. line 



'35c Chase, Benjamin. . N. H. line . 
'35d|Chas€, Ebenezer . . . jMass. mil.. 

•J | 

'35cChase, Ezekiel R. I. line. . . 

'35e Chase, Ezekiel |Mass. line. . 

'40 Chase, Ezei-iel ; 

*35d Chase, Isaac Mass. mil. . 

'40: 

'35d ; Chase, Isaac Mass. state. 

'40 

*35d Chase, Nathaniel . . Mass. mil.. 

'40 j 

'35c Chase, Robert | N. H. line. . 

•40; 



'35d ' Chase, Thomas i Cont. navy 



'40 
'31b 

'20 
'35c 
'35d 

'40 
'35c 

'35d 



'40 
'28 
'40 

'35 

"35a 
'40 

•35d 

•40 

"40 

'35a 

40 

'35d 



'35d 
'4t 
•40 



'35c 

'40 

'35c 



'35c 

'35d 
'35c 
•35d 
'35j 
'40 
'35a 

'3.5d 

*35c 

'35d 
'40 



Cheats, Ebenezer 

Cheney, John . . . 
Chesley, Sawyer. . 
Chick, Isaac 



Chick, John 



Private. . 



Ptivate 

Private. ...i 



60 Oxford 



Private.. .'.! 

Private... . 

Private. . .. 

Private of| 

ai tiller J | 



Private. . . 
Private .. 



Private. 
Private. 
Private. 
Private. 



Mariner & 
Private.. 



Private. 



Mass. line Private 

N. H. line Private.... 

Mass. mil Private 

I 

Mass. line i Private. . . 



Child, Amo3 ! Mass. line , Musician & 

I Mus. of 
I art. 

Childs, Amos I I 

Childs, Ebenezer . . ! ICaptain . . . 

Childs, Ebenezer . . ' 

Childs, Enoch Mass.mil Private 

Chipman. William Mass. line Private 



80 Oxford. 

— Cumberland. 

78 Ox.ord 

74, Kennebec. 

80 Lincoln 

6 J| Somerset . . . . 

61; Kennebec . . 
70 Lincoln. 

74 : Lincoln 

62; Penobscot. . 
— .Penobscot. 
77; Piscataquis . 
77 Cumberland. 
82' Cumber land 
75 Lincoln. 

80 Lincoln 

731 Oxford. 

780xford 

73 Lincoln. . . _ 

79 Lincoln .... 
7Sl Oxford 

I 

84; Oxford 



71 Kennebec 

74 York. 

81 York 

75 Lincoln . 



Choate, Ebenezer 



Church, Amos . 
Church, Charles. . 
Church, Charles. . 



Mass. line and Private, 
state. 



Mass. line Private.. 



70 Kennebec 



75; Kennebec . . 

Kennebec. . 
52 Franklin. . . 
75 Somerset . . . 

70 Oxford 

77 Oxford 

70, Cumberland 



Church, John 



Church, Samuel . . . 
Church, Su annah 
Cnurchell, Jabez . . 



Mass. mil Pvt.Drum- 

I mer and 
! Corp. 

Mass. mil Private 



75 : Cumberland 
84 Kennebec . . 
72 Somerset . . . 
78; Franklin .. . 
81 Somerset. 



Churchill, Jabez. 
Churchill, Jabish 



Churchill, James . . 
Churchill, Joseph. . 
Churchill, Joshua. . 
Churchill, Josiah. . 
Churchill, William. 
Churchrll, William 
Chute, Josiah 



Chute, Josiah 
Clark, Bunker 



Mass. line sergeant.. 

Mass. line Private... 



Mass. line . . 
. I Mass. mil. . 
J Mass. line . 
. i Mass. state. 
. Mass. state. 



Private. . 
Private . 
Private. . 
Spr^eant. 
Prn ate. . 



Kennebec. 
Somerset . 
Oxford . . . 



Oxford 
Oxford 
Oxford 



73 Kennebec . . 
73 Waldo. 

92| Oxford 

77|Cumberland 



Clark. Charles 



Sergeant . . | 



Mass. mil 

Mass. line Pvt., Corp | 

and berg.! 
N. H. line Private... j 

Mass. mil 'Private.... 



Kennebec. 

Oxford 

Cumberland 

Cumberland . 

Kennebec . . . 

Kennebec. 
Kennebec . . . 



('20) Age prob- 
ably incorrectly 
given. 



Res. Waterford 

Res. Nobleboro'. 
('20) d. Jan. 2 

1819. 
v'20). 



Res. Edgecomb. 
('20, '31b). 

Res. Sebec. 

Res. Standish. 

Res. Bowdoin. 

Res. Buckfield. 
C20). 

Res. Georgetown. 

('20, ship "Alli- 
ance") ('31b!. 

Res. Livermore. 

Perhaps same as 
Chuate. E. 

Same as Chaney. 

d. May 29, 1823. 

Res. York. 

('20) d. June 23. 

1826. 
('20). 



Res. Yassalboro*. 

Invalid. ('35a) 

Res. Farmington. 

d. Jan. 7, 1S34. 

(20). 

Res. Oxford. 

('20). 

Res. Bridgton. 
Res. Augusta. 
f'20, '31b). 
Res. Phillips. 



Res. Mercer. 

Res. Buckfield, 
same as Churc- 
hill, Jabish? 

C20). 

Res. Hartford. 

('20 as Jabesh) 
Same as Churc- 
hell, J.? 

020). 

('20). 

d. Jan. 30, 1833. 

Res. Livermore. 
Pensioned July 11, 

1776. 
1'20). 

('20) d. May 10. 
1819. 

Res. Augusta. 



lVl^ VVL.U llW^^lVI 1 i^\JlVJ.\i:aO .L^N ^UAliM^ 



List. 



Name. 



Rank. 



Age 



County. 



Remarks. 



•3od Clark, Charles G 

'40 

'35c Clark. David . . . 
'35e Clark, David. . . 



'35d Clark, Ebenezer. 

'35e Clark, Ebenezer. 

'20 Clark, E!eazer. . . 

'31b Clark, Ephiaim 
'35d Claik, Ephraim. 

'35c Clark, Hanson 
'35c Claik, James. . . 



Mass. mil 



. I Private 



Mass. line ...Private 
3d regt. Mass. Private. 
line. 

Mass. mil Private. 

X. H. line Private. 

X. H. line Frhate. 



I 
70 Yoik. 

75, York 

73 Cumberland 
— , Cumberland 

82 Yoik. 

75 : York 



Cont. na>. y 



Private. 
Mariner. 



rs York. 



Mass. line Pi ivate . 

Mass. line Private. 



•40 

'40 Clark, James. 



'35d Claik, John 

'35d Claik, John 

'20 Clark, Jonathan.. 
'35c Clark, Joseph 

*40 

'35d Clark, Josiah 

'40, Clark, Patience. . . 

'35c Clark. Thomas 

'35d Clark, William . . . 

•40 ( 

'35c|CIay, Benjamin. . 
'35d Cleaves, Abraham 

'40j 

'35c Cleaves, Edmund 

'35c Cleaves, William. . 
'40'Cleaves. William. . 
35c'Clewlev, Isaac. . . . 
> '35cCliftord, David.. . 
^lbjClough, Benjamin 
'3cd Clough, Benjamin 



84! York 

78 Kennebec. 
73: Penobscot . 

I 
77! Penobscot . 
5l!WaJdo . . . 



Mass. state. 
X. H. line . . 
Mass. line. . 
Mass. line . . 



Private 

Ensign. . . . 
Lieutenant 
Private 



79i Yoik. 

78 ; Someise1 



X. H. line Private. 



Mass line 
X. H. mil. 



Private 
Private. 



Mass. line 
Mass. mil . 



Private 

Private.. . 



Mass. line 
Mass. line. 



Private. 
Private. 



70 Lincoln. . . 
74 Lincoln. . . . 

70 Yoik 

SSi York 

81 Lincoln. . . . 
82; York. 

88 York 

67 York 

71 Kennebec. 
76 Kennebec. . 
78 Cumberland 



Res. Berwick. 
,i(.'20>. 

. (-29) d. Mar. 18. 
1831. 

i. Dec. 25. 1831. 
Piob. same as Eb- 
enezei . 

('20, ship 'Alli- 
ance"). 
Res. Limington. 

('20) ('31b, as 

James 2d.) 
Res. Xewpoit. 
(.'20 as James 2d) 

Res. Frankfort. 

d. Se D t. 2. 1S32. 
C31b). 

r20>. 

Res. Wiscasset. 

T20). 

Res. Lebanon. 

('20) d. 1821. 



Mass. line 
N H. line 



'35d 
'40 



Clough, Benjamin 



Mass. line 
Mass line 



Private T. . . 
Private. . . . 
Private. . . 
Pvt and 
drummer 
Private. . . . 



79 Cumberland 
SO Cumberland 

80 Penobscot . . 
65 Lincoln ... 



Res. Lyman. 
('20, '31b). 

Res. Windsor. 
-'20) d. June 29, 

1S2S. 
('20). 

Res. Cumberland. 
('20 as Clevriy). 
| ('20). H 



'35c Clough, John . 

'40;Clough. John 
1794 Clcugh, Xoah. 



3oc CluiT. Xoah 



X. H. line... . 
Arnold's regt. 



Private. . . 
Private. . 



70 Cumberland. 

| 

70 &\ Kennebec . 
791 

75' Kennebec . . 
7 A J Somerset * . . 
80 Franklin. . . 



Mass. line 'Private. 



70 York. 



35c;Coambs, John , X. H. line Private. 



'35d Cobb, Daniel 
•40 



'29 Cobb, David. 
'35e Cobb, David. 



Mass. mil . .. Pri. of art. 



^oV^Cobb, Ebenezer. 

\35d Cobb, Mallitiah. 
'35 j Cobb, Xathanie! 
'35c Cobb. Roland . . 

'40 Cobb. Rowland.. 
'35c Cobb, .Silvanus 
*35d 

'40 
'35. 
'3cc 



Mass Capt.of art 

5 regt., Mass. Lieut. Col. 

line. 
Mass. line Private.. . 



75 Kennebec 



72 Cumberland. 
79 Cumberland 



Hancock. 



Cobb, William 

Cob'idge, Jo:eph 
Coburn, Jepthu 



Ma.?s. line 
Mass. line 
Mass. lias 



Mass. line . 
M .,s. state 



.Masi. line 
Mass. line 



Pvt.& Serg. 
Pvt.&Co;p. 
Private. . . 



. Private. . . 
. Private .. 



Private.. 
Private . . 



67 Oxford 

79 Somerset . . . 
85 Cumberland. 
78 Lincoln .... 
82 Lincoln .... 
72 Cumberland 
70 Oxford. 

75 Oxford 

7z Oxford ... . 
72 Kennebec . . 



('20). 

Res. Monmouth. 

I 20). 

Res. Phillips. 

Wounded at Que- 
bec, Dec. 31, 
1775. Res. 
Arundel. 

('20) Prcb. identi- 
cal with pre- 
ceeding. Transf. 
from Mass. 1819 
d. Sept. 1824. 

Same as Coombs? 

\ Transf. fiom 
Merrimac Co., 
X. H. 1826. 

Res. Portland. 
I Tiansf. to Bris- 
i tol Co., Mass. 

Transf. to Bristol 
1 Co.. Mass. 
'20, d. May 9. 
1*26. 

('20 as Milatiab). 

'20). 

Res. Warren. 
('20). 

Res. Hebion. 

Same as Coolidge? 

Transf. from Mid? 
d 1 e s e x Co., 
Ma<s. 1823. 



122 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



List. 



Name. 



Service. 



Rank. Age. ; County. 



Rt marks. 



'40 
'35c 



Coburn, Jephlhah 
Coburn, Moses. . . 



"35d Coffin, Isaac 

'40! 

'35c Coffin, Nathaniel. 
'35c Coffin, Nicholas. . 

'35c Coffin. Peter 

'35d Cohren, Robert . . 

'40 Cofren, Robert.. . 



Mass. line jPrivate 



Mass. mil jPmate. . 



Mass. line ! Lieutenant 

N. H. line Private 

iN. H. line . . . . | Private.. . . 
N. H. line Private 



^d'Cogswell, Northend. Mass. mil 'Private. 

^SC'Coiier. William Cont. navy. . . Private. 



'40 Colbath, Leighton . 

'35d Colceth, Peter. . . . 

'40 Colbey, Benjamin 

^OjColborn, Thomas. . 

'35d Colbroth, Lemuel . 

'35d Colbum, Ebenezer 

'40 Colbum, Hemy . . 

'35c Colbum, Thomas. . 



Mass .mil Pvt . of art 



Mass. mil Piivate. 

Mass.sjate. . . . Pinate. 



N. H.line Private. 



Mass. mil Private . 



'35d Colbum, William 

40) 

'35d Colby, Eenjamin. . . I Mass. mil Sergeant . . 

'3od'Colby, Lbenezer ..|N. H. sta,te. . . .Piivate 

_ '40 

'35j Colby, James Mass. mil Piivate . . . . 

'40;Colby. James 

'35c. Colby, Samuel, 2d . . Mass .line ,Piivate 

'40 Colby, Samuel. 

'20 

*40 
'35c 



81|Fianklin 'Res. New Sharon. 

69jOxford Transf.from Mid- 
dlesex, Co.. Mass 
1824. 

78 York. 

84 j Yortc Res. Lyman. 

S4 Waldo d. July 23, 1823. 

6y Waldo ('20). 



76 Oxford . . 
79 Kennebec 
75 Kennebec 



«('20). 

i('20 N. H. lineV 
! Res. Vienna. 
! C31b). 
72 York. 

74 Lincoln ('20 Mariner, ship 

"Boston") d. 
1824. 
Res. Exetex. 



45 Penobscot . . 
83 Washington. 
89 Somerset . . . 

82 j Franklin . . . 



Res. Embden. 

Same as Colby? 
Res. Wilton. Same 

as Colbum, T? 
See also Coolbroth 



71 Kennebec 

73 Waldo. 

79 Waldo Res. Knox 



76 Kennebec 



iSame as Colbom? 

Transf. from 
I Stafford Co., N. 
; H. 1822. 



Colby, Samuel 
Cclby, Samuel. 
Colby, Sjjvanu: 



'35d 
'35d 
'35d 
'35c 
'35d 
'40 
'35d 
'35d 

•28 
'35c 
'35c 

'40 
'3Gc 

'40 
'35d 

'40 

'40 

•40 
•40 



'35c 

'40 

'20 

'35d 

"35d 



Co'.cord, Josiah. . . . N. H. line Private . 

Cole, Abel Mass. state . . . Private.. 

Cole, Abijah Mass. line Prr. ate. . 

Cole, Barnet Mass. line iPrivate . 

Cole, Benjamin ... Mass. mil I Private. . 

Cole. Edward | 

Cole, Eleizei Mass. state. . . ^Sergeant 

Coie, Eli .Mass. line Frivate. . 

CoLe, Henry 2d Lieut 

Cole, Isaiah Mass. line | Piivate. . 

Cole, John Mass. line .Private. . 

I 

Cole, Mary C ! | 

Cole, Samuel Mass. line . 



'.lass, line Pi 11 ate. ... , — 



74 1 Penobscot 
79 Penobscot 
84 Kennebec 
74, loi.k. 
81 York .... 

71 Kennebec. 

7b Lincoln Res. Webster. 

72 Lincoln j 1 ' 20; . 

Lincoln iRes. Wtstrort. 



Res. Oiono. 
Same as Colbey* 



Res. Newfield. 



Mass. line Private. 



78 Cumberland 
70 Lincoln. . . . 



79 Y oik. 
82 Lincoln. 
72 Hancock. 
73' Kennebec . 
74 Kennebec. 
59 Waldo. . . 

87 Oxford 

74 York 



79 Lincoln. 
77 Kennebec 



Colley, Richard Mass. line 

Colley. William . . . j 

Collings, Daniel . . . 

i 



Collings. Lemuel 



Collins, Benjamin . . Mass line 



Collins, Daniel. 
Collins, Daniel 



Mass. line 
IN. H.line 



Collins, David 



Private. . 
Private. . 



Pri> ate. 



Private . . . 
Piivate 



line jPvt. and 

l Marine. 



81 Lincoln ... 
78 Lincoln .... 

83 Lincoln 

7S Cumbeiland 
80 Cumberland 
89 Cumbeiland 

84'Fianklin . . 



83 Franklin 



6 -/Somerset. 
73 Some i set . 



76 Somerset 
79Somerstt 



Res. Portland. 
;C20) d. Fel. 2, 
1833. 



j('20). 

Res. Irankfoit. 

d. Aug. 4, .1833. 

^'20) d. Dec. 16, 
! 1832. 
ilnvalid. 

. (20/3-1 b) See also 
Cool. 
Res. Waldoboio' 
. ("20). 
, Res. Lewiston. 

Res. Cumberland. 

R«s. Falmouth. 
; Same as Culley? 
• Res. Industry. 
! See also Collins, 

i D - 
. Res. Industry. 

j See also Colline", 

! L. 
.(•20). 
. Rts. St. Albans. 

K'31b) 
. Same as Collings, 

! D 

. (31 b) Ship "Al- 
. fred". See also 
I Collings. 



REVOLUTIONARY PENSIONERS IN MAINE 123 



List. 



Name. 



Service. 



Rank. Age. County. 



Remarks. 



'35e Collins, Daniel Cont. navy 

'35d Collins, Joseph Mass. mil. . 

•40 Collins, Joseph 

'35d Collins, Lemuel. . Mass. line. 



'35d Collins, Philemon. . . Mass. mil 
'35d Collins, Ric'iard ... Mass. line. 
'35c Collins, Solomon. . . Mass. line. 

'-10 Collins. Solomon 

'20 Colson. David Mass. line 

'35c Co'.son, Hatecvil . . . Mass. line 
'35c Combs, He zekiah . Mass. line 



'20 

*35d 

"35d 
*40 

'40 

*40 

'35c 

'35c 

'40 

'35d 

'35c 
'40 



Combs, Hosea . 
Combs, William 



Mass. line 
Mass. line 



Conant. Penjnmin Mass. line. . 

Conart, Syhia, 

Conch, Join see Couch, John 

Condon. John 

Condrr., Ephiaim M 

Cone, Elijr.h Mass. line . 

Cone, Samuel Conn, line . 



Cone>, Daniel Mass. mil. 

Mass. line 



Conn, Jonathan 
Cony, Daniel. 



'35c Cook, David. 



Mass. line 



Mariner. . 
Piivate. . 



Pit. and 

Pvt. of 
artillery 

Private . . 

Piivate. .. 

Piivate. . . 



Piivate. 
Piivate. 
Fri%ate. 

Piivate. 

Private. 

Private . 



Pi i; ate 
Private. 



Pvt. and 

Lieut. 
Coipoial. 



Captain 



'35d:Cook, Eli Mass. lire Private. 

'35c Cook, Joseph Mass. line Private. 

'40 Cook, Sarah ' 

'35c Cook, Saul Mass. line Pihate. 

40 Cook, Saul 



'35c Cookson, Reuben.. Mass. line 



Pii\ate 



'35d Cool. John iMass. line Private. 

•40, ...3... 

'35c Coolbroth, Daniel. IMass. line Privr.te. 

'40 Coolidge, Joseph . .1 



'20 Coolidee, Silas. . . 
'35c Coolidye, <ilas . . . 
"35d Coombs, John .... 

'40 Coomb.-, John. . . 
'35d | Coombs, Joseph S. 

'40 Coombs. Rachel 

'40 Coombs, William 



X. H. line Piivate.. 

Mass. line Pri\ aie 

Mass. line Piivate. 



Mass. line. 



Piivate. 



'35c Cooms, Samuel C . . : Mass. line 'Private . . 

'35c Cooper, Alexander. . Mass. line Piivate ... 

'35c Coims, Hosea Mass. line Piivate. . . 



'35c Cornish, John Mass. line Private.. 

•40 | 

'35c;Cotton, John |Mass. line Private . . 



79 Someiset . . . 
74 Cumbeiland 
SO Kennebec. . 
77 Kennebec . . 



|(31b). 

Res. Gaidiner. 
('20) see also Col- 
lings. 



74 Somerset. 

81 Washington. 

72; Hancock. 

77 Waldo Res. Fi a nkf or t 

84 Hancock. . . .'d. June 26, 1821. 
73 Lincoln ....('20) d. June 19, 

I 1830. 
— ! iPiob. same as 

| Coims, H. 
81. Cumberland . Same as Coombs, 
W. 

7£ Oxfoid :<'20, '31b). 

S4:Oxfoid Res. Turner. 



65: Hancock. . 
48 Aroostook 
69 Oxfoid. 
80 Penobscot 
£P Penobscot 
82, Kennebec . 



'3.5c Couch, John jMass. line. 



'40 Couch, John } 

'35c Cousens, Ebenezei jMass.line 



Private. 



'35d! Cousins, Nathaniel. ! Mass. state. 



Private. 



Corp. and 
I Lieut. 

'35o Cousins, Samuel. ... Mass. line [Private ... 

'35dCovall, Judah IMass.mil iPvt. and * 

I I ** ! 



80 Oxford 

87 Kennebec . . 

73! Cumbeiland 



76 Cumberland 
72 : Kennebec . . 

87_|Yoik 

Somerset 
82 



84 



Kennebec 
Kennebec 



79 Kennebec 
S3 Kennebec 

80 Oxfoid. . . 
79 Oxford.. . 



7\ Hancock. 

78 Cumbeiland 
77Cumbeiland 
77JCumberland 

79 Lincoln. . . . 
86 Cumbeiland 



Lincoln 



York... 
Hancock 



Cumbeiland 
Cumbeiland 
Lincoln . . . 



Kennebec . . 
Kennebec. . . 



56 Yoi k 
89 York 



74 Waldo. 
76 Waldo. 



Res. Penobscot. 
Res.Houlton. 

(*20): 

Res. Hampden. 
Same as Cony. 

|('20). 

Res. Augusta. 

Same as Coney. 
('20) Invalid. 

pensionei under 
1 act of 1791 d. 

Oct. 27, 1S23. 
T20>. 
t'20). 
Res. Lebanon. 

C20i. Res. Litch- 
field. 

t'20) d. Feb. 14, 
; 1829. 

C20. 31b). 

Res. Watenille. 

See also Colbioth. 

Res. Canton. Same 
as Coblidge? 



See also Coambs. 
Res. Harps well. 
''20, 31b>. 
Res. Bowdoinham 
Res. Haipswell. 

same as Combs, 

W. 
('20) d. Oct. 31, 

1826. 
C20). 
Prob. same as 

Combs. H., d. 

June 14, 1824. 
C20). 

Res. Brunswick. 
('20, quartermas- 
ter serg.) d.May 

20, 1824. 
('20) d. Sept. 5, 

1825. 
Res. Hallowell. 
('20), C31b, as 

Cousins). 
d. Aug. 13, 1832. 

('20). 



124 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



List. 



Name. 



Service. 



Rank. Age.' County 



Remarks. 



I 

'40jCoviIl, Judah 

'40 Cowan, Elizabeth. ... 

'35c! Cowan, Isaac Mass. line. 



'40 Cowan, Jane. . 
'35c Cowan, William. 
'35c Cowing, Calvin . 

"40 

'35c Cox, Benjamin Mass. line. 

'35c Cox, Bray Cont.navy 



i Private. , 



X. H. line, 
Mas*, line 



Private. . 
, Private. . 



Private. 
Seaman. 



! 
87 Hancock . 
77; Kennebec 
67 : Kennebec 

75; Kennebec 
75 Kennebec 
S2! Lincoln. . . 
8£' Lincoln . . 
S2i Oxford. . . 



64: York. 



'35d 
*35d 
'40 
'35d 
'35d 

'35d 
'35c 

'35c 
'40 



Cox, Hugh Mass. state 

Ciafts, Samuel Mass. mil.. 

Crafts, Samuel 

Craig, Elias Mass. line . . 

Craig, Enoch Mass. state. 

Craig, Samuel Mass.mil.. 

Cram, John S Mass. line. . 



Prn ate. 
Private. 



Prhate. . . 
Pvt. and 
Matioss 
Pri\ ate. . . 
Drummer 



75 Kennebec. 
72 i York. 

77 Oxford. . . 

78 Kennebec 

76 Kennebec. 

76, Penobscot. 
70: York 



Cram, Tristram 
Crammer, John 



X. H. line Private. 



"35d 
'35d 

40 

'35d Crary, Joseph 



Crane, Abijah. 
Crane, Rufus 



'35d Crawford, Thomas . Mass. line 





. . Mass. line 

.... Mass. mil 


Prh ate. . . 
Private. . . 


.... Mass. line 


Pvt . and 
Sergeant 



77.Wr.ldo. 

76 Lincoln 



73 Kennebec 
7c Lincoln. 
83 Lincoln . . 
7S Waldo . . . 



*35d 

'40 

•35d 

'35d 



Crawford, William . Mass. state. 



Pvt.and 
Pvt. of 
ait. 

P-U. of art. 



83. Waldo. 
78 & Lincoln 



Res. Deer Isle. 
Res. Sidney. 
("20) d. Mar. 3, 

1830. 
Res. Yassalboro'. 
C20). 
C20). 

Res. Lisbon. 
C20) d. Jan. 1-1, 

1832. 
('20, frigate 

"Dean") d.Jan. 

14, 1821. 



Res. Hebron. 
(20, '31b). 



("20) d. Jan. 3, 

1824. 
C20). 

Res. Waldoboro. 
See also Creamer 
('20, lb). 



Creamer, John Mass. mil. 

Cree, Asa Mass. line 



'20jCreech, Richard. . . . Mass. line. 
'40|Creesey, Benjamin . 



Private . . 
Pvt.and 

Pvt. ofi 

art. 
Musician . . 



74 Kennebec. 

82 Kennebec 
77 Lincoln . 

83 Lincoln... 



Res Warren. 
C31b). 



Res. Jackson. 
('20, '31b). 



Res. Gardiner. 
See also Crammer. 
|('20) d. Oct. 30, 
1833. 



'35c,Cresy, Benjai 



'40 Crips, Michael ! 

'35c Crocker, Benjamin .|Mass. line. 
'31a|Crockett, Benjamin. 



Mass. line Private. 



83 Cumberland 



7£ Cumberland 



| 5 s * Lincoln . . . 

Private.... 82 Penobscot 



Mass. 
Mass. 



'35d'Cruckett, Ephraim. 
'35c Crockett, Samuel. . 

'35c|Cromelt, Jeremiah. . 

'35cjCromweIl, Joseph. . . 

'35c Crookc, Joshua. . . 

'40' Crooker, Rulh 

'35cjCrosby, Charles. ... R. I. 

'35d[Crosby, Eben Mass. 

'35c Crosby, Stephen. . . ..Mass. 



line, 
line . 



Private. 
Prhate. 



79 Cumberland 
73 Cumberland 
79 Cumberland 



Mass. 
Mass. 
Mass. 



line, 
line, 
line. 



Sergeant 
Private. . 
Private. . 



82 Lincoln. 
91 Lincoln. 



'35d|Cross, Caleb. 
'35c Cross, Joseph 



'35c 
'35c 

'35d 
'40 

'35c 
'40 

'35c 



Crossman, Joseph A 
Crowell, Er.och. . . . 

Crowell, Manoah. . .j 

Crowell, Michael 

Croxford, John. . . 



Mass. 
Mass. 



Cor.t. 
Mass 



I Mass. 
(Mass. 



ine . . 
mil., 
line. 

mil . . 
line . 

na\ y. 
line. 



mil 



Private. . 
Private. . 
Private. . 

Private. . 
Musician 

Mariner . 
Private. . 

Frhate. . 



Mi 



line . 
line. 



Private. . 
Private. . 



— Cumberland 

80 Cumberland 
SC Penobscot . . 
74 Penobscot. 

70 Kennebec . . 

81 Kennebec. 

i 69 Cumberland 

| 82 Cumberland 
63 Kennebec. . 

71 Kennebec. 
7& Kennebec , . 
7£ Kennebec . . 
83 Kennebec . . 
67 Penobscot . . 



'Same as Cruch. 
.iRes. Falmouth. 

I Same as Cresy, 
B. 

'('20 as Cresey) 

j Same as Creesey 

Res Bowdoinham. 

('20). 

(Rejected as serv- 
ing in reg't not 
on Cont. e s- 
tablishment. 

. C2QY. 

Res. Cape Eliza- 
I beth. 

| ('20 as Cromett) 
! d. Jan. 1828. 
l('20) d. May 12, 
| 1831. 
!C20). 

Res. Minot. 
|('20). 

('20) d. May 5, 
1830. 

('20) d. May 2, 

1822. 
d. July 22, 1831. 
('20 as Enock) d. 

Apr. 4, 1823. 

Res. Waterville. 
(*20). 

Res. China. 
('20) d. Dec. 15, 
1820. 



List. 



Name. 



Service. 



Rank. 



Age. County. 



Remarks. 



*3oc!Cruch, Richard. . . 

I 
1794 Ciummitt, James 



'35d'Culley, William . . . 

j 
'35djCummings, Asa. . . . 
*35d|Cummings, Josiah. . 

'35d ! Cummings, Richard 
'40 Cummir.gs, Richaid 
'35e;Cummings, Thon.as 
'35c'Cumings, Thomas. 



'35d|Cunningham, Saru'l. 
'35c Cunningham. Thos 



Mass. line . . . 
2d. X. H. regt. 



Pri\ate. 
Private. 



Mass. line i Private. 

Mass. mil. ..... i Pi hate 

Mass . mil P v t. and 

: Corp. 
Mass. line Pvt.of art. 



Mass. line Private 

Mass. line Lieutenant. 



Mass. state .... Piivate. . . . 

X. H. line Private. . . . 

'35d Cunningham, Tim-jMass. state.... P v t. a n d 
j othy. j I Seaman. | 

'35d Curriei, Abiaham j Mass. line 'Private. . . . j 

'40; I 



'40 Curtis, Benjamin. 



35c i Cuitis, Caleb .Mass. line Private. 

•40 | 

'35e Cuitis, Chailes. . . . .Mass, line Piivate.. . . 

'35c I Cut tis, Joseph. ... . Mass. line. ... .[Piivate ... 

'35c Cuitiss, Benj3mic . . Cont nav y . . . . Marinei ... 

'35o Curtiss, David .Mass. line Prhate. ...j 

'35c,Cuitiss, Stephen ... Mass. line Prhate. . . . I 

'35cjCushing, Loiing . . . Mass. line Piivate. . . 

'35d:Cushman, Andiew. . Mass. line Piivate....: 



'35d|Cushman, Calfb . 

'35diCushman, Caleb . 

'35d Cushman, Gideon 
'35d Cushman, Isaac. . 
"35d Cushman, Isaiah. 



'35d Cushman, Isaiah. 

'40 Cushman, Isiah. 
'31a Cushman, Job. . 



I ! 

. Mass. line Pvt. and 

I Seig€2nt 
Mass. mil. ... |F v t. a n d 
Fifei. 

Mass. mil Fiivate. . . . ' 

Mass. mil .... Piivate.. . . 
Mass. line J Private. . 



(Kennebec 



Cumberland 



73 'Oxford. 

79 Cumberland. 



Same as Creech,, 
d, June 13.1S19. 

Wounded on re- 
treat from Ti- 
ccnderoga.July 
7, 1777. Res. 
Washington. 

Same as Colley, 
W? 



84! Lincoln. 

45jWaldo Res. Hope. 

79!Cumbeiland . 

83 Cumberland . f 2G) d. Oct. 

I _ 1825. 

74 ; Lincoln. 

7P Lincoln '('20). 

70 Lincoln. 



24, 



York. 
Yoik. 



83;Wal,do. 



Lincoln. 
Lincoln . 
Lincoln . 



Res. Kennebunk- 

port. 
Res. Monroe; same 

as Cuitiss, B. 



Res. Topsham. 

I ('20 as Curtiss'/ d. 

; Aug. 27, 1819. 
Yoik |('20as Cuitiss: d. 

I Dec. 11, 1823. 

Waldo Same as Cuitis, B. 

Someiset. . . .id. Dec. 1827. 

Oxford C20). 

Cumbeiland .,i'20; d. Apr. ,1820. 
Kennebec ... T20, '31b). Same 

i as Cashman? 
Oxfoid d. Mar. 16, 1833. 



Mass. line 



'35d Cushman, John. . . . Mass. line 
*35d Cushman, Jonathan Mass. line 

'40 Cushman, Margaret 

'40 Cushman. Sarah 

|35o Cushman, Silvanus. Mass. mil. 
'35d Cushman, William . Mass. mil. 

'40 



'35c Cushman, Zebedee Cont. navy 
'40 Cushmon, Gideon . . i 



Piivate 
Private. 



78'Oxfoid. 



83 Oxfoid 

90 Oxfoid. 

r 4 & Cumbeiland 
77 
74 Oxfoid. 

84 Oxioid 



Private. . 
Sergeant 



Private. 
Prhate. 



Mariner 



73 Kennebec 
79 Kennebec. 
79 Oxfoid. . . 
73 Oxioid. . . 
78 Lincoln. 

70 Oxfoid. 
75 Oxlord . . . 

71 Oxioid.. . 



SameasCusb iron. 

C'20). 

■ Same as pieceding 
(Res. Sumner. 
'Rejected on ac- 
| count ol am't. 
i of his piopertj . 
d. Jan. 27, 1834. 

Res. Xorway. 
Res. Oxford. 



89 Oxfoid. 



Res. Hartford. 
'('20, ship "Piovi- 
I dence. ") 
jRes. Hebron, same 
as Cushman, G. 



According to the Maine Register for 182 1, the first Savings Bank 
in Maine was known as the " Portland Institution for Savings." 
Its first president was Prentiss Mellen, with Mathew Cobb, Asa 
Clap, A. R. Parris, Ezekiel Whitman, Stephen Lorugfellow, Jr. 
James Deering and Levi Cutter for vice-presidents. 



. 






126 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY. 



Relating to the War of 1812 

Contributed by Charles A. Flagg 

The following letter zcas addressed to Honorable John 
Holmes who was one of the first two senators that Maine 
elected to the Senate of the United States (1820-1S27) and sub- 
sequently had a seat in the Senate to fill a vacancy {1829-1833) 
caused by the resignation of Albion K. Parris. This letter was 
found in a package of old papers in the office of the clerk of 
courts in Alfred, Maine, and printed in a newspaper, probably 
the Bangor Commercial about 1892. 

Lancaster, Oct. 11, 1814. 
Dear Sir : 

I now devote a few moments, in answer to your several inquiries, relat- 
ing to the conduct of the British while they remained in Bangor. A plain 
statement of facts must suffice — language being inadequate to give you but 
an imperfect idea of their outrages. As the enemy approached the Town a 
flag of truce was sent out to the land, as well as naval forces, to ascertain 
upon what terms the Town must capitulate. The answer to each was, uncon- 
ditional submission, public offices and property to be given up, the People of 
the Town to give up their arms and parole themselves, and private property 
should be most sacredly respected, to all of which the Town agreed. But 
they had not been in the place two hours before they commenced a scene of 
plunder and havoc, which the most savage Goth would have shrunk from. 
The principal stores were broken open and stripped of everything. What 
they could not take away they destroyed. 

Dwelling houses were entered, furniture broken, clothing of every 
description stolen, even women's stockings and infant's apparel. The several 
law shops in town broken open, libraries and papers torn up or carried away. 
But one office out of five escaped. The inhabitants not only had to supply 
them with provisions, etc., but they were forced to cook for them — dig 
potatoes and draw water for their soldiers. The vessels, about to sail, 
they took and solemnly agreed to navigate them to Castine, and then let 
the owners ransom them ; but before they got out of sight of the town, they 
saw them in flames. They took 20 or 30 of the best horses and agreed to 
return them when they embarked their troops at Hampden, but they were 
carried to Castine, and a few only have been recovered — in fact in almost 
every instance, when they pledged their hands as gentlemen and officers they 
violated the pledge and with as much ease as they made it — and in the little 
village of Bangor they destroyed something like $30,000 of private property, 
besides the bond of $30,000 which the Selectmen gave to launch the vessels 
on the stocks and deliver them at Castine. They enforced their demands 
by the threat to burn the town — this they made every hour. In addition to 
these outrages upon private property, and the total disregard they paid to 
their most sacred agreements, their personal abuse and indignities were the 
most humiliating — and here let me remark that in dealing out their ven- 



l_3--\.--\A^ JN.WI-AJ_, J_.il 1 1J1R 1^7 



geance upon property and individuals it fell with unsparing hands upon the 
"Friends of Peace." Those who expected protection received the greater 
indignities — the New England spirit was no shield against the "tender mer- 
cies" of Strong's Bulwark. I will give you a few instances of their 
gentlemanly and humanic conduct to their professed friends. Doctor Fiske, a 
respected merchant and Federalist, was horse-whipped out of his carriage 
by commander Barrie because he did not instanter obey his haughty mandate ; 
then put under guard and forced to do drudgeries of the soldiers. 

Capt. Hammond, the Representative of the town, a Federalist, had his 
store broken open, and everything destroyed. Mr. Dutton, a lawyer, and one 
of John Bull's warmest advocates, had to draw water for the soldiers, wait 
upon them like a negro — he even had to take a wagon, half load some 
drunken sailors into it and draw them down to the wharf. Mr. McGaw, a 
lawyer and the most respected Federalist in Town, was ordered under 
guard and called a liar because he said he did not belong to the militia, and 
in order to get a place of greater safety for his wife he had to leave his 
own house and go to a Tavern and pass the night where some of the offi- 
cers put up. Mr. Hill, a lawyer and Federalist, had his House entered, his 
clothes taken, even his wife's stockings, and when he protested against it, 
was threatened to be run thro'. The Parson (a good, pious soul) who has 
ever refused to pray for the success of our American Arms, did not escape 
their attention — a camping company quartered in his house, burned his wife's 
muff and tippet, and destroyed many of his Books and Papers. I can name 
many more instances in which they protected their professed Friends in 
like manner, but sufficient has been stated to show you that the Federalist 
can expect no more mercy or favor in the contest. Love of country is 
almost the only virtue an Englishman possesses. And they respect that 
spirit wherever they find it. Contrast the outrages they have heaped upon 
these non-combatants, these professed enemies of Madison and this war, 
with that toward Mr. Carr, the member of Congress, who voted for war; 
his house was threatened to be burnt, his property destroyed, etc., but the 
old man appeared among them, told them who he was, etc., and they 
respected him so far as not to injure his property one cent and to treat him 
without the least insult. In Hampden their conduct was, if possible, more 
outrageous than in Bangor. It is vain to paliate these outrages by saying 
the soldiers and sailors would not be restrained, and that the officers dis- 
countenanced it, for those who know British discipline know better, and as 
these depredations were committed under the eye of the officers and Com. 
Berrie headed the plundering party in Hampden in person, and the com- 
mittee of safety from Bangor, who went to Castine to see Sir John Sher- 
brook, with the expectation of obtaining relief, returned as they went — 
nothing was done. 

I had forgotten to name one other fact which ought to stamp infamy 
on their characters ; at Hampden three or four physicians had taken a house 
as a Hospital in which to dress the wounded if taken there, and a number 
of cases of instruments and medicine, and while dressing the wounds of the 
injured a party of British soldiers entered, drove them out, broke up the 
instruments, wasted the medicine, and robbed the pockets of a Dr. Knapp 



128 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



from Xewburyport of four hundred dollars. This is British honor and 
British magnanimity. This good effect has however resulted from their 
conduct; political animosity is merged in love of Country — all are now con- 
vinced that submission will not answer, that manly resistance alone com- 
mands respect. It was the general opinion especially of the Federalist pri- 
vate property would not be injured, and that a perfect surrender to their 
mercy was the only security, but, ah ! fatal delusion. The stage has arrived 
— you shall have by next mail something relating to Gen. Blake's conduct. 
You may make what use you please of the foregoing facts, for they are 
what I know or have heard from those I can rely upon, but I wish you not 
to make use of my name publicly. 

In haste, your Ob't Serv't, 

J. K. Whitney. 



MARTEN STREAM IN OCTOBER 

There is a stream whose beauty has bewitched me — 
A stream whose hiding place is here in Maine, 

I cannot tell you all her charms and graces, 

But "Marten" is this beauteous creature's name. 

Young Maples flash like fire in gold and garnet, 
Poplar and Beech, with yellow banners stand, 

While Pine and Hemlock in their somber vesture 
Approve the scene and cheer the dazzling band. 

As maidens clad in white strew blushing roses 
Before young lovers on their wedding day, 

White Birches with a wealth of golden tresses, 
Make for fair Marten a resplendent way. 

I wonder if, in this great world's creation, 

Marten was born on an October day, 
And if Dame Nature, proud of her fair daughter, 

Marks the event in this most sumptuous way. 

Or, has Dame Nature known my admiration, 

And listened to all I have had to say, 
And cried : "I'll make her queen of brooks and streamlets, 

And this shall be her coronation day." 

Whate'er thy plan or purpose, Mother Nature, 
Thou hast flung out a wealth of color bright, 

To flash and flame, and mark October daylight, 
Before November dusk and December night. 

— Good Will Record. 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 



Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover, Maine, by John 
Francis Sprague, Editor and Publisher. 

Terms: For all numbers issued during the year, including an index and 
all special issues, $1.00. Single copies, 25 cents. Bound volumes $2.00 each. 

Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 
River. 

Commencing with Vol. 3, the terms will be $1.00 only to subscribers who 
:pay in advance, otherwise $1.50. 



OUR MESSAGE TO YOU 

First Teach the Boy and Girl to Know and Love their Own Town, 
County and State and You have Gone a Long Way Toward Teaching 
Them to Know and Love Their Countrv. 



MAINE RESEARCH CLUB STORIES FOR A 
SCHOOL READER 

We have heretofore mentioned in the Journal that the Club 
women of Maine, realizing the fact that Maine historical work is 
being sadly neglected in the schools of our state, have undertaken 
to produce a book in the near future to be used as a school reader. 
Too much praise and encouragement cannot be extended to them 
for this and the Journal is also gratified to know that our present 
State Superintendent of Schools, Dr. A. O. Thomas, is heartily in 
favor of this enterprise and is rendering it all possible aid. 

The people of Maine are to be congratulated upon having a man 
at the head of this department with a vision broad enough to take 
this position. 

That the forthcoming book will be of value and merit is not 
problematical. 

The brilliant writing talent of this club has already produced two 
of the most important and interesting Maine books that have been 
issued in recent years, Maine in History and Romance (191 5) and 
The Trail of the Maine Pioneer (1916) hence any literary propo- 
sition eminating from this source is in no sense experimental. 

From the Lewiston Journal we take the following which is the 
latest information regarding this matter: 

In view of the fact that Mrs. E. C. Carll, president of the Maine Writers 
Research club, deems it wise to omit the Research club's fall meeting, post- 



130 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



poned because of the epidemic, the committee on the proposed historical 
reader for the public schools makes its report in the form of an open letter. 

Below is the list of the club stories chosen by Dr. A. O. Thomas, State 
Superintendent of Schools, as most appropriate for the proposed reader. In 
selecting these stories from the sixty or more submitted Dr. Thomas em- 
phasizes the fact that many of those rejected are admirably written but are 
better suited to older readers and for this reason, are excluded. In many 
cases the same subject was chosen by more than one writer and so excellent 
was each story that Dr. Thomas found it difficult to make a choice. 

'Several writers submitted two stories, some as many as four, for each 
club member was invited to submit as many as she would. Dr. Thomas dis- 
regarded entirely the authorship in his choice and in one or two instances 
chose three stories from the same writer and often two from the same pen. 
He chose them for their excellence for the purpose of this volume. 

The articles contributed by writers of acknowledged fame, — Col. Roose- 
velt, Dr. Eliot, Dr. Stephens, Hugh Pendexter, Holman Day, Hon. VV. VV. 
Thomas, Thomas Xelson Page, Col. Fred N. Dew, John Clair Minot, and 
others, he believes will add greatly to the value of the book. 

Dr. Thomas in general rinds the club stories admirable. He offers his 
congratulations to the Maine Writers Research club. 

The final selection of stories — for this is only a preliminary one — will 
be made from the group below listed. Many of them must be shortened, 
one or two entirely rewritten as the style is not suited for the children's 
reader. Dr. Thomas thought the manuscript might be ready for next April 
but was not in favor of haste, especially in the war times, now happily turned 
to peace. 

The committee will now undertake the final work of shortening and 
otherwise editing the stories in harmony with Dr. Thomas' suggestions. The 
stories will then be sent to the State superintendent for the hnal reading. 

The book committee consists of A. L. Dingley, chairman, Louise Wheel- 
er Bartlett and Jessica J. Haskell. 

The List of Stories Chosen 

The stories selected by Dr. Thomas for the School Reader, follow : 

"My Debt to Maine," Col. Roosevelt. 

"When Maine Was Made a State,'' Clara X. Fogg, Bowdoinham. 

"The State Seal," (contributed). 

"A Soldier Boy of the Revolution Who Whipped the Future King of 
England/' Fanr.y E. Lord, Bangor. 

"Jerry O'Brien," (poem) (contributed). 

"Rebecca Weston," Sprague's Journal. 

"General Howard," Mabel S. Merrill, Lewiston. 

"Hannibal Hamlin," Dr. C. A. Stephens. 

"Story of New Sweden," W. W. Thomas (founder of the colony). 

"Elijah Kellogg," Holman F. Day. 

Poem, John Kendrick Bangs. 

"The Voyage of the Archangel," "The Sea Fight Far Away," Charlotte 
H. H. Beath, Boothbay Harbor. 



tLUL 1 UKLAL 1J1 



"Xeal Dow," Col. Fred X. Dow. 

"The Returned Battle Flags,,"' (poem) Moses Owen. 

"Some Maple Sugar," Hugh Pendexter. 

"A Little Girl of Gorham Town," Estelle M. Tatterson, Saco. 

"Lovewell's Fight," Eva L. Shorey. 

"The Bloodless Aroostook War," Stella King White, Houlton. 

"Little Christiana's Journey Thru the Maine Woods in 1813," Anna 
Barnes, Houlton. 

"Dr. Benj. Vaughn," "The Hero of Little Round-Top," Theda Carey 
Dingley, Auburn. 

"When the King Visited Sanford,'' "Maine's First Christmas," "The 
Lost City of Xorumbega," Emmie Bailey Wmitney, Lewiston. 

"General Knox," Mrs. John O. Widber, Auburn. 

"Governor King," lone B. Fales, Springfield, Mass., (formerly of Lew- 
iston). 

"Arnold's Trail," Mrs. E. C. Carll, Augusta. 

"The Marie Antoinette House," "The Ride of Marguerette Knox," Maud 
Gay Clark, Waldoboro. 

"The Boy and the Boat," "The Birth of Maine," May Dunbar Devereaux, 
Castine. 

"Samoset," (poem) Elizabeth Powers Merrill, Skowhegan. 

"A Quaint Letter of Long Ago," (contributed). 

"When Lafayette Came to Portland," Ella Mathews Bangs, Portland. 

"Island Life in the Last Century," Dr. Eliot. 

"Gov. Washburn," Rose D. Xealley, Lewiston. 

"The Story of the River Kennebec," John Francis Sprague. 

"Pilgrim Fathers of the Kennebec," Louise H. Coburn, Skowhegan. 

"Sir William Pepperell," Beulah Sylvester Oxton, Rockland. 

"Father Rasle," Henrietta Tozier Totman, Oakland. 

"Samuel Waldo," Jessica J. Haskell, Hallowell. 

"The Story of Pemaquid," (retold from Cartland's Pemaquid). 

'The First Thrill of Patriotism or the Story of William Conway," 
"From the Lips of Zilpah," "When Jean Vincent followed the Trail," Louise 
Wheeler Bartlett, Castine. 

"The Treasure Ship, " Anna L. Dingley, Auburn. 

A story by John Clair Minot is yet to be chosen from several offered 
for the book. 

All the stories contributed — with the exception of Col. Roosevelt's — are 
written by Maine men or by men who live for at least a part of each year, 
in Maine. 



In 1791 the District of Maine comprised five counties with popu- 
lations as follows: York. 28,821; Cumberland. 25,450; Lincoln, 
29,962; Hancock. 9.549; Washington. 2,758. 



132 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Notes and Fragments 

In the last issue of the Journal appeared a list of the officers 
and members of the York County Teachers Institute contributed by 
Henry M. Packard. 

Inadvertently the words "held at Biddeford, August, 185 1" were 
omitted. . 



From an old copy of the New England Gazeteer published in 
Boston in 1839 we learn Maine's wheat crop for the year 1839 was 
as follows : 

Cumberland County 71,000 Bushels 

Kennebec County 186,876 " 

Penobscot County 202,143 " 

Lincoln County 37,963 " 

Hancock County ... 21,446 " 

Somerset County 239,332 " 

Waldo County 109,140 " 

Washington County 27,014 " 

York County 17.795 " 



Mrs. Sophronia Farrow, the oldest woman in Rockland, died 
Tuesday, Oct. 3, 1918. at her home from the effects of a fall a fort- 
night before, she would have been 98 next Christmas. Miss Farrow 
was born in Islesboro the year Maine became a state. She made her 
home in the family of the late Hon. Francis Cobb after coming to 
Rock'and, and for many an hour rocked his son William T. Cobb, 
who became one of Maine's best known Governors. She was a 
member of the Congregational church more than 60 years. 



Among the recent contributions to Maine newspapers, one of the 
most important was in the Lewiston Journal Oct. 31, 1918 by Hon- 
orable James Phinney Baxter, ex-Mayor of Portland and a well 
known author and publicist on "How Shall Peace Terms Be Made 
With Germany." 



NOTES AND FRAGMENTS 133 

For the benefit of our readers fifty or more years from today, 
we append the following items from Maine newspapers. They both 
refer to Monday, November 11, 1918, the day when America and 
the entire world learned for certain that Germany had finally made 
an unconditional surrender to the forces of freedom. 

Before such readers may see this we presume that the eleventh 
day of November will have been made an international Thanksgiving 
Day : 

An interesting feature of the Victory celebration at Paris Hill, Monday, 
was the firing of the historic musket that was brought over from London in 
1683 by Thomas Parris, the founder of the family in this country, and has 
been fired every Fourth of July by some of his descendants since 1776. This 
gun was carried in war for American Independence thru six campaigns and 
several battles by Capt. Josiah Parris and has now been tired by his grand- 
son, Hon. Edward L. Parris, in celebration of the great world victory for 
democracy over autocracy. 

Chief Justice Cornish, who marched at the head of the Augusta lawyers 
in the parade Monday evening, said it was the second patriotic parade at 
the close of a war in which he had marched. When on April 9, 1865, the 
message came that Lee had surrendered, the people went wild with joy and 
gratitude, mills, stores and schools were closed and all gave themselves up to 
celebrating the event. Judge Cornish was a boy of ten going to school at the 
old Waterville academy. The people of Waterville made quick plans for a 
parade and all the scholars were a part of the procession. 



Dr. Frederick C. Thayer has given to the Waterville Public Li- 
brary his valuable, medical library. The library includes many nota- 
ble features. In medical history and biography it is probably one 
of the richest in the State, with the possible exception of the library 
of the Maine Medical school. It has a complete set in bound volumes 
of the Journal of the American Medical Association since the or- 
ganization of the association ; also The Boston Medical and Surgical 
Journal sinje 1867. and the transactions of the Maine Medical 
society since its origin in 1852. These periodicals give descriptive 
records of the advance in surgical and medical practice for the last 
fifty years. The best books on surgery, anatomy, internal medicine, 
obstetrics, etc., are here with many monographs on special diseases. 
There are many volumes on public health, sanitation, water supply, 
medical supervision of schools which will be of general interest. 
This library will be kept in a special alcove and will be cataloged 
separately, thus becoming readily available. The Waterville Public 
library now houses two special libraries, that of the Historical Soci- 
etv. and the Medical Library. 



134 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Sayings of Subscribers 

Mrs. Elizabeth K. Folsom. Exeter, X. H. : 

"I glory in your determined effort to instill into the minds of Maine 
people the value of Maine History. 

The Journal's motto 'First teach the boy and girl to know and love 
their own town, county and state and you have gone a long way towards 
teaching them to know and love their country* should be hung on every 
school-room wall." 



LeRoy K. Knight, Lawyer, Augusta. Maine : 

"The work you are doing is worth doing and you are doing it well. 
These words are not perfunctorily said, but I use them with full sense of 
their meaning and with deep sincerity." 



Hon. Arthur Chapin, Bangor, Me. : 

"Your Journal is a valuable historical work. The sketch of the early 
cays of Bangor in the last issue was worth much more than the price of the 
entire volume." 



Mrs. C. B. Porter, Prominent in Maine D. A. R., Old Town: 

We know all too little of the history of those who built so well for 
us and you're doing great work to remind us of them. Mr. Flagg's Index 
of Revolutionary Pensioners is of great value. 



Hon. George C. Wing, Auburn, Maine : 

Whether it is solely on account of the attractive manner in which the 
articles in your magazine are written or whether it is because as I grow 
older I am more and more interested in Maine history I cannot tell, but 
your magazine is a very welcome visitor at my home and the enjoyment in 
its perusal is shared by Mrs. Wing and is as much appreciated as by myself. 



Hon. O. B. Clason, Gardiner, Maine : 

"The magazine is valuable to anyone who takes any interest in Maine 
history. I could not well get along without it." 



Hon. J. W. Manson, Pittsfield. Maine : 

Your publication often contains a single article of personal interest which 
r. well worth the price for the year's subscription." 



SAYINGS OF SUBSCRIBERS 13S 



Hon. Nicholas Fessenden, Judge of Probate, Fort Fairfield : 

The- Journal is a welcome visitor but I sometimes wonder what will 
become of it when you shall (not soon I trust) have become one of the 
shadows. Long may you and it live to continue a distinctly good and valu- 
able thing. 



Mr. A. W. Spaulding, Caribou, Maine : 

"I wish that I had to pay more so that the magazine could be published 
each month instead of quarterly.'' 



Albert M. Card, M. D., Head Tide. Maine : 

"I am always glad to receive the Journal and read it with appreciation. 
It is of much interest to me as a historical review of many important facts. 
Your reviews are very valuable to the public." 



Prof. Leland A. Ross, Supt. of Schools. Gardiner, Maine : 

"I hope the Journal will not be discontinued even if subscription price 
is doubled." 



George A. Wheeler, M. D., Author of History of Castine, Maine : 

"I appreciate fully the good work you are doing and enjoy reading the 
Journal." 



C. H. Bowden, Philadelphia : 

"I certainly enjoy the little magazine very' much and hope it is proving 
a financial success." 



George E. Corson, Washington, D. C : 

"When I fail to get from each number of your Journal of Maine History 
a quarter's worth of interesting information respecting the people or of the 
places in my native State, I will discontinue my subscription, but not until 
then. The more I learn of the history of Maine the prouder I am of the 
fact that I was born and reared and received my early education within its 
borders. Politically, intellectually and commercially, Maine is in the van- 
guard of the States of our National Union. 



E. W. Gould, Rockland. Maine : 

the fact that you called my attention to Sprague's Journal 

of Maine History, has abundantly proven a source of periodical pleasure and 



136 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



fountain of valuable information, and should be read by even- person inter- 
ested in their family history and the early development of the State of Maine. 



S. P. Crosby, St. Paul, Minn. : 

"How are you ? I hope this finds you well physically and mentally, and 
to doubt you are not well mentally is not right or sincere because I know 
from the 'Journal' of which I read every word (each issue and the ads 
also) you are all right." 



Hon. Peter Charles Keegan. Maine's one and only "Peter Charles," 

Van Buren : 

I forward subscription for the present year to your esteemed Journal. 
I know of no way one can expend the small sum requested for a year's 
subscription, more satisfactorily and profitably than by investing it in your 
most useful and interesting publicaton. 



E. B. Mallet, Freeport : 

I am gladly sendng this renewal of your valuable publication and I look 
forward for the arrival of each number. I consider your Journal of great 
importance, and must be a work of great value in time to come. You surely 
are doing a great deal of good and your labors should be appreciated by 
all as I know it is by many. 



Coin and Stamp Collectors .:. 



♦• * 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 

Prices I Pay — of every U. S. Coin 
worth over face — 15 cts. 



WANTED 
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What are your wants? Perhaps I 
can supply them 



Stamp Catalogues and other Philatelic and Numismatic 
literature at publishers prices 

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292 Hammond St. Rangor,_Maine 



0/ 



MAINE INLAND SCENERY 



Li**** - l 



.--„■ 



Moosehead Lake, Maine 

Contributed by Hon. Leroy T. Carletcn. 



CONTENTS 



PACE 

Shaker Communities in Maine 139 

Aroostook War Volunteers 147 

Alphabetical Index of Revolutionary Soldiers in Maine. ... 153 

Salmon. Shad and Alewive Fisheries in Olden Days 158 

Revolutionary Graves. Madison and vicinity 161 

Oxford County Gleanings 162 

Augusta Social Event of 1854 ' 166 

Browsings in the Editor's Library 167 

Sayings of Subscribers 173 

Notes and Fragments 176 

State Aid for Maine Historical Publications 179 



52 



YEARS the Insurance Man of Somerset Co. 

Never a Failure— Never a Law Suit— What more do you want? 
CHARLES FOLSOM-JONES, Skowhcgan Maine 



We have positive evidence of the reliability of the advertisers on these page? 



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Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

Vol. VI FEB. MAR. ARRIL 1919 No. 4 

Shaker Communities of Maine 

By Charles E. Waterman 

Having lived in the vicinity of the Shaker Communities of 
Poland and New Gloucester for the greater part of my life, and, 
having become interested, at an early age, in their singular religious 
services, it cannot but be considered natural I should become curious 
about their origin. 

The official name of this sect is The United Believers in Christ's 
Second Appearing, the name Shakers having been applied to them 
in derision because of the rhythmic movement of hands and arms 
in parts of the ceremonial of their worship; but, like many another 
society, they accepted this term of aspersion and have made it one 
of respect. 

Although Shakerism is a strictly American religious sect, it had 
its origin in England. 

Ann Lee, the daughter of an English blacksmith, is generally 
considered the founder. She was born February 29. 1736, in Man- 
chester, and lived in the unromantic sounding thoroughfare of Toad 
Lane. She is not given a pleasant disposition as a young woman, 
having possessed a violent temper, strong will and a desire for 
power intensified by hysteria. 

But Ann Lee did not originate the religion credited to her. There 
was a female John the Baptist in her case. It seems that during 
Ann Lee's girlhood there was a woman living at Bolton-on-the- 
Moors, in Lancashire, Jane Wardlaw by name, the wife of a tailor. 
who believed she had "received a call'' to go forth and testify for 
the truth." The burden of her message was that the end of all 
things was at hand and that Christ was about to reappear taking 
the form of a woman as prefigured in Psalms. Jane Wardlaw and 
her husband belonged to the Society of Friends and that accounts 
for the similarity of some of the Shaker tenants with that faith. 
2 



140 S PRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

' Ann Lee became a convert to Jane